List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs

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This video takes you on a fly-through of the space around the nearest stars to the Sun.

This list contains all known stars and brown dwarfs at a distance of up to 5 parsecs (16.3 light-years) from the Solar System, ordered by increasing distance. In addition to the Solar System, there are another 54 stellar systems currently known lying within this distance. These systems contain a total of 56 hydrogen-fusing stars (of which 46 are red dwarfs), 14 brown dwarfs, and 4 white dwarfs. Despite the relative proximity of these objects to the Earth, only nine of them have an apparent magnitude less than 6.5, which means only about 12% of these objects can be observed with the naked eye.[1] Besides the Sun, only three are first-magnitude stars: Alpha Centauri, Sirius, and Procyon. All of these objects are located in the Local Bubble, a region within the Orion–Cygnus Arm of the Milky Way Galaxy.

List[edit]

Stars visible to the unaided eye have their magnitude shown in light blue below. The classes of the stars and brown dwarfs are shown in the color of their spectral types (these colors are derived from conventional names for the spectral types and do not represent the star's observed color). Many brown dwarfs are not listed by visual magnitude but are listed by near-IR J band magnitude. Some of the parallax and distance results are preliminary measurements.[2]

# Distance[3]
Light-years (±err)
Designation Stellar class Apparent magnitude (mV or mJ) Absolute magnitude (MV or MJ) Epoch J2000.0 Parallax[2][4]
mas(±err)
Discovery date[5] Additional
references
System Star Star # Right ascension[2] Declination[2]
0 Solar System Sun G2V[2] −26.74[2] 4.85[2] has eight planets
1 4.2421(16) Alpha Centauri
(Rigil Kentaurus)
Proxima Centauri (V645 Centauri) 1 M5.5Ve 11.09[2] 15.53[2] 14h 29m 43.0s −62° 40′ 46″ 768.87(029)[6][7] 1915 [8]
4.3650(68) α Centauri A (HD 128620) 2 G2V[2] 0.01[2] 4.38[2] 14h 39m 36.5s −60° 50′ 02″ 747.23(117)[6][9]
α Centauri B (HD 128621) 2 K1V[2] 1.34[2] 5.71[2] 14h 39m 35.1s −60° 50′ 14″ 1689 has one suspected planet[10]
2 5.9630(109) Barnard's Star (BD+04°3561a) 4 M4.0Ve 9.53[2] 13.22[2] 17h 57m 48.5s +04° 41′ 36″ 546.98(1 00)[6][7] 1916 largest known proper motion[11]
3 6.59(7) Luhman 16
(WISE 1049-5319)
Luhman 16A 5 L8±1[12] 10.7 J 10h 49m 15.57s −53° 19′ 06″ 495 (5)[12] 2013 has one suspected planet[13]
Luhman 16B 5 T1±2[12]
4 7.2[14] WISE 0855–0714 7 Y 2014 May be a rogue planet instead
5 7.7825(390) Wolf 359 (CN Leonis) 8 M6.0V[2] 13.44[2] 16.55[2] 10h 56m 29.2s +07° 00′ 53″ 419.10(210)[6] 1919
6 8.2905(148) Lalande 21185 (BD+36°2147) 9 M2.0V[2] 7.47[2] 10.44[2] 11h 03m 20.2s +35° 58′ 12″ 393.42(070)[6][7] 1801
