List of nearest exoplanets

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Fomalhaut is a star 25 light-years away with an exoplanet (Fomalhaut b) that has been directly imaged in 2013 by NASA.

Astronomers have identified a total of 65 exoplanets within 50 light-years of the Solar System,[a] but the existence of at least another 34 unconfirmed exoplanets has been proposed. This corresponds to only 35 stars with confirmed planetary systems (and six with only unconfirmed exoplanets) of the around 1,400 stars that are estimated to be located within 50 light-years.[b][1] Of the around 133 nearby stars which are bright enough to be visible with the naked eye,[c][1] so far, only 18 have confirmed planetary systems.

Reports of planetary systems first came in 1996 for three stars located over 40 light-years away: 55 Cancri,[2] Since 1999, more planets have been reported, including a total of five planets revolving around 55 Cancri, and four planets around Gliese 876, Upsilon Andromedae. Eight star systems have three confirmed planetary partners, four other have only two planets, while the remaining 20 systems have only one confirmed planet. A total of seven planets have been suggested for Gliese 667 C (but only two have been confirmed), six around Gliese 581 and HD 40307, and a total of five planets revolving around Tau Ceti (all unconfirmed).

The closest star with a confirmed exoplanet is Gliese 674, 14.8 light-years away from our Solar System. Of the other 41 star systems that are closer, the closest, Alpha Centauri (4.1 light-years away), has been suggested to contain a planetary companion that may be similar in size to Earth.[3] Of the 35 planetary systems located within 50 light-years, 20 are located within 40 light-years, 11 are within 30 light-years, and only four are within 20 light-years.

Out of the 65 confirmed planets within 50 light-years, more than half were found to revolve around their star closer and complete an orbit faster than Mercury does around the Sun, and 18 have a more eccentric orbit than that of Mercury. Considering their minimum masses, 46 exoplanets are expected to be gas giants, and only 19 under ten times more massive than Earth. The smallest of these has minimum mass of 2.4 times that of Earth's and revolves around 82 G. Eridani, 20 light-years away. Only three exoplanets have had their radii measured from transit events with their host stars: Gliese 436 b at 0.365 RJ,[4] 55 Cancri e at 0.178 RJ[5] and GJ 1214 b at 0.238 RJ.[6]

Inclusion criteria[edit]

There is no official organization that acknowledges reports for the existence of exoplanets, but the Working Group on Extrasolar Planets of the International Astronomical Union adopted in 2003 a working definition limiting the upper masses of exoplanets below that where thermonuclear fusion of deuterium occurs. This limit is calculated to be around 13 times the mass of Jupiter, and above it, an object is classified as a brown dwarf.[7]

For the purpose of this list, an exoplanet is regarded as unconfirmed when there is only a single (primary) report which presents its discovery, but there are no follow-up papers discussing their existence. There are a few examples where the existence of an exoplanet has been discussed in multiple papers, but there exists a minority of skeptics. For example, Alpha Centauri Bb has received criticism on the methods used to propose the existence of the planet.[8] Several reports of nearby exoplanets have been made but these proposals have been widely disproven since, as was the case for Teegarden's star[9] and VB 10.[10][11]

Usually, nearby exoplanets have been discovered by measuring the changes in the radial velocity of the host star, which allows for a precise estimate of their orbital parameters, but does not allow for an estimate of their orbital inclination (i). Because of this challenge, only 17 of the 66 exoplanets have their masses measured, while for the others, only their minimum masses (Mreal*sin(i)) are known. It is generally expected that most of these masses to be close to their true masses, as there is only about 13% chance for the mass of an exoplanet to be more than double its minimum mass.[12] However, there have been a few cases where planetary candidates were suggested but later refinement showed that these were more than 13 times more massive than Jupiter, and thus are likely brown dwarfs. This has been the case for WISE 0458+6434 B,[13] WISE 1217+16A B,[14] 2M 0746+20 B,[15][16] MOA-2008-BLG-379L B,[17] SDSS 141624 B,[18] and HD 104304 B.[19]

There are known examples of potential free-floating sub-brown dwarfs, sometimes referred as "rogue planets", that are excluded from this list, such as WISE 0855–0714[20] and UGPS J072227.51-054031.2.[21]

Notable uncertainties exist for the distances measured for some stars. Because of this, some sources regard some stars as being within the 50 light-years (ly) threshold, but these stars were not included in the current list: Mu Arae (50.59 ly), 51 Pegasi (50.7 ly), Tau Boötis (50.9 ly).

