List of musical works in unusual time signatures

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Listed here are musical compositions or pieces in Western music that have unusual time signatures. "Unusual" is here defined to be any time signature other than simple time signatures with top numerals of 2, 3, or 4 and bottom numerals of 2, 4, or 8, and compound time signatures with top numerals of 6, 9, or 12 and bottom numerals 4, 8, or 16.[1]

The conventions of musical notation typically allow for more than one written representation of a particular piece. The chosen time signature largely depends upon musical context, personal taste of the composer or transcriber, and the graphic layout on the written page. Frequently, published editions were written in a specific time signature to visually signify the tempo for slow movements in symphonies, sonatas, and concerti. The Piano Sonata No. 14 in C-sharp minor "Quasi una fantasia", Op. 27, No. 2, by Ludwig van Beethoven, popularly known as the Moonlight Sonata, includes two examples: in the relatively slow first movement the predominant rhythm is in triplet eighth notes (quavers), whereas in the second movement the basic tempo is faster but the music is notated in quarter notes (crotchets) and half notes (minims), giving a visual clue to the nature of the phrasing. The first movement could be written in 12/8 and still convey the same rhythm, phrasing, and tempo. Similarly, the second movement could be notated in 3/8 instead of 3/4 without changing the phrasing.[2] More to the point of the present article, a perfectly consistent unusual metrical pattern may be notated in a more familiar time signature that does not correspond to it. For example, the Passacaglia from Britten's opera Peter Grimes consists of variations over a recurring bass line eleven beats in length, but is notated in ordinary 4/4 time, with each variation lasting 2¾ bars, and therefore commencing each time one crotchet earlier than the preceding one.[3]

These examples are grouped by time signature, and listed alphabetically by title.

Contents

1/√π/√⅔[edit]

  • "No. 41a" from Study for Player Piano by Conlon Nancarrow was written in a time signature whose numerator is one over the square root of pi and whose denominator is the square root of ⅔.[4]

⅗/4[edit]

Partially in ⅗/4[edit]

  • Mädchentotenlieder, by Bo Nilsson. Bar 97 is in ⅗/4 time.[5]

⅔/2 and ⅔/4[edit]

Partially in ⅔/2 or ⅔/4[edit]

1/³√π/³√13/16[edit]

  • "No. 41b" from Study for Player Piano by Conlon Nancarrow was written in a time signature whose numerator is one over the cube root of pi and whose denominator is the cube root of 13/16.[4]

⅘/4[edit]

Partially in ⅘/4[edit]

  • Mädchentotenlieder, by Bo Nilsson. Bar 112 is in ⅘/4 time.[8]

1/1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, or 1/16[edit]

Partially in 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, or 1/16[edit]

4/3/2 or 4/3/4[edit]

Partially in 4/3/2 or 4/3/4[edit]

√2/2[edit]

2/1[edit]

Partially in 2/1[edit]

2/16[edit]

2½/4[edit]

Partially in 2½/4[edit]

e/π[edit]

  • "[Study] No. 40" for two non-synchronized pianos, version for player piano (punching score) by Conlon Nancarrow contains the mathematical constant e beats of pi.[23]

3/32[edit]

  • "Lilliputsche Chaconne", from Intrada, nebst burlesquer Suite, for two violins (the so-called "Gulliver Suite") by Georg Philipp Telemann.[24]

3½/4[edit]

Partially in 3½/4[edit]

32/2/4[edit]

  • "Reverie der Laputier, nebst ihren Aufweckern", from Intrada, nebst burlesquer Suite, for two violins (the so-called "Gulliver Suite") by Georg Philipp Telemann.[25]

3⅔/4[edit]

4½/4[edit]

Partially in 4½/4[edit]

5/1, 5/2, 5/4, 5/8, 5/16, 5/32, 5/64, or 5/128[edit]

Main article: Quintuple meter

5½/4[edit]

Partially in 5½/4[edit]

6/2[edit]

Partially in 6/2[edit]

  • "In the First Pentatonic Major Mode (En el 1er modo pentáfono mayor)", no. 12 from 12 American Preludes for piano (1944) by Alberto Ginastera (bar 23 in 6/2).[28]
  • "Molto adagio" (Adagio for Strings), second movement of Samuel Barber’s String Quartet, op. 11, bars 15 and 26 are in 6/2.[29]

√42/1[edit]

6½/8[edit]

Partially in 6½/8[edit]