7 8.5828(289) Sirius
(α Canis Majoris)
Sirius A 10 A1V[2] −1.46[2] 1.42[2] 06h 45m 08.9s −16° 42′ 58″ 380.02(128)[6][7] brightest star in the night sky
Sirius B 10 DA2[2] 8.44[2] 11.34[2] 1844
8 8.7280(631) Luyten 726-8 Luyten 726-8 A (BL Ceti) 12 M5.5Ve 12.54[2] 15.40[2] 01h 39m 01.3s −17° 57′ 01″ 373.70(270)[6] 1949
Luyten 726-8 B (UV Ceti) 12 M6.0Ve 12.99[2] 15.85[2]
9 9.6813(512) Ross 154 (V1216 Sagittarii) 14 M3.5Ve 10.43[2] 13.07[2] 18h 49m 49.4s −23° 50′ 10″ 336.90(178)[6][7] 1925
10 10.322(36) Ross 248 (HH Andromedae) 15 M5.5Ve 12.29[2] 14.79[2] 23h 41m 54.7s +44° 10′ 30″ 316.00(110)[6] 1925
11 10.522(27) Epsilon Eridani (BD−09°697) 16 K2V[2] 3.73[2] 6.19[2] 03h 32m 55.8s −09° 27′ 30″ 309.99(079)[6][7] 150 at least one planet[15]
12 10.742(31) Lacaille 9352 (CD−36°15693) 17 M1.5Ve 7.34[2] 9.75[2] 23h 05m 52.0s −35° 51′ 11″ 303.64(087)[6][7] 1753
13 10.919(49) Ross 128 (FI Virginis) 18 M4.0Vn 11.13[2] 13.51[2] 11h 47m 44.4s +00° 48′ 16″ 298.72(135)[6][7] 1925
14 11.089[16] WISE 1506+7027 19 T6 14.3 J 15h 06m 49.9s +70° 27′ 36″ 310(042)[16] 2011
15 11.266(171) EZ Aquarii
(Gliese 866, Luyten 789-6)
EZ Aquarii A 20 M5.0Ve 13.33[2] 15.64[2] 22h 38m 33.4s −15° 17′ 57″ 289.50(440)[6] 1937
EZ Aquarii B 20 M? 13.27[2] 15.58[2] -
EZ Aquarii C 20 M? 14.03[2] 16.34[2] 1995
16 11.402(32) Procyon
(α Canis Minoris)
Procyon A 23 F5V–IV[2] 0.38[2] 2.66[2] 07h 39m 18.1s +05° 13′ 30″ 286.05(081)[6][7]
Procyon B 23 DQZ[2] 10.70[2] 12.98[2] 1844
17 11.403(22) 61 Cygni 61 Cygni A (BD+38°4343) 25 K5.0V[2] 5.21[2] 7.49[2] 21h 06m 53.9s +38° 44′ 58″ 286.04(056)[6][7] 1725 first star (other than the Sun) to have its distance measured[17]
61 Cygni B (BD+38°4344) 25 K7.0V[2] 6.03[2] 8.31[2] 21h 06m 55.3s +38° 44′ 31″ -
18 11.525(69) Struve 2398
(Gliese 725, BD+59°1915)
Struve 2398 A (HD 173739) 27 M3.0V[2] 8.90[2] 11.16[2] 18h 42m 46.7s +59° 37′ 49″ 283.00(169)[6][7] 1835
Struve 2398 B (HD 173740) 27 M3.5V[2] 9.69[2] 11.95[2] 18h 42m 46.9s +59° 37′ 37″ 1835
19 11.624(39) Groombridge 34
(Gliese 15)
Groombridge 34 A (GX Andromedae) 29 M1.5V[2] 8.08[2] 10.32[2] 0h 18m 22.9s +44° 01′ 23″ 280.59(095)[6][7] 1813 has one planet[18]
Groombridge 34 B (GQ Andromedae) 29 M3.5V[2] 11.06[2] 13.30[2] -
20 11.824(30) Epsilon Indi
(CPD−57°10015)
Epsilon Indi A 31 K5Ve[2] 4.69[2] 6.89[2] 22h 03m 21.7s −56° 47′ 10″ 275.84(069)[6][7] 1597 one suspected planet[19]
Epsilon Indi Ba 31 T1.0V 12.3 J[20] 22h 04m 10.5s −56° 46′ 58″ Jan 2003
Epsilon Indi Bb 31 T6.0V 13.2 J[20] Aug 2003
21 11.826(129) DX Cancri (G 51-15) 34 M6.5Ve 14.78[2] 16.98[2] 08h 29m 49.5s +26° 46′ 37″ 275.80(300)[6] 1972
22 11.887(33) Tau Ceti (BD−16°295) 35 G8Vp[2] 3.49[2] 5.68[2] 01h 44m 04.1s −15° 56′ 15″ 274.39(076)[6][7] 150 possibly five planets