List[edit]

Key to colors
° Mercury, Earth and Jupiter (for comparison purposes)
Unconfirmed exoplanets
# Confirmed multiplanetary systems
Host star system Companion exoplanet (in order from star) References
Name Distance
(ly)
Apparent
magnitude

Mass
(M)
Temperature
(K)
Age
(Gyr)
Label Mass
(MJ)
Semi-major axis
(AU)
Orbital period
(days)
Eccentricity
Inclination
(°)
Discovery year
Sun° 0 −26.74 1.000 5,780 4.57 Mercury 0.00017 0.387 87.97 0.205
Earth 0.00314 1.0 365.26 0.0167
Jupiter 1 5.204 4,332.6 0.0488
Alpha Centauri 4.36 1.33 0.934 5,210 5.0 Bb >0.00355 0.04185 3.24 ~0 2012 [22][23][24][25]
Luhman 16 6.59 23.0 ~0.04 ~1,300 <4.5 ~10 2013 [26][27]
Epsilon Eridani 10.49 3.73 0.820 5,120 0.66 b 1.55 3.38 2,500 0.25 30.1 2000 [28][29][30][31][32]
d ~20 2008 [33]
c ~0.1 ~40 ~100,000 ~0.3 2002 [34]
Groombridge 34 8.09 0.404 3,730 b ≥ 0.0168 0.0717 11.4433 - 2014 [35]
Epsilon Indi 11.81 4.83 0.762 4,630 1.3 >0.97 8.57 >10,000 2002 [32]
Tau Ceti 11.90 3.50 0.783 5,340 5.8 b >0.0063 0.105 <12.7 0.16 2012 [36][37]
c >0.0098 0.195 35.4 0.03 2012 [37][38]
d >0.0113 0.374 94.1 0.08 2012 [37][39]
e >0.0135 0.552 168 0.05 2012 [37][40][41]
f >0.0208 1.35 642 0.03 2012 [37][41][42]
Kapteyn's star 12.76 8.85 0.281 3,550 8.0 b[d] >0.015 0.168 48.6 0.21 2014 [43]
c[d] >0.022 0.311 122 0.23 2014 [44]
Gliese 687 14.77 9.15 0.431 3,400 b[d] >0.058 0.1635 38.1 0.04 2014 [45]
Gliese 674 14.81 9.36 0.354 3,610 0.55 b >0.0349 0.0387 4.69 0.20 2007 [46][47]
Gliese 876# 15.29 10.2 0.334 3,350 2.5 d 0.0215 0.0208 1.938 0.21 50 2005 [48][49]
c 0.714 0.130 30.1 0.26 48.1 2000 [49][50]
b 2.276 0.208 61.1 0.032 48.9 2000 [49][51]
e 0.046 0.334 124 0.055 59.5 2010 [49][52]
Gliese 832 16.16 8.67 0.450 3,620 c[d] >0.157 0.162 35.7 0.03 2014 [53]
b >0.689 3.6 3,420 0.08 2008 [54][55][56]
82 G. Eridani# 19.71 4.26 0.701 5,490 6.1–12.7[57][58] b >0.0085 0.1207 18.3 2011 [59][60]
c >0.0076 0.2036 40.1 2011 [59][61]
d >0.015 0.3499 90.3 2011 [59][62]
Gliese 581# 20.37 10.55 0.31 3,500 8.0 e >0.028 0.028 3.15 0.32 2009 [63][64]
b >0.05 0.041 5.37 0.031 2005 [63][65]
c >0.017 0.073 12.9 0.07 2007 [63][66]
g >0.01 0.146 36.7 2010 [67]
d >0.019 0.22 66.6 0.21 2007 [63][68]
f >0.023 0.758 430 2010 [69]
Gliese 667# 23.60 10.22 0.33 3,600 >2.0 Cb >0.0178 0.050 7.20 0.122 2009 [70][71][72]
Ch >0.0035 0.0893 17.0 0.06 2013 [70][71][73]
Cc >0.0117 0.125 28.1 0.133 2011 [70][71][74]
Cf >0.0085 0.156 39.0 0.03 2013 [70][71][75]
Ce >0.0085 0.213 62.2 0.02 2013 [70][71][76]
Cd >0.0218 0.304 106 0.68 2012 [70][71][77]
Cg >0.0145 0.549 256 0.08 2013 [70][71][78]
Fomalhaut 25.13 1.16 1.920 8,590 0.55 b >3.0 115 ~620,000 0.11 2008 [79][80]
61 Virginis# 27.90 4.74 0.942 5,530 8.96 b >0.016 0.0502 4.22 0.12 2009 [81][82]
c >0.0573 0.2175 38.0 0.14 2009 [81][82]
d >0.072 0.476 123 0.35 2009 [81][82]
HD 192310# 28.78 6.13 0.778 5,140 7.8 b >0.053 0.32 74.7 0.13 2010 [83][84]
c >0.075 1.18 526 0.32 2011 [85]
Gliese 433# 28.97 9.79 0.48 3,550 b >0.0182 0.058 7.37 0.08 2009 [86][87]
c >0.14 3.6 3,700 0.17 2012 [88]