  • Schism by Tool is described by the band as largely in 6.5/8 and includes numerous other times.[30]

7/1, 7/2, 7/4, 7/8, 7/16, 7/32, 7/64, or 7/128[edit]

Main article: Septuple meter

8/4 or 8/8[edit]

Note: 8/4 or 8/8 may refer to an evenly divided compound duple or quadruple meter. While this is arguably extremely common in music, the notations "8/4" and "8/8" themselves are not, so all divisions of this time signature are listed here.
  • "Six Dances in Bulgarian Rhythm" 4, from Béla Bartók's Mikrokosmos (no. 151), is in 3 + 2 + 3.[31]
  • "Six Dances in Bulgarian Rhythm" 6, from Béla Bartók's Mikrokosmos (no. 153), is in 3 + 3 + 2.[32]

Partially in 8/4, 8/8, or 8/16[edit]

9/8 (not ordinary triple-compound)[edit]

  • "Niska Banja," SATB choral arrangement by Nick Page of a Serbian Gypsy dance, is in 2 + 2 + 2 + 3[53]
  • "Six Dances in Bulgarian Rhythm" 1, from Béla Bartók's Mikrokosmos (no. 148), is in 4 + 2 + 3.[54]
  • "Six Dances in Bulgarian Rhythm" 5, from Béla Bartók's Mikrokosmos (no. 152), is in 2 + 2 + 2 + 3.[55]

Partially in 9/8, 9/4, or 9/2[edit]

  • "Apocalypse in 9/8" by Genesis. Penultimate movement of the "Supper's Ready" suite, rhythm section plays a 9/8 riff as 3+2+4, organ solo plays polymetrically over this (sometimes 4/4, sometimes 7/4.)[56]
  • "Blue Rondo à la Turk" (1958) by the Dave Brubeck Quartet, from the album Time Out - Played as 2+2+2+3 and 3+3+3, with some alternating sections of 4/4[57]
  • "The Count of Tuscany" by Dream Theater. The verse riff is in 9/4, with a rhythm of 3+2+2+3+3+2+3/8.[58]
  • "Los peones de hacienda", from the ballet Estancia by Alberto Ginastera. The refrain, at rehearsal numbers 62, 65, 67, 68, 69+3, and 70 is marked "9/8 (3/4 - 3/8)"; the remainder is variously in 6/8, 3/4, 5/8, and 7/8.[59]
  • "Voices" by Dream Theater. Opening riff in 9/8 broken down as 4/4 + 1/8.[60]

10/4, 10/8 or 10/16[edit]

Partially in 10/4, 10/8 or 10/16[edit]

11/4 or 11/8[edit]

Partially in 11/4 or 11/8[edit]

13/4, 13/8, or 13/16[edit]

Partially in 13/4 or 13/8[edit]

15/8 or 15/16[edit]

Other than compound quintuple meter:

Partially in 15/4, 15/8, or 15/16[edit]

17/4 or 17/8[edit]

Partially in 17/4 or 17/8[edit]

18/8 or 18/16[edit]

See also: Sextuple meter

19/4, 19/8, or 19/16[edit]

Partially in 19/4, 19/8, or 19/16[edit]

20/4 or 20/8[edit]

Partially in 20/4 or 20/8[edit]

21/4, 21/8, 21/16, or 21/32[edit]

See also: Septuple meter

Partially in 21/4, 21/8, 21/16, or 21/32[edit]

  • "The Art Of Dying" by Gojira (2008) cycles from 4/4 to 2/4 to 21/16 (grouped 5 + 5 + 5 + 3 + 3) and repeats this pattern during the intro and beginning of the song.[123]
  • "Deux moulins", from Airs a III. IIII. V. et VI. parties (première livre, 1608) by Claude Le Jeune (first two sections, Rechant à 3 and Réprise à 5, are barred as 21/4; the last section of the piece is in 20/4).[120]
  • In the Dead of the Night suite by UK, "contains an instrumental refrain in 21/16".[81]
  • "Keep It Greasy" by Frank Zappa (On the studio album, first verse and guitar solo are counted in 19/16 and another part is in 21/16).[124]
  • Klavierstück IX (1954–55/61) by Karlheinz Stockhausen. Bars 6, 17, 120, and 149 are in 21/8 time.[125]
  • Sonata for Cello and Piano (1948), by Elliott Carter, includes 21/32 time.[126]

22/8[edit]

