List of national identity card policies by country

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This is a list of identity card policies by country.

Identity card policies by country[edit]

Countries with compulsory identity cards[edit]

According to a 1996 document by Privacy International, around 100 countries had compulsory identity cards.[1] The card must be shown on demand by authorised personnel under specified circumstances. Often alternative proof of identity, such as a driving licence, might be acceptable.[citation needed] Privacy International said that "virtually no common law country has a card".[1]

The term "compulsory" may have different meanings and implications in different countries. Possession of a card may only become compulsory at a certain age. There may be a penalty for not carrying a card or other legally valid identification (a passport, for foreigners); in some cases a person may be detained until identity is proved. This way the police can identify people hiding from police, trying to state false name. In some countries, police need a reason, such as crime suspicion or security risk. In other countries, police can ask for id without saying a reason. Random checks are rare, except in police states.

In countries of the European Union, a national identity card complying to certain standards can in most cases be used by European citizens as a travel document in place of a passport.[2] An exception is that a Swedish national identity card is not usable when travelling from Sweden to a non-Schengen country.

Country Name Description
 Albania Letërnjoftimi
(Albanian Identity Card)
The Letërnjoftimi is an electronic biometric ID card, compulsory upon 16 years old and costs 1200 lek (10).
 Argentina Documento Nacional de Identidad
(National Identity Card)
The Documento Nacional de Identidad is issued at a person's birth, and updated at 8 and 14 years of age, and thereafter renewed every fifteen years.[3] For many years, the DNI was issued as a small booklet (called libreta). In 2009, the DNI was revamped and digitalized; and booklets were issued along with a card (called tarjeta) simultaneously. Since 2012, DNIs are issued only in card format. The new DNI card is required to obtain a new Argentine Passport.
 Belarus N/A The Belarusian passport is compulsory at 16. Reissued at 25, 45 and 100. It is international, not an internal passport, and can be used to travel to other countries. Could be issued before 16 for travelling purposes.
 Belgium Identiteitskaart / Carte d’Identité / Personalausweis (Identity Card) The card is first issued at age 12, compulsory by 15. Since the beginning of 2005 the eID (electronic IDentity-card) has been issued to Belgian citizens who apply for a new identity card. Apart from being a form of identification, the card also is used for authentication purposes. Future usages include using the eID as a library card, keycard for restricted areas or chatrooms and the digital signing of documents. It is expected that in 2009 all Belgians will have an eID card.[4] The identity cards for Belgians living abroad are not electronic cards like those issued in Belgium. They are, however, equally valid and are accepted and used in the same way as the electronic identity card.[5]
 Bolivia Cédula de Identidad (Identity Card) The card is compulsory at 18. Rarely required by police.
 Botswana Omang (National Identity Card) It is compulsory for all citizens at age 16, and there are penalties for not obtaining it within one month of turning 16 or obtaining citizenship, whichever comes last. Includes the image of the individual (no headgear or eyewear), their particulars, and their right thumbprint. Valid for 10 years, whereupon it must be renewed and a new photograph taken. Must be presented upon request by any agent of the state, and the state requires all non-state institutions to use the National ID card as the only acceptable means of identification for citizens - passports and driver's licences should not be used, even though they contain most of the information on the ID card, including the ID card number. There are penalties for being issued a replacement card when it has been lost, however, if it is changed to update information on it only the application fee must be paid (e.g. upon expiry, and legal name changes as when a woman gets married and assumes her husband's surname). Every time a new one is issued for whatever reason, a new photograph must be taken. The individual keeps their National ID card number for life, and in recent years it has been linked to the birth certificate number of newborn infants (it is the same number). The National ID card must be surrendered to the government upon the demise of the individual, at which time it will be exchanged with an official death certificate.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Lična Karta (Identity Card) Compulsory at 16.