Gliese 849 29.67 10.42 0.490 3,600 b >0.9 2.35 1,910 0.012 2006 [89][90]
c[d] >0.77 ~5 7,050 0.218 2013 [91]
HD 102365 30.08 4.89 0.890 5,650 9.0 b >0.05 0.46 122 0.34 2011 [92][93]
Gliese 176 30.25 9.96 0.490 3,350 b >0.0265 0.066 8.78 2007 [94][95]
c >0.044 0.18 40 2009 [96]
Gliese 436 33.08 10.68 0.452 3,350 6.0 UCF-1.01 0.0009 0.0185 1.37 86.7 2012 [97][98]
b 0.0724 0.0288 2.64 0.15 85.8 2004 [4][97]
UCF-1.02 >0.00085 2012 [97][99]
Gliese 649# 33.74 9.62 0.542 3,700 c >0.03 0.043 4.48 0.2 2013 [100][101]
b >0.328 1.135 598 0.3 2009 [100][102]
Pollux 33.79 1.15 2.080 4,670 0.72 b >2.9 1.69 589 0.02 2006 [103][104]
Gliese 86 35.17 6.17 0.796 5,350 2.03 b >4.0 0.11 15.8 0.046 2000 [105][106]
HIP 57050 35.88 11.9 0.340 3,190 b >0.298 0.1635 41.4 0.31 2010 [107][108]
54 Piscium 36.07 5.8 0.882 5,220 5.1 Ac[d] >0.09 0.186 31.0 0.04 2013 [109][110]
Ab 0.23 0.284 62.2 0.63 83 2003 [109][111]
HD 85512 36.37 7.67 0.687 4,720 5.6 b >0.011 0.26 58.4 0.11 2011 [112][113]
Gliese 179 40.1 11.96 0.357 3,370 b >0.82 2.41 2,290 0.21 2010 [114][115]
55 Cancri# 40.25 5.95 0.905 5,200 10.2 e 0.0262 0.0156 0.737 <0.06 81 2004 [5]
b >0.8 0.1134 14.7 0.016 1996 [116][117]
c >0.169 0.240 44.3 0.053 2002 [118]
f >0.144 0.781 261 0.0002 2007 [119]
d 4.80 5.76 5,200 0.03 53 2002 [120]
HD 69830# 40.75 5.95 0.849 5,360 7.0 b 0.13 0.0785 8.67 0.1 13 2006 [121][122]
c 0.17 0.186 31.6 0.13 13 2006 [121][123]
d 0.26 0.63 197 0.07 13 2006 [121][124]
HD 147513 41.68 5.38 1.072 5,930 0.65 b >1.21 1.32 528 0.26 2003 [125][126]
GJ 1214 42.25 14.71 0.157 3,030 6.0 b 0.0203 0.0143 1.580 0.27 88.67 2009 [6][127]
HD 40307# 42.39 7.2 0.740 4,980 1.2 b >0.0126 0.0468 4.31 0.2 2008 [128][129]
c >0.0208 0.0799 9.62 0.06 2008 [128][130]
d >0.0299 0.1321 20.4 0.07 2008 [128][131]
e >0.011 0.1886 34.6 0.15 2012 [128][132]
f >0.0164 0.247 51.8 0.02 2012 [128][133]
g >0.0223 0.6 198 0.29 2012 [128][134]
Upsilon Andromedae# 44.00 4.09 1.310 6,210 3.8 b 0.62–1.24 0.059 4.62 0.013 >30 1996 [135][136]
c ~14 0.861 238 0.24 8 1999 [30][135][137]
d 10.19 2.55 1,300 0.27 24 1999 [30][135][138]
e >1.059 5.25 3,850 0.0054 2010 [135][139]
47 Ursae Majoris# 45.87 5.10 1.063 5,880 7.4 b 2.53–7 2.1 1,078 0.032 1996 [140][141]
c >0.54 3.6 2,390 0.098 2001 [140][142]
d >1.64 11.6 14,000 0.16 2010 [140][143]
Gamma Cephei 46.00 3.23 1.26 4,760 6.6 Ab 1.85–19 2.05 903 0.049 5.7 2003 [144][145]
HIP 79431 46.96 11.34 0.491 3,190 b >2.1 0.36 112 0.29 2010 [146][147]
Nu2 Lupi# 48.27 5.65 0.91 5,660 10.4 b >0.0166 0.0933 11.6 0.18 2011 [148]
c >0.0358 0.1665 27.6 0.16 2011 [149]
d >0.03 0.411 107 0.43 2011 [150]
Gliese 163# 48.92 11.3 0.40 3,500 3.0 b >0.0334 0.0607 8.63 0.0106 2012 [151][152]
e >0.012 0.10 19.5 0.32 2013 [153]
c >0.0228 0.1254 25.6 0.094 2013 [151][154]
f >0.023 0.33 108 0.41 2013 [153]
d >0.0695 1.027 601 0.40 2012 [151][155]
HD 176051 48.89 5.22 0.71 6,000 8.1 Bb >1.5 1.76 1,020 2010 [156]
Gliese 317 49.2 12.0 0.42 3,510 b 1.8–3.6 1.15 692 0.11 >25 2007 [157][158][159]
c >2.0 ~30 >10,000 0.81 2007 [160]
HD 38858 49.6 5.97 0.886 5,660 6.2 b >0.0961 1.038 407 0.27 2011 [161]