23/4 or 23/16[edit]

  • "Low Light" by Jacky Ligon from his Between Moments EP (2013) is in 23/4.[128]

Partially in 23/4 or 23/16[edit]

24/1 or 24/16[edit]

25/8 or 25/16[edit]

Partially in 25/8 or 25/16[edit]

  • "Tenemos Roads", by National Health includes "some extremely intricate passages in 25/16".[81]

26/8[edit]

32/8[edit]

Partially in 32/8[edit]

33/8[edit]

Partially in 33/8[edit]

34/8[edit]

Partially in 34/8[edit]

42/8[edit]

Partially in 42/8[edit]

59/48[edit]

Partially in 59/48[edit]

  • Evol by Damian LeGassick alternates a rhythm notated as five beats in the time of seven with another in 59/48 time.[141]

79/8[edit]

"Gending Boehme" by Kraig Grady uses a 79 beat pattern throughout subdivided 8-8-8-5-8-8-8-5-8-8-5 based on Horogram patterns.[142]

87/8[edit]

Partially in 87/8[edit]

108/8[edit]

Gendhing Canright by Kraig Grady uses a 108 beat pattern subdivided in a variety of Horogram patterns

111/4[edit]

Akashic Torus by Kraig Grady uses a 111 beat pattern. The piece was performed at the Sydney Opera house by Ensemble Offspring.[143]

142/8[edit]

Partially in 142/8[edit]