 Brazil Carteira de Identidade (Identity Card) Compulsory to be issued and carried since the age of 18 (though it can be substituted by a series of equivalent documents, see below). It is usually issued, for civilians, by each state's Public Safety Secretary, but other state departments — including the Armed Forces, the Police and some professional councils — can issue alternate identity cards too. There is a national standard, but each state can include minor differences (usually numbering scheme, font, printed seal and background pattern. The front has a picture (with an electronic stamp on it), right thumb print and signature (for illiterate people the phrase "não assina" — cannot sign — is printed in its place). The verse has the unique number (RG, registro geral), expedition date, full name of the person, name of the parents, place (town, state) and date of birth, CPF number and other optional information. It is green and plastified, officially 102 × 68 mm,[6] but lamination tends to make it slightly larger than the ISO/IEC 7810 ID-2 standard of 105 × 74 mm, resulting in a tight fit in most wallets. Only recently the driver's licence received the same legal status of an identity card in Brazil. There are also a few other documents, such as cards issued by the national councils of some professions (doctors, accountants, dentists, engineers, lawyers etc.), which are considered equivalent to the national identity card for most purposes.
 Bulgaria Лична карта (Identity Card) First issued and is compulsory after turning the age of 14. The new Bulgarian ID cards were introduced in 1999. They follow the general pattern in the EU and replaced the old, Soviet-style "internal passports", also known as "green passports". During the socialism period (1945–1989), to receive an "international passport", especially one allowing to travel to a Western country, was considered an achievement. Not all Bulgarian citizens had the right to travel abroad, and those who travelled outside the Soviet bloc underwent strict investigation for possible links with political enemies of the regime. Since January 1, 2007, the Bulgarian identity card can be used to travel within the European Union. Since 29 March 2010[7] new Bulgarian identity cards were introduced with embedded chip with personal data.
 Chile Cédula de Identidad (Identity card) First issued at age 2 or 3, it is compulsory at 18.
 China 居民身份证 (Resident Identity card) First issued at school age, the Resident Identity Card (Chinese: 居民身份证, Pinyin: Jūmín Shēnfènzhèng) becomes compulsory at 16.
 Colombia Tarjeta de Identidad / Cédula de Ciudadanía (Identity card) Tarjeta - First issued at age 2 or 3, then it's changed at 18 for another identity card called Cédula de Ciudadanía. It is only renewed afterwards if stolen or lost.
 Croatia Osobna iskaznica (Identity card) The Croatian identity card is compulsory at 16.
 Cuba Carnét de identidad (Identity card) N/A
 Cyprus Greek: Δελτίο Ταυτότητας
Turkish: Kimlik Kartı (Identity card)
All residents aged 12 and up are required to carry an official ID card.
 Czech Republic Občanský Průkaz (Civil card) Compulsory at 15.
 Egypt بطاقة تحقيق الشخصية (Personality Verification Card) The Personality Verification Card is compulsory at the age of 16. Issued by the Civil Registry Office which is subordinate to the Ministry of Interior. Not carrying the ID card is only penalised by fine not exceeding 200 EGP.
 Estonia Isikutunnistus (Identity card) Compulsory by law, but there is no penalty for not having one. Many electronic services are available (legally binding digital signatures, internet banking, internet voting, strong authentication to government and private websites). Citizens carrying ID cards are not required to carry drivers licence and registration.
 Germany Personalausweis (Identity Card) Compulsory for all German citizens aged 16 or older to possess either a "Personalausweis" (identity card) or a passport, but not to carry it. While police officers and some other officials have a right to demand to see one of those documents, the law does not state that one is obliged to submit the document at that very moment. Fines may only be applied if an identity card or passport is not possessed at all, if the document is expired or if one explicitly refuses to show ID to the police. If one is unable to produce an ID card or passport (or any other form of credible identification) during a police control, one can (in theory) be brought to the next police post and detained for max. 12 hours, or until positive identification is possible. However, this measure is only applied if the police have reasonable grounds to believe the person detained has committed an offence.
As driving licences are not legally accepted forms of identification in Germany, most persons actually carry their "Personalausweis" with them.[8] more
 Greece Αστυνομική Ταυτότητα (Police Identity Card) In Greece, the biggest change in Identity Documents Law happened in 2000, when some fields of the Police Identity Card (as Greeks call it) were rejected. These fields included religion, addresses, biometric characteristics and fingerprint. Oppositely, some fields were added. These are Latin transliterations of name and surname, blood type and Rhesus of the owner. Under this law, all Greeks over 12 years old must go to a police office to ask for an Identity Card. In Greece, there are many everyday things you cannot do without an ID. In fact, according to an older law, the Police ID is the only legal identity document and no one has a right to ask for more identity documents. Since the 1980s all legal services in Greece must be done with this ID. Also, you can travel within the EU with a Greek National ID card. Carrying the ID is not compulsory, however during routine police checks, if you are found without an ID, the police officer may take you to the nearest police station for further investigation.
 Hong Kong N/A See main article Hong Kong Identity Card. Identity cards have been used since 1949, and been compulsory since 1980. Children are required to obtain their first identity card at age 11, and must change to an adult identity card at age 18.