Statistics[edit]

Planetary systems[edit]

Systems by planet count
Confirmed
exoplanets
No. of
systems
Systems
5 1 55 Cancri
4 2 Gliese 876, Upsilon Andromedae
3 8 82 G. Eridani, Gliese 581, 61 Virginis, HD 69830, HD 40307, 47 Ursae Majoris, Nu2 Lupi, Gliese 163
2 4 Gliese 667, HD 192310, Gliese 433, Gliese 649
1 20
Total 35
0 7
Systems by distance
Distance Confirmed
systems
Unconfirmed
systems
< 10 light-years 0 2
10–20 light-years 4 5
20–30 light-years 7 0
30–40 light-years 9 0
40–50 light-years 15 0
Systems visible with the naked eye[162]
Visible host star? Confirmed
systems
Unconfirmed
systems
Yes (V < 6.5) 18 4
No (V > 6.5) 17 3

Exoplanets[edit]

Exoplanets by mass
Mass range[163] Confirmed Unconfirmed
Sub-Earth-mass <0.0015 MJ (<0.5 ME) 0 2
Earth-mass 0.0015–0.006 MJ (0.5–2 ME) 0 2
Super-Earth-mass 0.006–0.03 MJ (2–10 ME) 19 20
Neptune-mass 0.03–0.15 MJ (10–50 ME) 18 4
Jupiter-mass 0.15–1.8 MJ (50–600 ME) 17 3
Super-Jupiter-mass >1.8 MJ (>600 ME) 11 2
Total 65 33
Exoplanets by orbital radius
Orbital radius Confirmed Unconfirmed Notes
< 0.4 AU 39 21 Mercury orbits at 0.39 AU
0.4–1.0 AU 6 4 Earth orbits at 1.0 AU
1.0–5.0 AU 16 3
>5.0 AU 4 4 Jupiter orbits at 5.2 AU
Exoplanets by orbital period
Orbital period Confirmed Unconfirmed Notes
< 90 days 36 17 Mercury takes 88 days
90–365 days 9 7
1–12 years 17 3 Jupiter takes 11.9 years
>12 years 3 4
Exoplanets by orbital eccentricity
Orbital eccentricity Confirmed Unconfirmed Notes
< 0.02 6 1 Earth's is 0.0167
0.02–0.20 36 14
> 0.20 18 11 Mercury's is 0.205
Exoplanets by discovery year
Year Confirmed Unconfirmed
1996 3 0
1999 2 0
2000 3 1
2001 1 0
2002 2 2
2003 3 0
2004 2 0
2005 2 0
2006 5 0
2007 5 2
2008 5 1
2009 8 1
2010 8 2
2011 11 0
2012 3 12
2013 2 9
2014 0 4
Total 65 34

