List of national governments

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This is a list of the offices of heads of state, heads of government, cabinet, and legislature, of sovereign states. Date of Origin refers to most recent fundamental change in form of government, for example independence, change from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy, revolution, new constitution.

Country Head of State Head of Government Cabinet Legislature Date of Origin
Afghanistan President Prime Minister Cabinet of Ministers National Assembly 2004
Albania President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Parliament 1991
Algeria President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Parliament 1989
Andorra Co-Princes Prime Minister Executive Council General Council 1993
Angola President Ministers National Assembly 1981
Antigua and Barbuda Monarch[1] Prime Minister Council of Ministers Parliament 1981
Argentina President Cabinet National Congress 1853
Armenia President Prime Minister Cabinet National Assembly 1995
Australia Monarch[1] Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1901
Austria President Chancellor Cabinet Parliament 1955
Azerbaijan President Prime Minister Cabinet of Ministers National Assembly 1990
The Bahamas Monarch[1] Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1973
Bahrain King Prime Minister Cabinet National Assembly 2002
Bangladesh President Prime Minister Cabinet National Assembly 1972
Barbados Monarch[1] Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1966
Belarus President Prime Minister Council of Ministers National Assembly 1994
Belgium King Prime Minister Council of Ministers Federal Parliament 1831
Belize Monarch[1] Prime Minister Cabinet National Assembly 1981
Benin President Cabinet National Assembly 1990
Bhutan King Prime Minister Council of Ministers Parliament 1952
Bolivia President Cabinet Plurinational Legislative Assembly 2009
Bosnia and Herzegovina President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Parliamentary Assembly 1996
Botswana President Cabinet Parliament 1966
Brazil President Cabinet National Congress 1988
Brunei Sultan Cabinet Legislative Council 1991
Bulgaria President Prime Minister Council of Ministers National Assembly 1991
Burkina Faso President Prime Minister Cabinet National Assembly 1992
Burundi President Council of Ministers Parliament 1998
Cambodia King Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1993
Cameroon President Cabinet National Assembly 1992
Canada Monarch[1] Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1867
Cape Verde President Prime Minister Cabinet National Assembly 1992
Central African Republic President Prime Minister Cabinet National Assembly 2003
Chad President Prime Minister Cabinet National Assembly 1996
Chile President Cabinet National Congress 1980
China, People's Republic of President Premier State Council National People's Congress 1954
China, Republic of President Premier Executive Yuan Legislative Yuan 1947
Colombia President Council of Ministers Congress 1991
Comoros President Government Assembly of the Union 2002
Congo, Democratic Republic of President Prime Minister Government Parliament 2006
Congo, Republic of President Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 2002
Costa Rica President Government Legislative Assembly 1949
Côte d'Ivoire President Prime Minister Government National Assembly 2000
Croatia President Prime Minister Government Parliament 1990
Cuba President Council of Ministers National Assembly of People's Power 1976
Cyprus President Council of Ministers House of Representatives 1960
Czech Republic President Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1992
Denmark Monarch State Minister Cabinet Parliament of Denmark 1953
Djibouti President Prime Minister Council of Ministers National Assembly 1992
Dominica President Prime Minister Cabinet House of Assembly 1978
Dominican Republic President Cabinet Congress 1994
East Timor President Prime Minister Council of State National Parliament 2002
Ecuador President Cabinet National Assembly 2008
Egypt President Prime Minister Government Parliament 1953
El Salvador President Council of Ministers Legislative Assembly 1983
Equatorial Guinea President Prime Minister Cabinet Chamber of People's Representatives 1987
Eritrea President Cabinet of Ministers National Assembly 1993
Estonia President Prime Minister Cabinet Riigikogu 1938, 1992
Ethiopia President Prime Minister Cabinet of Ethiopia Federal Parliamentary Assembly 1995
Fiji President Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1997
Finland President Prime Minister Council of State Parliament 1919
France President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Parliament 1958
Gabon President President Cabinet National Assembly 1964