23 11.991(57) GJ 1061 (LHS 1565) 36 M5.5V[2] 13.09[2] 15.26[2] 03h 35m 59.7s −44° 30′ 45″ 272.01(130)[21] 1995 [22][23]
24 12.068[16] WISE 0350-5658 37 Y1 22.8 J[24] 03h 50m −56° 58′ 291(050)[16] 2011
25 12.132(133) YZ Ceti (LHS 138) 38 M4.5V[2] 12.02[2] 14.17[2] 01h 12m 30.6s −16° 59′ 56″ 268.84(295)[6][7] 1961
26 12.366(59) Luyten's Star (BD+05°1668) 39 M3.5Vn 9.86[2] 11.97[2] 07h 27m 24.5s +05° 13′ 33″ 263.76(125)[6][7] 1935
27 12.514(129) Teegarden's star (SO025300.5+165258) 40 M6.5V 15.14[2] 17.22[2] 02h 53m 00.9s +16° 52′ 53″ 260.63(269)[21] 2003 possible planetary system[23][25]
28 12.571(54) SCR 1845-6357 SCR 1845-6357 A 41 M8.5V[2] 17.39 19.41 18h 45m 05.3s −63° 57′ 48″ 259.45(111)[21] 2004 [23]
SCR 1845-6357 B 41 T6[26] 13.3 J[20] 18h 45m 02.6s −63° 57′ 52″ 2006
29 12.777(43) Kapteyn's Star (CD−45°1841) 43 M1.5V[2] 8.84[2] 10.87[2] 05h 11m 40.6s −45° 01′ 06″ 255.27(086)[6][7] 1898 has two known planets[27]
30 12.870(57) Lacaille 8760 (AX Microscopii) 44 M0.0V[2] 6.67[2] 8.69[2] 21h 17m 15.3s −38° 52′ 03″ 253.43(112)[6][7] 1753
31 13.149(74) Kruger 60
(BD+56°2783)
Kruger 60 A 45 M3.0V[2] 9.79[2] 11.76[2] 22h 27m 59.5s +57° 41′ 45″ 248.06(139)[6][9] 1880
Kruger 60 B (DO Cephei) 45 M4.0V[2] 11.41[2] 13.38[2] 1890?
32 13.167(82) DEN 1048-3956 47 M8.5V[2] 17.39[2] 19.37[2] 10h 48m 14.7s −39° 56′ 06″ 247.71(155)[21] 2001 [28][29]
33 13.259 UGPS 0722-05 48 T9[2] 16.52 J[30] 07h 22m 27.3s –05° 40′ 30″ 246 2010 [31]
34 13.349(110) Ross 614
(V577 Monocerotis, Gliese 234)
Ross 614A (LHS 1849) 49 M4.5V[2] 11.15[2] 13.09[2] 06h 29m 23.4s −02° 48′ 50″ 244.34(201)[6][9] 1927
Ross 614B (LHS 1850) 49 M5.5V 14.23[2] 16.17[2] 1936
35 13.820(98) Wolf 1061 (Gliese 628, BD−12°4523) 51 M3.0V[2] 10.07[2] 11.93[2] 16h 30m 18.1s −12° 39′ 45″ 236.01(167)[6][7] 1919
36 14.066(109) Van Maanen's star (Gliese 35, LHS 7) 52 DZ7[2] 12.38[2] 14.21[2] 00h 49m 09.9s +05° 23′ 19″ 231.88(179)[6][7] 1896
37 14.231(66) Gliese 1 (CD−37°15492) 53 M1.5 V [2] 8.55[2] 10.35[2] 00h 05m 24.4s −37° 21′ 27″ 229.20(107)[6][7] 1884
38 14.312(289) Wolf 424
(FL Virginis, LHS 333, Gliese 473)
Wolf 424 A 54 M5.5Ve 13.18[2] 14.97[2] 12h 33m 17.2s +09° 01′ 15″ 227.90(460)[6]
Wolf 424 B 54 M7Ve 13.17[2] 14.96[2]
39 14.4 2MASS J154043.42-510135.7 56 M7V 15.26 15h 40m 43.42s −51° 01′ 35.7″ 224.80(290) 2014 [32]
40 14.509(187) L 1159-16 (TZ Arietis, Gliese 83.1) 57 M4.5V[2] 12.27[2] 14.03[2] 02h 00m 13.2s +13° 03′ 08″ 224.80(290)[6]
41 14.793(55) Gliese 687 (LHS 450, BD+68°946) 58 M3.0V[2] 9.17[2] 10.89[2] 17h 36m 25.9s +68° 20′ 21″ 220.49(082)[6][7] has one known planet[33]
42 14.805(242) LHS 292 (LP 731-58) 59 M6.5V[2] 15.60[2] 17.32[2] 10h 48m 12.6s −11° 20′ 14″ 220.30(360)[6]
43 14.809(107) Gliese 674 (LHS 449) 60 M3.0V[2] 9.38[2] 11.09[2] 17h 28m 39.9s −46° 53′ 43″ 220.25(159)[6][7] has one known planet[34]
44 14.812(67) G 208-44
G 208-45