 Hungary Személyi igazolvány (Identity card) See [8] (in Hungarian) It is compulsory to possess an ID or passport from the age of 14. A driving license can be also used for identification from the age of 17. Private entities however, are legally required to accept passport or driver's licence for proof, but often do not accept them, only the ID card, thus in effect almost all citizens have the ID card. Police has the legal power to stop people on streets at random and ask for ID paper only if they have any proof that the person was involved in a crime, or is a witness. If the person has no proof for identification he/she can be detained for maximum 24 hours. It is a common misconception in Hungary that the Police can ask for your ID at any time, but since 1990 this is not the case.
 Indonesia Kartu Tanda Penduduk (Identity card) Kartu Tanda Penduduk for Indonesian citizens and the KITAP's or permanent residents card holder. The card is issued upon reaching the age of 17 or upon marriage.
 Iran کارت هویت (Identity card) The Iranian national identity card is compulsory for citizens and permanent residents, aged 15 and over.
 Israel Hebrew: תעודת זהות, Arabic: بطاقة هوية
(identity card)
The Teudat Zehut is first issued at age 16 and is compulsory by 18.
 Jordan بطاقة شخصية (Personal card) First issued at age 16 and is compulsory by 18.
 Kenya N/A N/A
 Kuwait N/A All residents of Kuwait must have a Civil ID card. The parents of newborns should apply for registration of the child within 60 days after birth. An expatriate must apply for a civil ID card within 30 days of getting his residency.[9][10][11]
 Latvia Personas apliecība (identity card) See [9] (In English) An identity card or passport is the mandatory personal identification document for a citizen of Latvia or a non-citizen who lives in Latvia and has reached 18 years of age.
 Lebanon بطاقة هوية (identity card) The is a compulsory identity document issued in Lebanon. The document is issued by the police on behalf of the Ministry of Interior and is the main form of identification on the territory of the Republic of Lebanon. All Lebanese are obliged by law to carry their identity cards with them at all times and are subject to fines should they not. As of June 30, 2006, all Lebanese nationals must hold the new magnetic Identification Card (ID)
 Luxembourg N/A First issued at age 15 and only issued to Luxembourg citizens, who are required by law to carry it at all times.
 Macedonia Лична карта (Identity card) Issued by the ministry of interior to citizens with permanent residence in Macedonia. It is compulsory at the age of 18.
 Madagascar N/A Kara-panondrom-pirenen'ny teratany malagasy (Carte nationale d'identité de citoyen malagasy). Possession is compulsory for Malagasy citizens from age 18 (by decree 78-277, 1978-10-03).
 Malaysia MyKad Issued at age 12, and updated at 18. MyPR for Permanent Resident. MyKas for temporary residents. Non-compulsory MyKid before age of 12. MyKad and MyPR must be carried at all times. Cards are differentiated by color. MyKad is blue, MyPr is red and MyKas is green.
 Malta Karta ta' l-Identità (Identiy card) Karta ta' l-Identità Issued at 14, updated at 16, compulsory at 18.
 Moldova Buletin de identitate (Identity card) The Buletin de identitate is compulsory at 16.
 Morocco بطاقة التعريف الوطنية (National identification card) The national identity card is the ID of the citizens of Morocco (in Arabic : بطاقة التعريف الوطنية). This is an official document which allows any citizen to prove his identity and therefore it is valid, his Moroccan nationality. It is compulsory for all citizens aged over 18 years, but it can be obtained from the age of 16. A new version of the card is out, it has the form of a credit card. The Directorate General of National Security (DSMS) of Morocco announced Sunday, March 30, 2008 it will proceed on 1 April 2008 to issue new national identity card Electronic (NIEC). The current national maps will be gradually replaced in four years. The NIEC is biometric and provides citizens of the presentation of life certificate, residence certificate, extract of birth and citizenship certificates.
 Montenegro Lična karta (Identity card) The Montenegrin identity card (Lična karta/Лична карта) is compulsory at the age of 16. It is issued only to Montenegrin citizens with permanent residence in Montenegro. While it is the most often used official identification document, three other hold the same status — Passport, Driver's licence and Refugee ID card. Old style IDs, that refer to the no longer existing states of SFRY or FRY, are not valid since 2011.
 Mozambique Bilhete de identidade (Identity card) N/A
 Netherlands Identiteitskaart (Identity card) Although it is not compulsory to carry a proof of identity at all times, since 1 January 2005 it is compulsory to show identification, when an authorized officer asks for it, from the age of 14. An authorized officer can only do so under certain circumstances. Such circumstances include suspicious behaviour, committing any offense, or if a person is interviewed as a witness of a crime. Identity checks at events where the public order may be in danger are also allowed. Otherwise random identity checks by the police are not allowed in principle but can happen in certain areas such as a train station or doubtful areas i.e. redlight district, and a fine for not showing proof of identity may be successfully challenged in such cases. The fine for not being able to show proof of identity when legally required is € 60.- (16 and over) or € 30.- (14 or 15). Proof of identity is also required when opening a bank account and when entering an employment contract.[12]
 North Korea "Identity Card", "Travel Pass" (with specified destination of travel and written permission) Photos