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Current list is compiled from the following databases:
    "The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia". 
    "Exoplanets Data Explorer". 
    "Open Exoplanet Catalogue". 
    "NASA Exoplanet Archive". 
  2. ^ For reference, the 99th and 100th closest known star systems as of 2012, HR 8832 and LHS 3003 (Proxima Hydrae), are about 21 light-years away from the Solar System.[164]
  3. ^ According to the Bortle scale, an astronomical object visible to the naked eye under "typical" dark-sky conditions in a rural area if it has an apparent magnitude smaller than +6.5. To the unaided eye, the limiting magnitude is +7.6 to +8.0 under "excellent" dark-sky conditions (with effort).[162]
  4. ^ This recently-discovered exoplanet is regarded as unconfirmed as there is only a single (primary) report discussing its existence.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Powell, Richard (2006). "Stars within 50 light years". An Atlas of the Universe. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  2. ^ Butler, R. Paul; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Williams, Eric; Hauser, Heather; Shirts, Phil (1997). "Three New 51 Pegasi Type Planets". The Astrophysical Journal Letters 474 (2): L115–L118. Bibcode:1997ApJ...474L.115B. doi:10.1086/310444.  edit
  3. ^ Dumusque, X.; Pepe, F.; Lovis, C.; Ségransan, D.; Sahlmann, J.; Benz, W.; Bouchy, F. O.; Mayor, M.; Queloz, D.; Santos, N.; Udry, S. P. (2012). "An Earth-mass planet orbiting α Centauri B". Nature 491 (7423): 207–211. doi:10.1038/nature11572. PMID 23075844.  edit
  4. ^ a b "GJ 436 b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  5. ^ a b "55 Cnc e". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  6. ^ a b "GJ 1214 b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  7. ^ Boss, Alan P.; Butler, R. Paul; Hubbard, William B.; Ianna, Philip A.; Kürster, Martin; Lissauer, Jack J.; Mayor, Michel; Meech, Karen J.; Mignard, Francois; Penny, Alan J.; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Tarter, Jill C.; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred (2007). "Working Group on Extrasolar Planets". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 1 (T26A): 183. Bibcode:2007IAUTA..26..183B. doi:10.1017/S1743921306004509. ISSN 1743-9213.  edit
  8. ^ Carlisle, Camille (2012-10-18). "Planet Found in Alpha Centauri System". Sky and Telescope. Retrieved 2012-10-18. 
  9. ^ Barnes, J.R.; Jenkins, J. S.; Jones, H. R. A.; Rojo, P.; Arriagada, P. et al. (July 2012). "ROPS: A New Search for Habitable Earths in the Southern Sky". The Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 424 (1): 591–604. arXiv:1204.6283. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.424..591B. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21236.x.  edit
  10. ^ Pravdo, Steven H.; Shaklan, Stuart B. (2009). "An ultracool Star's Candidate Planet". The Astrophysical Journal (IOPscience) 700 (1): 623–632. arXiv:0906.0544. Bibcode:2009ApJ...700..623P. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/700/1/623.  edit
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  12. ^ Cumming, Andrew; Butler, R. Paul; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Vogt, Steven S.; Wright, Jason T. et al. (2008). "The Keck Planet Search: Detectability and the Minimum Mass and Orbital Period Distribution of Extrasolar Planets". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 120 (867): 531–554. arXiv:0803.3357. Bibcode:2008PASP..120..531C. doi:10.1086/588487.  edit
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  14. ^ "WISE 1217+16A b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  15. ^ "2M 0746+20 b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. 2012-01-20. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  16. ^ "2M 0746+20". Open Exoplanet Catalogue. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  17. ^ "MOA-2008-BLG-379L". Open Exoplanet Catalogue. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  18. ^ "SDSS 141624 b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. 2010-01-18. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
  19. ^ "HD 104304 b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. 2010-05-05. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