(GJ 1245)
G 208-44 A (V1581 Cyg) 61 M5.5V[2] 13.46[2] 15.17[2] 19h 53m 54.2s +44° 24′ 55″ 220.20(100)[6]
G 208-45 61 M6.0V[2] 14.01[2] 15.72[2] 19h 53m 55.2s +44° 24′ 56″
G 208-44 B 61 M5.5 16.75[2] 18.46[2] 19h 53m 54.2s +44° 24′ 55″
45 15.060(140) LP 145-141 (WD 1142-645, Gliese 440) 64 DQ6[2] 11.50[2] 13.18[2] 11h 45m 42.9s −64° 50′ 29″ 216.57(201)[6][7]
46 15.313(259) GJ 1002 65 M5.5V[2] 13.76[2] 15.40[2] 00h 06m 43.8s −07° 32′ 22″ 213.00(360)[6]
47 15.342(141) Gliese 876 (Ross 780) 66 M3.5V[2] 10.17[2] 11.81[2] 22h 53m 16.7s −14° 15′ 49″ 212.59(196)[6][7] has four known planets[35]
48 15.610(204) LHS 288 (Luyten 143-23) 67 M5.5V[2] 13.90[2] 15.51[2] 10h 44m 21.2s −61° 12′ 36″ 208.95(273)[21] [23]
49 15.832(83) Gliese 412 Gliese 412 A 68 M1.0V[2] 8.77[2] 10.34[2] 11h 05m 28.6s +43° 31′ 36″ 206.02(108)[6][7]
Gliese 412 B (WX Ursae Majoris) 68 M5.5V[2] 14.48[2] 16.05[2] 11h 05m 30.4s +43° 31′ 18″
50 15.848(52) Groombridge 1618 (Gliese 380) 70 K7.0V[2] 6.59[2] 8.16[2] 10h 11m 22.1s +49° 27′ 15″ 205.81(067)[6][7]
51 15.942(218) AD Leonis 71 M3.0V[2] 9.32[2] 10.87[2] 10h 19m 36.4s +19° 52′ 10″ 204.60(280)[6]
52 16.067[24] DENIS J081730.0-615520 72 T6 08h 17m −61° 55′ 203 [24] 2010
53 16.085(105) Gliese 832 73 M1.5 V[2] 8.66[2] 10.20[2] 21h 33m 34.0s −49° 00′ 32″ 202.78(132)[6][7] has two known planets[36][37]
54 16.197(313) DEN 0255-4700 74 L7.5V[2] 22.92[2] 24.44[2] 02h 55m 03.7s −47° 00′ 52″ 201.37(389)[21] [29]
# Distance[3]
Light-years (±err)
System Star Star # Stellar class Apparent magnitude (mV or mJ) Absolute magnitude (MV or MJ) Right ascension[2] Declination[2] Parallax[2][4]
mas(±err)
Discovery date Additional
references
Designation Epoch J2000.0