North Korea is probably the country which imposes the strongest fines for citizens not carrying ID cards. To travel North Koreans need not only an identity card, but also a "travel pass", with specified destination and written permission. Sometimes citizens may be punished with time in a labour camp for not carrying their cards, however this is often only a short sentence and people are usually released upon presentation of the card at a later date. Although much is not known about the properties of the card, it is probably plastic and similar in size to most European ID cards. Between 2004 and 2008, all records were transferred to an electronic Korean-language central database. Obtaining a driving license in North Korea is not usual - except in the case of professional drivers, mechanics and assistants - as number of cars owned by the public is very limited, making Pyongyang one of the only state cities without much traffic. Most people do not have passports because of restricted movement by the state, and usually only government officials are issued them. North Koreans working abroad are issued contracts between North Korea and the host country to allow for travel, and government officers often accompany and supervise workers. See also North Korea passports

 Panama Cedula de Identidad (identity card) Cedula de Identidad. Required at 18. Panamaninan citizens must carry their Cedula at all times.[13]
 Pakistan N/A Computerized National Identity Card (CNIC). First made at the age of 18, not compulsory to carry all the time. The card is mandatory for opening bank accounts, for passport and almost all substantial monetary transactions from car, land to high value assets.
 Palestine بطاقة هوية (identity card) Identification Card. First made on the age of 16, The fields in it are identical to those in ID cards issued by Israeli civil administration prior to the Oslo accords, fields include Full name (four names), Mother name, date of birth, birthplace, Gender, Religion, place of issuance, and issue date. in addition to an appendix that includes address, marital status, name and ID number of and listing of partner, and previous name(s), in addition to a listing of children names. The document "validity" is incubated until the Israeli authorities approve it.
 Peru Documento Nacional de Identidad. N/A
 Poland Dowód osobisty (Identity card) Polish National Identity Card The card is compulsory at 18. Those who do not comply with the relevant law are subject to restriction of freedom for up to 1 month or fine penalty.[14] Until 1939 there were no compulsory id cards in Poland. However with German and Russian occupation they arrived, and after 1945 were hold by communist government. Today it is still obligatory to have ID card for Polish citizen, No exceptions, even if somebody possesses a valid passport, however there are other documents treated as useful for identification in some legal/govt. purposes(e.g. elections and "sailor book"). Also there is no law requiring Polish citizen to have any ID card in public space/during driving with driving license(so for e.g. police say "Please show me Your ID with driving license, if You have). But if You have with You the ID card and not show during control, on ask/question(even with only "Please show me"), You can be fined if the police after searching You personally found it. Foreigners(not citizens with issued ID card ) are obligated by law to have ID in public space/private.
 Portugal Cartão de Cidadão(Citizen card) As of 2006 the government has issued the Cartão de Cidadão (Citizen Card). The older Bilhete de identidade which has been compulsory at 10, is still in limited use.
 Romania Carte de identitate (identity card) The Carte de identitate is compulsory at 14.
 Russia N/A Internal passport is compulsory at 14 (but there is no penalty for not having one until the age of 16) and reissued with a new photograph at 20, 45. Although there are no laws in Russia requiring to carry a proof of identity, in certain places, such as Moscow, it is sensible to carry a passport at all times as lack of an ID during ad-hoc police checks is sufficient grounds for detention. A passport is also required for travel by long-range trains and airlines. There are a couple of operations that require an internal passport, (e.g. all notarial operations, land to high value assets).