  20. ^ Clavin, Whitney; Harrington, J. D. (2014-04-25). "NASA's Spitzer and WISE Telescopes Find Close, Cold Neighbor of Sun". NASA.gov. Archived from the original on 2014-04-25. 
  21. ^ Lucas, P. W.; Tinney, C. G.; Burningham, B.; Leggett, S. K.; Pinfield, D. J. et al. (2010). "The discovery of a very cool, very nearby brown dwarf in the Galactic plane". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 408 (1): L56–L60. arXiv:1004.0317. Bibcode:2010MNRAS.408L..56L. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3933.2010.00927.x.  edit
  22. ^ "alpha Cen B b". Exoplanets Data Explorer. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  23. ^ "alf Cen B b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. 2011-05-27. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  24. ^ Star's age taken from: Bazot, M.; Bourguignon, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Bourguignon; Christensen-Dalsgaard (2012). "A Bayesian approach to the modelling of alpha Cen A". MNRAS 427 (3): 1847. arXiv:1209.0222. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.427.1847B. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21818.x.  edit
  25. ^ Hatzes, Artie P. (2013). "The Radial Velocity Detection of Earth-mass Planets in the Presence of Activity Noise: The Case of α Centauri Bb". The Astrophysical Journal 770 (2): article id. 133. arXiv:1305.4960. Bibcode:2013ApJ...770..133H. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/770/2/133.  edit
  26. ^ Luhman, K. L. (2013). "Discovery of a Binary Brown Dwarf at 2 Parsecs from the Sun". arXiv:1303.2401 [astro-ph.GA].
  27. ^ "LUH (AB) b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. 2013-12-05. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
  28. ^ "epsilon Eri b". Exoplanets Data Explorer. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  29. ^ "eps Eridani b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  30. ^ a b c Reffert, S.; Quirrenbach, A. (2011-02-11). "Mass constraints on substellar companion candidates from the re-reduced Hipparcos intermediate astrometric data: nine confirmed planets and two confirmed brown dwarfs". Astronomy and Astrophysics (edp Sciences) 527: A140. arXiv:1101.2227. Bibcode:2011A&A...527A.140R. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201015861.  edit
  31. ^ Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Butler, R. Paul (2012). "The HARPS-TERRA Project. I. Description of the Algorithms, Performance, and New Measurements on a Few Remarkable Stars Observed by HARPS". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement 200 (2): 15. arXiv:1202.2570. Bibcode:2012ApJS..200...15A. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/200/2/15.  edit
  32. ^ a b Zechmeister, M.; Kürster, M.; Endl, M.; Lo Curto, G.; Hartman, H.; Nilsson, H.; Henning, T.; Hatzes, A. P.; Cochran, W. D. (2013). "The planet search programme at the ESO CES and HARPS. IV. The search for Jupiter analogues around solar-like stars". Astronomy & Astrophysics 552: id.A78. arXiv:1211.7263. Bibcode:2013A&A...552A..78Z. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116551.  edit
  33. ^ Backman, D.; Marengo, M.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Su, K. et al. (2009). "Epsilon Eridani's Planetary Debris Disk: Structure and Dynamics based on Spitzer and CSO Observations". Astrophysical Journal 690 (2): 1522–1538. arXiv:0810.4564. Bibcode:2009ApJ...690.1522B. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/690/2/1522.  edit
  34. ^ Quillen, A. C. and Thorndike, S. (2002). "Structure in the ε Eridani Dusty Disk Caused by Mean Motion Resonances with a 0.3 Eccentricity Planet at Periastron". The Astrophysical Journal 578 (2): L149–L152. arXiv:astro-ph/0208279. Bibcode:2002ApJ...578L.149Q. doi:10.1086/344708.  edit
  35. ^ http://arxiv.org/abs/1408.5645
  36. ^ "tau Cet b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. 2012-12-19. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
  37. ^ a b c d e Open Exoplanet Catalogue. "tau Ceti". Open Exoplanet Catalogue. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  38. ^ "tau Cet c". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Exoplanet.eu. 2012-12-19. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
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External links[edit]