Gambia, The President Cabinet National Assembly 1996
Georgia President Prime Minister Cabinet of Georgia Parliament 1995
Germany President Chancellor Cabinet Bundestag (Federal Diet) 1949
Ghana President Council of Ministers Parliament 1992
Greece President Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1974
Grenada Monarch[1] Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1974
Guatemala President Council of Ministers Congress 1985
Guinea President Prime Minister Cabinet National Assembly 1991
Guinea-Bissau President Prime Minister Cabinet National People's Assembly 1984
Guyana President Prime Minister Cabinet National Assembly 1970
Haiti President Prime Minister Cabinet National Assembly 1987
Honduras President Council of State Secretaries National Congress 1982
Hungary President Prime Minister Cabinet National Assembly 1990
Iceland President Prime Minister Cabinet Althing 1944
India President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Parliament 1950
Indonesia President Cabinet People's Consultative Assembly 1945
Iran Supreme Leader President Cabinet Islamic Consultative Assembly 1979
Iraq President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Council of Representatives 2005
Ireland President Prime Minister Cabinet Oireachtas 1937
Israel President Prime Minister Cabinet Knesset 1948
Italy President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Parliament 1948
Jamaica Monarch[1] Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1962
Japan Emperor Prime Minister Cabinet Diet 1947
Jordan King Prime Minister National Assembly 1952
Kazakhstan President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Parliament 1995
Kenya President Prime Minister National Assembly 1969
Kiribati President Cabinet House of Assembly 1979
Kosovo President Prime Minister Government Assembly 2001
Kuwait Emir Prime Minister National Assembly 1962
Kyrgyzstan President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Supreme Council 2010
Laos President Prime Minister National Assembly 1991
Latvia President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Saeima 1993
Lebanon President Prime Minister Parliament 1926
Lesotho King Prime Minister Parliament 1966
Liberia President Cabinet of Ministers Legislature 1986
Libya President of the Council of Deputies Prime Minister Cabinet Council of Deputies 2011
Liechtenstein Prince Prime Minister Government Landtag 1921
Lithuania President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Seimas 1992
Luxembourg Grand Duke Prime Minister Council of Ministers Chamber of Deputies 1842
Macedonia President Prime Minister Cabinet Assembly 1991
Madagascar President Prime Minister Parliament 1992
Malawi President National Assembly 1994
Malaysia King Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1957
Maldives President Cabinet Majlis 1932
Mali President Prime Minister National Assembly 1992
Malta President Prime Minister Cabinet House of Representatives 1964
Marshall Islands President Legislature 1979
Mauritania President Prime Minister Parliament 1991
Mauritius President Prime Minister National Assembly 1968
Mexico President Cabinet Congress 1917
Micronesia, Federated States of President Congress 1979
Moldova President Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1994
Monaco Prince Minister of State Council of Government National Council 1911
Mongolia President Prime Minister Cabinet State Great Khural 1992
Montenegro President Prime Minister Government Parliament 2007
Morocco King Prime Minister Parliament 1996
Mozambique President Prime Minister Assembly 1990
Myanmar President Cabinet Assembly of the Union 2011
Nagorno-Karabakh President Prime Minister National Assembly 2006
Namibia President Prime Minister Parliament 1990
Nauru President Cabinet Parliament 1968
Nepal President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Constituent Assembly 2008
Netherlands Monarch Prime Minister Cabinet States General 1983
New Zealand Monarch[1] Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1986
Netherlands Monarch Prime Minister Cabinet States General 1815
Nicaragua President Council of Ministers National Assembly 1987
North Korea Chairman of the National Defense Commission[2] Premier Government Supreme People's Assembly 1998
Northern Cyprus President Prime Minister Government Assembly of the Republic 1985
Norway Monarch Prime Minister Government Parliament 1814
Oman Sultan Consultative Assembly 1971
Pakistan President Prime Minister Cabinet of Pakistan Parliament 2002
Palau President National Congress 1994
Palestine President Prime Minister Cabinet Legislative Council 1994
Panama President Cabinet National Assembly 1972
Papua New Guinea Monarch[1] Prime Minister Cabinet National Parliament 1975