 Saudi Arabia بطاقة الأحوال المدنية (Civil identity card) The National ID Card "Bitaqat Al-Ahwal Al-Madaniya" (Arabic: بطاقة الأحوال المدنية‎) Issued at 15 for males, compulsory at 17. Non-compulsory for females but issued at 18.
 Serbia Lična karta (Identity card) The Lična karta (Лична карта) is compulsory at the age of 16, but it can be obtained when a person turns 10. It is issued only to Serbian citizens with permanent residence in Serbia as well as foreign citizens residing in Serbia. While it is the most often used official identification document, three other hold the same status — Passport, Driver's licence and Refugee ID card. Old style IDs, that refer to a the no longer existing states of SFRY or FRY, will be valid until their expire date and no longer than December 31, 2016.
 Singapore National Registration Identity Card It is compulsory for all citizens and permanent residents to apply for the NRIC from age 15 onwards, and to re-register their cards for a replacement at age 30. It is not compulsory for bearers to hold the card at all times, nor are they compelled by law to show their cards to police officers conducting regular screening while on patrol, for instance. The NRIC is also a required document for several places, such as renewal of the passports, voting for any election or national service, where if any failure will result in a denial to do so. In contrast to other countries, the NRIC also states the bearers' race. Immigration & Checkpoints Authority
 Slovakia Občiansky preukaz (Citizen card) Občiansky preukaz (Citizen card) is compulsory at the age of 15. It serves the purpose of general identification towards the authorities. It features a photograph, date of birth and the address. Every card has a unique number.
 Slovenia Osebna izkaznica (identity card) The Osebna izkaznica is compulsory for citizens of Slovenia who have a permanent residence in Slovenia, are at least 18 years old, and do not have a passport. It can be issued to citizens under 18 on request by their parent or legal guardian.
 South Africa N/A An Identity Document (ID) is issued at age 16 to all citizens; and permanent residents. Although passports and driver's licences are also acceptable forms of identification, banks only accept IDs. Your ID has a barcode, a photo, and your unique ID number. Information (including age and gender but excluding race) is referenced under your ID number: accounts, criminal record, voting history, driver's licence etc. You need an ID in order to apply for a passport, bank account, driver's licence or tertiary studies, as well as to register to vote. In most cases employers will also request a photocopy of your ID in order to process your appointment. Your voting history as well as any firearm licences are documented in your ID booklet. As one's ID may be required for some of the functions listed above, some SA permanent residents, may elect to keep their ID document on their person.
 South Korea 주민등록번호 (Identity card) Korean citizens are issued a national ID card when reaching adulthood (typically when he/she reaches the age of 19 under East Asian age reckoning). This card will have a unique "Citizen's Registration Number" (jumin deungnok beonho; Korean: 주민등록번호 - see main article Resident registration number (South Korea)). The first six numbers indicate the citizen's date of birth, while the last seven numbers includes information such as where the birth was registered. This number is used by Korean citizens for all forms of record-keeping, including online.
 Spain Documento Nacional de Identidad (National identification document) The Documento Nacional de Identidad (DNI) (Spanish Wikipedia) is compulsory at 14, can be issued before if necessary (to travel to other European countries, for example). By law, it has to be carried at all times, and it is routinely used for identification, and it is often photocopied by private and public bureaus. Many public and private transactions cannot be made without showing this ID. Since 2006, it is being replaced by the Electronic DNI.
 Sri Lanka National Identity Card
ජාතික හැඳුනුම්පත
தேசிய அடையாள அட்டை