Combined unusual signatures[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Ian Waugh first lists 2/2, 2/4, 2/8, 3/2, 3/4, 3/8, 4/2, 4/4, 4/8, 6/4, 6/8, 6/16, 9/4, 9/8, 9/16, 12/4, 12/8, and 12/16 (Waugh 2003, 76), then says "we've listed all the popular time signatures" (Waugh 2003, 77).
  2. ^ Ted Ross, The Art of Music Engraving and Processing: A Complete Manual, Reference and Text Book on Preparing Music for Reproduction and Print, 3rd edition, revised (Miami: Hansen Books; Santa Rosa, CA: NPC Imaging/Shattinger International Music Corporation, 2001),[page needed].
  3. ^ Britten 1945b.
  4. ^ a b c d Hocker n.d.
  5. ^ Nilsson 1958, 10; Read 1964, 172.
  6. ^ Boulez 1957, 19–20.
  7. ^ Nilsson 1958, 10 & 12; Read 1964, 172.
  8. ^ Nilsson 1958, 11; Read 1964, 172.
  9. ^ Piano Sonata No. 5 (Scriabin): Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. Leipzig: Edition Peters, 1971, plate E.P. 12588.
  10. ^ Copland 1945, 56–59.
  11. ^ a b c d Read 1964, 158.
  12. ^ Nilsson 1958, 3–15.
  13. ^ Dream Theater Keyboard Anthology. Transcribed by Chris Romero and Jordan Baker 2004, 30.
  14. ^ Dream Theater Black Clouds and Silver Linings Authentic Guitar TAB. 2009, 7.
  15. ^ Stravinsky n.d., 26.
  16. ^ Borodin [n.d., ca. 1920], 51–94. IMSLP scans available.
  17. ^ Boulez 1957, 18.
  18. ^ Nilsson 1958, 8; Read 1964, 172.
  19. ^ Johann Bach (1985). Hans Bischoff, ed. Six Partitas and Overture in French Style. Alfred Music Publishing. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-7692-8604-4. 
  20. ^ Alkan n.d. (ca.1861),[page needed].
  21. ^ a b c d http://petrucci.mus.auth.gr/imglnks/usimg/f/f3/IMSLP14991-Stanchinksy_-_12_Sketches.pdf 12 Sketches, Op. 1 by Alexei Stanchinsky at the International Music Score Library Project
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Read 1964, 170.
  23. ^ Nancarrow n.d.
  24. ^ Telemann 1728, 32; Telemann 1970, 13; Zohn 2004, 247: "The ‘Lilliputsche Chaconne’ is anything but stately as it flashes by (at least on the page) in a blur of demisemiquavers in 3/32 time. . . ."
  25. ^ Telemann 1728, 40; Zohn 2004, 247: "The ‘Reverie der Laputier, nebst ihren Aufweckern’ . . . teases the reader with a nonsensical time signature, 32/2/4, in an apparent allusion to the Laputians’ love for, and incompetence in, mathematics." Dietz Degan, the editor of Telemann 1970, transcribes this piece simply in 2/2.
  26. ^ Strait 2000, 56.
  27. ^ Ives 1920, 56.
  28. ^ Ginastera 1946, 1:12–13.
  29. ^ Barber 1943, 11–12.
  30. ^ Wagner 2010, 312–13.
  31. ^ Bartók 1940, 6:45–48.
  32. ^ Bartók 1940, 6:51–55.
  33. ^ Stravinsky 1965, 16.
  34. ^ Britten 1946, 14–15.
  35. ^ Bartók 1937, 130–33.
  36. ^ Davies 1985, 202.
  37. ^ Bartók 1937, 1–5, 7–8, 10.
  38. ^ Holst 1977, 4–6, 18–19, 23–24, 27–30.
  39. ^ Birtwistle 1996, 6–7 and 9.
  40. ^ Suspended Animation Authentic Guitar TAB, transcribed by Jordan Baker. 2005, 81-85, 88-89, 105-107
  41. ^ Stravinsky 1958, 11–12 and 19.
  42. ^ Britten 1941, 30–32.
  43. ^ Stravinsky 1962, 54, 56, 58, 60–61, 63, and 66.
  44. ^ Stravinsky 1924, 50.
  45. ^ Dethalbum III Authentic Guitar TAB, transcribed by Jordan Baker. 2013, 10[full citation needed]
  46. ^ Stravinsky 1967, 19.
  47. ^ Bartók 1993, 72.
  48. ^ Davies 1985, 48–49.
  49. ^ Bernstein 1950, 48, 52–54.
  50. ^ Stravinsky n.d., 11–12.
  51. ^ Stravinsky 1970, 99.
  52. ^ Andriessen 1976, 1–4, 82–88, 90, 92, 95–97, 99, 119.
  53. ^ Page 1989.
  54. ^ Bartók 1940, 6:35–38.
  55. ^ Bartók 1940, 6:48–50.
  56. ^ Seconds Out Songbook 1978 Wise Publications
  57. ^ Dryden, Ken. "Blue Rondo a la Turk", Allmusic: "unusual time signature of 9/8".
  58. ^ Dream Theater Black Clouds and Silver Linings Authentic Guitar TAB, transcribed by Jordan Baker. 2009, 138
  59. ^ Ginastera 1955, 17–20.
  60. ^ a b c Odd time signatures demonstration by Mike Portnoy
  61. ^ Eddie 2007, 62.
  62. ^ Evan Banks, "Humming the Bassline: Just Like You Imagined. American Observer (29 September 2009).
  63. ^ The Best of Yanni; 11 selections from his top recordings. Hal Leonard Publishing. 1993. p. 16. 
  64. ^ John J. Wood, Eric Nay and Ihor Slabicky, "The Eleven and Other Rhythmic Oddities (Grateful Dead)", from the Grateful Dead FAQ
  65. ^ Liner notes to The Mason Williams Phonograph Record Warner Brothers LP, WS 1729. Burbank: Warner Brothers-Seven Arts Records, 1968.