Paraguay President Cabinet Congress 1992
Peru President Council of Ministers Congress of the Republic 1993
Philippines President Cabinet Congress 1987
Poland President Prime Minister Council of Ministers National Assembly 1997
Portugal President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Assembly of the Republic 1976
Qatar Emir Consultative Assembly 1970
Romania President Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1991
Russia President Prime Minister Government Federal Assembly 1991
Rwanda President Prime Minister Parliament 2003
Saint Kitts and Nevis Monarch[1] Prime Minister Cabinet National Assembly 1983
Saint Lucia Monarch[1] Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1979
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Monarch[1] Prime Minister Cabinet House of Assembly 1979
Samoa O le Ao o le Malo Prime Minister Cabinet Legislative Assembly 1962
San Marino Captains Regent State Congress Grand and General Council 1600
São Tomé and Príncipe President Prime Minister Council of Ministers National Assembly 1980
Saudi Arabia King Council of Ministers Consultative Assembly 1992
Senegal President Prime Minister Parliament 2001
Serbia President Prime Minister Cabinet National Assembly 2006
Seychelles President National Assembly 1976
Sierra Leone President Parliament 1991
Singapore President Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1965
Slovakia President Prime Minister Cabinet National Council 1992
Slovenia President Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1991
Solomon Islands Monarch Prime Minister Cabinet National Parliament 1978
Somalia President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Parliament 2004
South Africa President Cabinet Parliament 1996
South Korea President Prime Minister Ministry National Assembly 1987
South Ossetia President Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1991
South Sudan President Cabinet Parliament 2011
Spain Monarch Prime Minister Cabinet Cortes Generales 1978
Sri Lanka President Cabinet Parliament 1978
Sudan President National Legislature 1998
Suriname President Cabinet National Assembly 1987
Swaziland King Prime Minister Parliament 2005
Sweden Monarch Prime Minister Government Riksdag 1971 (1435)
Switzerland Federal Council Federal Assembly 1878
Syria President Prime Minister Cabinet with
Council of Ministers
People's Council 1973
For the nation which is often referred to as "Taiwan", see " China, Republic of "
Tajikistan President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Supreme Assembly 1994
Tanzania President President Cabinet National Assembly 1977
Thailand Monarch Prime minister Cabinet National Legislative Assembly 2014
Togo President Prime Minister Council of Ministers National Assembly 1992
Tonga Monarch Prime Minister Cabinet Legislative Assembly 1875
Transnistria President Prime Minister Government Supreme Soviet 1991
Trinidad and Tobago President Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1976
Tunisia President Prime Minister Parliament 1959
Turkey President Prime Minister Cabinet Grand National Assembly 1982
Turkmenistan President Cabinet Assembly 1992
Tuvalu Monarch[1] Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1978
Uganda President Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1995
Ukraine President Prime Minister Cabinet of the Ministers Verkhovna Rada 1996
United Arab Emirates President Prime Minister Federal National Council 1971
United Kingdom Monarch Prime Minister Cabinet Parliament 1801
United States President Cabinet Congress 1789
Uruguay President Council of Ministers General Assembly 1967
Uzbekistan President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Supreme Assembly 1992
Vanuatu President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Parliament 1980
Vatican City Pope President of the Governorate Governorate Pontifical Commission 1929
Venezuela President Cabinet National Assembly 1999
Vietnam President Prime Minister Government National Assembly 1992
Western Sahara President Prime Minister National Council 1991
Yemen President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Assembly of Representatives 1994
Zambia President National Assembly 1991
Zimbabwe President Prime Minister Parliament 1987

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n In Commonwealth realms other than the UK, the Governor-General represents Queen Elizabeth II who is the official head of state.
  2. ^ Kim Jong-il, as Chairman of the National Defense Commission is considered North Korea's "highest administrative authority". However, Kim Yong-nam, as President of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly does many of the duties of a Head of State. Deceased former North Korean ruler Kim Il-sung is listed as the Eternal President of the Republic.