All citizens over the age of 16 need to apply for a National Identity Card (NIC). Each NIC has a unique 10 digit number, in the format 000000000A (where 0 is a digit and A is a letter). The first two digits of the number are your year of birth (e.g.: 88xxxxxxxx for someone born in 1988). The final letter is generally a 'V' or 'X'. An NIC number is required to apply for a passport (over 16), driving license (over 18) and to vote (over 18). In addition, all citizens are required to carry their NIC on them at all times as proof of identity, given the security situation in the country. NICs are not issued to non-citizens, but they too are required to carry some form of photo identification (such as a photocopy of their passport or foreign driving license) at all times.[16] In addition the Department of Post may issue an identity card with a validity of five years, this may be gained in lieu of an NIC if the latter is unable to be issued.

 Taiwan National Identification Card

國民身份證

N/A
 Thailand บัตรประจำตัวประชาชน (Thai national ID card) National ID card is compulsory for all citizens at the age of 7.
 Turkey Nüfus Cüzdanı (Identity card) The Nüfus Cüzdanı is compulsory right after birth without photograph, at the age of 15 a photograph must be stuck on. It has to be carried at all times and it is often photocopied by bureaus, banks, etc.
 Ukraine N/A Internal Ukrainian passport is compulsory (to possess but not to carry) at age of 16.
 Venezuela Cédula de Identidad (Identity card) In Venezuela it is called Cédula de Identidad, it is mandatory at the age of 10 and is renewed every 10 years
 Vietnam Giấy chứng minh nhân dân (People's proof document) Known as giấy chứng minh nhân dân ("people's proof document"), it is compulsory for all Vietnamese citizens over 14.

Countries with non-compulsory identity cards[edit]

These are countries where official authorities issue identity cards to those who request them, but where it is not illegal to be without an official identity document. For certain services, identification is needed, then e.g. passports or identity cards issued by bank etc. can be used.

Country Description
 Austria
 Canada Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) issues the Canada Permanent Resident Card to permanent residents of Canada. In the past Canadian citizenship cards were issued to new Canadians upon naturalization and established Canadians (upon request). As of 2012 these cards have been discontinued.
 Finland national identity cards exist, but commonly people use their driving licences or national social security cards as ID. When making purchases with a credit card, ID card will usually be asked for. In electronic transactions, online bank identifiers have been introduced also for personal identification purposes. Many government services can be accessed in this way.
 France

The country has had a national ID card since 1940, when it helped the Vichy authorities identify 76,000 for deportation as part of the Holocaust.

In the past, identity cards were compulsory, had to be updated each year in case of change of residence and were valid for 10 years, and their renewal required paying a fee. In addition to the face photograph, the card included the family name, first names, date and place of birth, and a unique national identity number relating to the national INSEE registry, which is also used as the national service registration number, and as the Social Security account number for health and retirement benefits.

Later,[when?] the laws were changed[citation needed] so that any official and certified document (even if expired and possibly unusable abroad) with a photograph and a name on it, issued by a public administration or enterprise (such as a rail transport card, student card, driving licence or passport) could be used as proof of identity.[citation needed] Also, law enforcement (police, gendarmerie) can now accept photocopies of these documents[citation needed] when performing identity checks, provided that the original document is presented within two weeks.[citation needed] For financial transactions, any of these documents must be equally accepted as proof of identity.[citation needed]

Identity cards are still issued, but are free of charge, and not compulsory. Legislation has been published for a proposed compulsory biometric card system, which has been widely criticised, among others by the "National commission for computing and liberties" (Commission nationale de l’informatique et des libertés, CNIL), the national authority and regulator on computing systems and databases. Identity cards issued since 2004 include basic biometric information (a digitized fingerprint record, a printed digital photograph and a scanned signature) and various anti-fraud systems embedded within the laminated card.

The French health insurance card, a smart card named "Carte Vitale 2", includes a digital photograph and other personal medical information in addition to identity elements. The previous version included a chip and a magnetic stripe, but contained very little information.

 Iceland The National Register of Persons ("Þjóðskrá") issues national identity cards ("Nafnskírteini") to all teenagers in the year they become 14 years old. People in Iceland are required to present identification if asked by police, but driving licenses and various other ID cards are acceptable as well as the identity card.
 Italy Carta d'Identità (Italian Wikipedia) may be issued to anyone resident in Italy and to Italian citizens living abroad. It is issued after the 15th birthday. It is not compulsory to have it or to carry it, unless expressly ordered by public security authorities. The latest version is the Italian electronic identity card.
 Liechtenstein The Principality of Liechtenstein has a voluntary ID card system for citizens, called the "Identitätskarte".
 Lithuania Asmens tapatybės kortelė (Identity card). Passport or Identity card is compulsory at age 16.
 Japan There is an optional Juki Net (住基ネット Jūki netto?) card for Japanese citizens, corresponding to the compulsory Jūminhyō (住民票?) record of residential address. The compulsory Certificate of Alien Registration (外国人登録証明書 Gaikokujin Tōroku Shōmeisho?) that all resident foreigners were required to have is being replaced with a resident's ID card that is essentially the same as the Juki Net card, and resident foreigners are now registered in Jūminhyō, together with Japanese family (if any). Foreigners who enter the country on a visa that is valid for 3 months or less need only a passport with a valid landing permit. Driving licenses, National Health Insurance Cards (国民健康保険証 Kokumin Kenkō Hoken Shō?), Certificates of Alien Registration (or the new resident's ID card that replaces it) and passports containing a registration for a Certificate for Alien Registration are accepted as IDs for most purposes. Health insurance cards do not have a photograph of their owner.
 Mexico The National Electorate Institute("Insituto Nacional Electoral" (INE)) issues a Voting card (Credencial para votar) for Mexican citizens when they become 18 years old. The card is compulsory in order to participate in Federal level elections, and is the de facto ID for most legal transactions.
 Sweden