  66. ^ "TalkBass.com".[unreliable source?]
  67. ^ Britten 1946, 14.
  68. ^ Tempo controlSlow down the song anytime you need it. "This Town Needs Guns - Crocodile Tab Online | UG Plus @ Ultimate-Guitar.com". Tp.ultimate-guitar.com. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  69. ^ a b Dreiblats 2013.
  70. ^ Bars 2–5 are in 10/8 time (Stravinsky 1958, 52).
  71. ^ Uncommon Time - Television Tropes & Idioms, "[1]".
  72. ^ Le Jeune 1951–59, 2:85–88.
  73. ^ rec.music.gdead FAQ.[unreliable source?]
  74. ^ David Dodd, The Eleven Annotated Grateful Dead Lyrics, 2007. Retrieved on 2014-03-11.
  75. ^ Howard Brubeck (ed.), Dave Brubeck Deluxe Piano Album, (San Francisco: Derry Music Co., 1965), pp. 22-28.
  76. ^ Villa-Lobos 1969, 3–18.
  77. ^ J. A. Fuller Maitland and W. Barclay Squire (eds.), The Fitzwilliam Virginal Book, vol. 2 (Leipzig: Breitkopf und Härtel, 1899; reprinted New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1963), 34–39.
  78. ^ Elroy 2008.[unreliable source?]
  79. ^ Macan 1997, 48–49.
  80. ^ http://imslp.info/files/imglnks/usimg/9/9d/IMSLP15483-Stanchinksy_-_Piano_Sonata_No.2.pdf Piano Sonata No. 2 by Alexei Stanchinsky at the International Music Score Library Project
  81. ^ a b c d e f Macan 1997, 49.
  82. ^ Macan 1997, 48.
  83. ^ Mark Feldman 2000.
  84. ^ Primus (musical group), Primus Anthology: A thru N: For Guitar and Bass, transcribed by Jeff Jacobsen (New York: Cherry Lane Music, 2000), 17–20. ISBN 1575601540.
  85. ^ Nilsson 1958, 7.
  86. ^ a b Reynish, Tim. "Derek Bourgeois: An Assessment of his music in Two Parts". Retrieved November 8, 2009. 
  87. ^ a b "Pops Concert Program Notes". Howard Performing Arts Center, Andrews University. March 8, 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2009. 
  88. ^ Randy Poe (20 September 2006). Skydog: The Duane Allman Story. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-87930-891-9. Retrieved 11 April 2012. 
  89. ^ Perkins 2000, 1:18.
  90. ^ Stevenson 2014.
  91. ^ FROMUZ - "Overlook" booklet, 8–9.
  92. ^ "The Becoming". www.ninwiki.com. Retrieved 2012-05-18. 
  93. ^ "Golden Brown by The Stranglers Songfacts". Songfacts.com. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  94. ^ 1967, 35.
  95. ^ Jerry 2014.
  96. ^ Andrew Lloyd Webber, T. S. Eliot - "Cats" Hal Leonard (HL00359466), ISBN 0-88188-447-2
  97. ^ Andriessen 1976, 46, 69, and 101.
  98. ^ Genesis 2001,[page needed].
  99. ^ Davison and Apel 1974, 9; Pöhlmann and West 2001, 96–99.
  100. ^ Perkins 2000, 2:18–40 (score).
  101. ^ Jeffes, Arthur (2010-09-08), BBC Proms programme notes, 2010 season concert 73, BBC 
  102. ^ a b c d Read 1964, 157.
  103. ^ Medtner 1998, 134.
  104. ^ Andriessen 1976, 65 and 74.
  105. ^ Oldfield, Mike (2007). Changeling - Autobiography of Mike Oldfield. Virgin Books. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-85227-381-1. 
  106. ^ "Theme from "Valley of the Dolls". Musicnotes, Inc. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  107. ^ "Crystalline". bjork.fr. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  108. ^ "Hollow". bjork.fr. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  109. ^ "Moon". bjork.fr. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  110. ^ Dreiblats 2012.
  111. ^ Alkan n.d. (ca.1862),[page needed].
  112. ^ a b John McLaughlin, John McLaughlin and the Mahavishnu Orchestra: John McLaughlin's Scores to 28 Classic Recordings (Van Nuys: Alfred Publishing, 2006):[page needed]. ISBN 0-7390-4255-6.
  113. ^ Prokofiev 1955, 1:9–14.
  114. ^ Bach 1968, 98–99.
  115. ^ Read 1964, 159.
  116. ^ Bernhard Castiglioni Gavin Harrison Part II (video). Videos and Pictures from the Musikmesse Frankfurt 2007. http://www.drummerworld.com (accessed 6 June 2010).
  117. ^ Perkins 2000, 2:1–17 (score).
  118. ^ Fenlon 2002, 112–13.
  119. ^ Portnoy, Wallis, and Siegel 1999.[page needed]
  120. ^ a b Le Jeune 1951–59, 1:32–33.
  121. ^ "External Link". 911Tabs.Com. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  122. ^ Read 1964, 160; Stravinsky 1958, 29.
  123. ^ Leonard 2011.
  124. ^ Flans 1982.
  125. ^ Stockhausen 1967, 1, 6, and 7.
  126. ^ Read 1964, 156.