Maps of nearby stars[edit]

This map shows all of the star systems within 14 light-years of the Sun (shown as Sol), except for four brown dwarfs discovered after 2009. Double and triple stars are shown "stacked", but the true location is the star closest to the central plane. Color corresponds to the table above.
This is a 3D map of the nearest stars using the coordinates listed above. The stars in the front have a right ascension of 18h. An animated version is available here. 3d glasses red green.svg 3D red green glasses are recommended to view this image correctly.


Future and past[edit]

Distances of the nearest stars from 20,000 years ago until 80,000 years in the future

Ross 248, currently at a distance of 10.3 light-years, has a radial velocity of −81 km/s. In about 31,000 years it may be the closest star to the Sun for several millennia, with a minimum distance of 0.927 parsecs (3.02 light-years) in 36,000 years.[38] Gliese 445, currently at a distance of 17.6 light-years, has a radial velocity of −119 km/s. In about 40,000 years it will be the closest star for a period of several thousand years.[38]

Known Hipparcos stars that have passed or will pass within 5.1 light-years of the Sun within ±2 million years:[39]

Star name HIP# Minimum distance in light-years (parsecs) Approach date in kiloyears Current distance in light-years (parsecs) Stellar classification Mass in M Current apparent magnitude Constellation Right ascension Declination
Gliese 710 89825 1.01 (0.311) 1447 62.9 (19.3) K7V 0.4–0.6 9.6 Serpens 18h 19m 50.843s −01° 56′ 18.98″
Proxima Centauri 70890 2.90 (0.890) 27.4 4.24 (1.29) M5Ve 0.15 11.05 Centaurus 14h 29m 42.949s −62° 40′ 46.14″
Alpha Centauri A 71683 2.97 (0.910) 28.4 4.36 (1.338) G2V 1.100[40] −0.01 Centaurus 14h 39m 36.495s −60° 50′ 02.31″
Alpha Centauri B 71681 2.97 (0.910) 28.4 4.36 (1.338) K1V 0.907[40] 1.33 Centaurus 14h 39m 35.080s −60° 50′ 13.76″
AC+79 3888 57544 3.45 (1.059) 46.0 17.6 (5.39) M4 0.15? 10.8 Camelopardalis 11h 47m 41.377s +78° 41′ 28.18″
Barnard's Star 87937 3.74 (1.148) 9.8 5.98 (1.834) sdM4 0.144 9.54 Ophiuchus 17h 57m 48.498s +04° 41′ 36.25″
Zeta Leporis 27288 4.16 (1.275) −861 70.2 (21.5) A2Vann 2.0 3.55 Lepus 05h 46m 57.341s −14° 49′ 19.02″
Lalande 21185 54035 4.65 (1.426) 20.5 8.32 (2.55) M2V 0.39 7.52 Ursa Major 11h 03m 20.194s +35° 58′ 11.55″
Gliese 208 26335 5.01 (1.537) −500 37.1 (11.38) K7 0.47 8.9 Orion 05h 36m 30.991s +11° 19′ 40.32″