Having an identity card in Sweden is not mandatory, but it is needed in several situations, e.g. for bank services or when picking up a package at a post office.
Sweden has since 2005 issued national identity cards, but they are not compulsory and only obtainable by Swedish citizens,[17] mostly intended to use for intra-Schengen area travel. The Swedish tax authority does since 2009 issue official identity cards for anyone resident in Sweden. Driver's licenses is the most commonly used identity document in Sweden. Between 2005 and 2009 it was almost impossible for immigrants to get a card because of tightened security to get a bank card, since a close family member having a Swedish identity document had to vouch the identity. Not having id card in combination with a crime giving a fine (incl for no local traffic ticket), is a suspicion to escape it, which is a reason for detainment in Sweden.

  Switzerland Swiss identity card
 Trinidad and Tobago The Elections and Boundaries Commission (EBC) is responsible for the issuing of National Identification Cards. A National Identification (ID) Card is issued to a citizen or eligible resident when they register to vote. The National ID Card is an electoral document used as proof of identity when voting. It is also accepted as a primary form of identification within Trinidad and Tobago, and can be obtained before voting age. Eligible for the card are citizens of Trinidad and Tobago of 15 years of age or older, and Commonwealth citizens 15 years of age or older who have resided legally in Trinidad and Tobago for at least one year immediately preceding the application. The National ID Card is valid for 10 years.[18] It is not, however, mandatory when voting; other forms if ID, including passport or driver's permit, can be presented.
 United States The Passport card is issued to citizens upon request. Although its main purpose is for land and sea travel under the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative, under the REAL ID Act, the passport card is also accepted for domestic air travel.[19] U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services has indicated that the U.S. Passport Card may be used in the Employment Eligibility Verification Form I-9 (form) process.[20] The passport card is considered a "List A" document that may be presented by newly hired employees during the employment eligibility verification process to show work-authorized status. "List A" documents are those used by employees to prove both identity and work authorization when completing Form I-9. The passport card can be used as valid proof of citizenship and of identity both inside and outside the United States.[21] Most people, however, use state issued driver's licenses, or state-issued (generally by the state's DMV) non-driver's ID cards, as identity cards.

In several states there is an obligation to show identity cards to the police on request. This means that identity cards (normally state-issued) are compulsory in those states, even if the national card is voluntary. See Stop and identify statutes.

Countries with no identity cards[edit]

These are countries where official authorities do not issue any identity cards. When identification is needed, e.g. passports, identity cards issued by banks etc., or cards that are not mainly identity cards like driver's licenses can be used.