  127. ^ Interview with Lyle Mays by Mike Brannon for allaboutjazz.com, May 2001. "'First Circle' does have a little different kind of time signature. We called it 22/8…You could think of it as a bar of 12 and a bar of 10."
  128. ^ "Between Moments EP". Retrieved 2013-10-03. 
  129. ^ "Baboon Guitar Pro by This Town Needs Guns @ Ultimate-Guitar.Com". Tabs.ultimate-guitar.com. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  130. ^ "Ganondorf Battle (Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time) Bass/Guitar Tab". GameTab. August 8, 2009. Retrieved July 15, 2013. 
  131. ^ Telemann 1728, 37; Telemann 1970, 14–15; Zohn 2004, 247: "the ‘Brobdingnagische Gigue’—no doubt inspired by the English jig Gulliver plays with great effort on a sixty-foot spinet—is danced in giant steps, trudging along in twenty-four semibreves to the bar."
  132. ^ Fenlon 2002, 90 & 102–106.
  133. ^ http://www.sing365.com/music/lyric.nsf/Office-of-Strategic-Influence-O-S-I-Biography/1BF6334EAAA6DB6048256CF400208FE8
  134. ^ Tempo controlSlow down the song anytime you need it. "This Town Needs Guns - 26 Is Dancier Than 4 Tab Online | UG Plus @ Ultimate-Guitar.com". Tp.ultimate-guitar.com. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  135. ^ Fenlon 2002, 40.
  136. ^ "Matt Savage plays "Blues in 33/8" in New York". YouTube. 2007-01-01. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  137. ^ Fenlon 2002, 41; Fienberg 2004, 228–29 & 231–32.
  138. ^ "Split Open and Melt". Phish.net. April 10, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2013. "“SOAM’s” complex improv segment is notorious for its time signature, which involves three sections of eight eighth-notes and then a fourth section with nine eighth-notes in a steady pulse (listen to Fishman’s hi-hat)" 
  139. ^ Stockhausen 1967, 7.
  140. ^ a b c Stockhausen 1967, 1.
  141. ^ Gilmore 1994, 4.
  142. ^ Grady1995
  143. ^ Grady 2011
  144. ^ Pamela Winters, "Richard Thompson: Plunging the Knife in Deeper", Paste Magazine (9 June 2003).
  145. ^ Ben Folds-"Songs for Silverman, piano/vocal transcriptions Hal Leonard Corporation[citation needed].
  146. ^ "Mike Portnoy - The dance of eternity time signature & solo 1". Retrieved 2009-02-28. 
  147. ^ "Demand history". Phish.net. Retrieved July 21, 2013. "an instrumental mix of 4/4 and 9/8 time signatures" 
  148. ^ Allcock, Maartin, ed. (1998). Fairport Convention Songbook 2. Woodworm Music. pp. 56–59. 
  149. ^ Banks n.d.
  150. ^ Primus (musical group), Primus Anthology: A thru N: For Guitar and Bass, transcribed by Jeff Jacobsen (New York: Cherry Lane Music, 2000), 21. ISBN 1575601540.
  151. ^ "A Headache And A Sixty-Fourth". Retrieved 2010-08-21. 
  152. ^ "The meters of these three measures are 11/8, 4/4, and 7/8, respectively. The special effect of running even eighth notes accented as if triplets against the grain of the underlying backbeat is carried to a point more reminiscent of Stravinsky than of the Beatles" (Alan Pollack's 'Notes On' series, no. 183).
  153. ^ "Hey Ya! - Outkast". Rolling Stone. 2004-12-09. Retrieved 2008-03-23. 
  154. ^ Sheet music for "Hey Ya!" Hal Leonard Corporation, 2003.[full citation needed]
  155. ^ Sheet music, published by New Hidden Valley Music and Casa David, copyright 1966
  156. ^ Guitar School March 1994, ""Geddy Lee Bass Clinic""[full citation needed]
  157. ^ Peart, Neil (2010-10-07). "Rush - Losing It Sheet Music (Digital Download)". Musicnotes.com. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  158. ^ Haigh n.d.
  159. ^ "» Neil Peart Biography, Drum Videos and Pictures | Famous Drummers". Drumlessons.com. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  160. ^ Allcock, Maartin, ed. (1998). Fairport Convention Songbook 2. Woodworm Music. p. 81. 
  161. ^ Lloyd Webber and Rice 1970.
  162. ^ "Midnight Oil :: No Time For Games Drum Sheet Music - Quality Drum Sheet Music, Scores, Tabs". Drumscore.com. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  163. ^ "[Powderworks] time signatures". Midnight-oil.info. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 

Bibliography[edit]

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  • Bartók, Béla. 1940. Mikrokosmos: Progressive Piano Pieces = Pièces de piano progressives = Zongoramuzsika a kezdet legkezdetétöl, 6 vols. New York and London: Boosey & Hawkes.
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