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Weaver, Harold F. (1947). "The Visibility of Stars Without Optical Aid". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 59 (350): 232–243. Bibcode:1947PASP...59..232W. doi:10.1086/125956. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx Research Consortium on Nearby Stars, GSU (2007-09-17). "The One Hundred Nearest Star Systems". RECONS. Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
  3. ^ a b From parallax.
  4. ^ a b Parallaxes given by RECONS are a weighted mean of values in the sources given, as well as measurements by the RECONS program.
  5. ^ Before 1900: earliest certain recorded observation. 1900–1930: first catalogued. After 1930: earliest trigonometric or spectroscopic parallax.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap General Catalogue of Trigonometric Parallaxes.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Hipparcos Catalogue.
  8. ^ Burgasser et al. 2000
  9. ^ a b c Visual binary orbits and masses post Hipparcos, Staffan Söderhjelm, Astronomy and Astrophysics 341 (January 1999), pp. 121–140.
  10. ^ "The exoplanet next door: Earth-sized world discovered in nearby α Centauri star system". Eric Hand, Nature, October 16, 2012. Accessed October 16, 2012.
  11. ^ Barnard, E. E. (1916). "A small star with large proper motion". Astronomical Journal 29 (695): 181. Bibcode:1916AJ.....29..181B. doi:10.1086/104156. 
  12. ^ a b c Luhman, K. L. "Discovery of a Binary Brown Dwarf at 2 Parsecs from the Sun". Astrophysical Journal Letters (to be published). 
  13. ^ http://arxiv.org/abs/1312.1303
  14. ^ Luhman, K. L. (21 April 2014). "Discovery of a ~250 K Brown Dwarf at 2 pc from the Sun". The Astrophysical Journal Letters 786 (2): L18. arXiv:1404.6501. Bibcode:2014ApJ...786L..18L. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/786/2/L18. 
  15. ^ Janson, M. et al. (September 2008), "A comprehensive examination of the ε Eridani system. Verification of a 4 micron narrow-band high-contrast imaging approach for planet searches", Astronomy and Astrophysics 488 (2): 771–780, arXiv:0807.0301, Bibcode:2008A&A...488..771J, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200809984 
  16. ^ a b c d Marsh, Kenneth A.; Wright, Edward L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Griffith, Roger L.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. (2013). "Parallaxes and Proper Motions of Ultracool Brown Dwarfs of Spectral Types Y and Late T". The Astrophysical Journal 762 (2): 119. arXiv:1211.6977. Bibcode:2013ApJ...762..119M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/762/2/119. 
  17. ^ Bessel, F. W. (1839). "Bestimmung der Entfernung des 61sten Sterns des Schwans. Von Herrn Geheimen - Rath und Ritter Bessel". Astronomische Nachrichten (in German) 16 (5-6): 65. Bibcode:1839AN.....16...65B. doi:10.1002/asna.18390160502. "(page 92) Ich bin daher der Meinung, daß nur die jährliche Parallaxe = 0"3136 als das Resultat der bisherigen Beobachtungen zu betrachten ist"  A parallax of 313.6 mas yields a distance of 10.4 light years
  18. ^ "The NASA-UC-UH Eta-Earth Program: IV. A Low-mass Planet Orbiting an M Dwarf 3.6 PC from Earth". Andrew W. Howard, Geoffrey W. Marcy, Debra A. Fischer, Howard Isaacson, Philip S. Muirhead, Gregory W. Henry, Tabetha S. Boyajian, Kaspar von Braun, Juliette C. Becker, Jason T. Wright, John Asher Johnson. Accessed August 26, 2014.
  19. ^ Zechmeister, M.; Kürster, M; Endl, M.; Lo Curto, G.; Hartman, H.; Nilsson, H.; Henning, T.; Hatzes, A.; Cochran, W. D. (April 2013). "The planet search programme at the ESO CES and HARPS. IV. The search for Jupiter analogues around solar-like stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics 552: pp62. arXiv:1211.7263. Bibcode:2013A&A...552A..78Z. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116551. 
  20. ^ a b c Chris Gelino, Davy Kirkpatrick, Adam Burgasser. "DwarfArchives.org: Photometry, spectroscopy, and astrometry of M, L, and T dwarfs". caltech.edu. Retrieved 2012-06-10.  (main page)
  21. ^ a b c d e f Systems with their first accurate trigonometric parallaxes measured by RECONS
  22. ^ The solar neighborhood IV: discovery of the twentieth nearest star, Todd J. Henry, Philip A. Ianna, J. Davy Kirkpatrick, Hartmut Jahreiss, The Astronomical Journal 114, #1 (July 1997), pp. 388–395. doi:10.1086/118482
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