Country Description
 Australia In 1985, there was a failed proposal to create an Australia Card. In 2006 the Australian Government announced the introduction a non-compulsory Access Card that would act as a gateway to services administered by The Department of Human Services. This project, however, was terminated in November 2007. Class A identification documents in most Australian states include Driver's License (issued by the state government), Firearms License (issued by the state government), 18+ Card (issued by the state government), Australian Passport (issued by the Federal government), foreign passport, or Residency/Citizenship documents (issued by the Federal government).
 Denmark No national identity card. When needed, e.g. in the bank, a passport, driver's license or a municipal identity card is used. Against authorities a health insurance card (without photo) can be used.
 India India is currently piloting an ID card system, see Multipurpose National Identity Card (India). Proof of identity such as passport, ration card, PAN card, or driving license is mandatory for issuing essentials such as electricity, water, cell-phone SIM cards, etc. Those without proof of identity can often not obtain such basics.[22]
 Ireland There is no requirement for Irish or UK citizens to identify themselves in Ireland. Citizens who were born in Ireland or the UK are allowed to travel within the Common Travel Area without producing a passport, but should be able to provide photographic identification on demand. All others are required to show a passport, or National Identity card in the case of EEA nationals. There is a voluntary Aoischárta Náisiúnta / National Age Card available to residents over 18, showing name, date of birth, sex, photograph, and unique card number, intended to allow young people to prove they are legally allowed to buy alcohol; it is a "proof of age" card, and has no legal value as an identity card[23]
 New Zealand Acceptable types of identification for proof of identification may include New Zealand Passport, Foreign Passport, New Zealand Firearms Licence, National ID Card (other countries), New Zealand driver licence with a credit/bankcard, Supergold card, birth certificate or citizenship certificate. Requirements vary according to the purpose.
 Norway No national identity card, but other identity cards exist which are needed e.g. in the bank if not using a passport or driver´s license. Bank issuued debit cards, usually VISA, has had a photo ID on the back since the 1980´s. The banks have stated that they no longer intend to issue ID-cards on their debit and credit cards, as they think ID-cards should be a public service. Norway decided in 2007 to introduce a voluntary national identity card, to be usable for travel to EU countries, but they are delayed and are planned to be introduced in 2017 but can be much more delayed.[24] The reason for the delay is that the responsible authority requires absolute security on both the cards and the validation of the identity at issuance.
 Philippines No national identity card, however, in an effort to hasten application for government services, the government is now issuing the Unified Multi-Purpose ID (UMID) as the single identity card for the four main government agencies namely, the Social Security System (SSS), Government Service Insurance System (GSIS), Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth), and the Pag-IBIG Fund (Home Development Mutual Fund).
 United Kingdom Compulsory identity cards were to be introduced under the Identity Cards Act 2006. Initial cards, not yet compulsory, were introduced for those who wanted them in 2009, but the requirement and the cards were abolished by the Identity Documents Act 2010 after a change of government.[25] When a formal identity document is needed, a passport or a driver's licence is needed. For simpler cases like age verification, if having no driver's licence, there are simpler age proof cards, certified under the "Proof of Age Standards Scheme".

Notes[edit]

  • As noted above, certain countries do not have national ID cards, but have other official documents that play the same role in practice (e.g. driver's license for the United States). While a country may not make it de jure compulsory to own or carry an identity document, it may be de facto strongly recommended to do so in order to facilitate certain procedures.
  • In most countries non-resident foreign citizens have to be able to identify themselves through a passport. For resident people giving a foreign impression, by e.g. skin color or dialect, possession of an acceptable identity card might be useful to reduce the risk of harassments from the police and other authorities.
  • People suspected or caught with a crime, also minor crimes not giving prison, such as shoplifting, might if not carrying an identity card be detained until identity is proven, also in countries not requiring an identity card.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Identity cards: Frequently Asked Questions - Privacy International
  2. ^ EU Directive 2004/38/EC
  3. ^ http://www.nuevodni.gov.ar/
  4. ^ eID. Brussels: Belgium. 
  5. ^ Diplomatie.be. Brussels: Belgium. 
  6. ^ Decreto 89.250. Brasília, DF: Presidência da República Federativa do Brasil. 
  7. ^ Bulgaria to Start Issuing Biometric IDs in March 2010
  8. ^ nuernberg.de. Nuernberg: Germany. 
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ [2]
  11. ^ [3]>
  12. ^ [4]
  13. ^ [5]
  14. ^ [6]
  15. ^ "Sri Lanka to issue new ID cards from November". Department of Government Information - Sri Lanka. 17 September 2013. 
  16. ^ Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Sri Lanka: The National Identity Card (NIC); its issuance, cost, validity period, security features and description of front and back of card, 8 April 2008, LKA102742.E, available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4829b5571a.html
  17. ^ "Fakta om nationellt id-kort". Swedish Police Service. Archived from the original on 2007-06-30. Retrieved 2007-08-18. 
  18. ^ [7]
  19. ^ Driver's License or Passports Preferred ID at Checkpoints, retrieved May 30, 2008.
  20. ^ USCIS - USCIS Informs The Public That New Passport Card Is Acceptable For Employment Eligibility Verification
  21. ^ Passport Card
  22. ^ "BPL families rue lack of central govt benefits". The Times of India. 23 Apr 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2013. 
  23. ^ "The Garda Age Card". Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  24. ^ Hvor blir det av de nasjonale ID-kortene (NRK, 15 Jan 2013)
  25. ^ Porter, Andrew; Kirkup, James (2010-05-24). "ID card scheme will be scrapped with no refund to holders". The Daily Telegraph (London).