List of new religious movements

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A new religious movement (NRM) is a comprehensive term used to identify religious, ethical, and spiritual groups, communities and practices of relatively modern origins. NRMs may be novel in origin or they may exist on the fringes of a wider religion, in which case they will be distinct from pre-existing denominations. Scholars studying the sociology of religion have almost unanimously adopted this term as a neutral alternative to the word cult, which is often considered derogatory.[citation needed] Academics identify a variety of characteristics which they employ in categorizing groups as new religious movements. The term is broad and inclusive, rather than sharply defined. New religious movements are generally seen as syncretic, employing human and material assets to disseminate their ideas and worldviews, deviating in some degree from a society's traditional forms or doctrines, focused especially upon the self and having a peripheral relationship that exists in a state of tension with established societal conventions.[1]:29[2]:107[3]:206

A NRM may be one of a wide range of movements ranging from those with loose affiliations based on novel approaches to spirituality or religion to communitarian enterprises that demand a considerable amount of group conformity and a social identity that separates their adherents from mainstream society. Use of the term NRM is not universally accepted among the groups to which it is applied.[4] Scholars have estimated that NRMs now number in the tens of thousands world-wide, with most in Asia and Africa. Most have only a few members, some have thousands, and very few have more than a million.[5]:17 Academics occasionally propose amendments to technical definitions and continue to add new groups.[1]:vii–xv

List[edit]

List of new religious movements
Name Founder Year founded Type
3HO[6]:131 Harbhajan Singh Yogi[7]:162 1969[7]:162 Sikhism[7]:162
Adidam, previously Free Daist Avabhasan Communion, Free Daist Communion, Crazy Wisdom Fellowship, Johannine Daist Community, Laughing Man Institute, Dawn Horse Communion, Free Primitive Church of Divine Communion, Free Communion Church, Dawn Horse Fellowship[7]:146[8]:25–28 Adi Da[7]:146 1972[7]:146 Hindu-inspired[7]:146
Adonai-Shomo[8]:28 Frederick T. Howland[9]:707 1861[9]:707 Adventist Communal[9]:707
Adonism[10] Franz Sättler[10] 1925[10] Neopagan[10]
Adventures in Enlightenment, A Foundation[8]:28–29 Terry Cole-Whittaker 1985 Religious Science
Aetherius Society[7]:3[8]:29–31[11]:25–26 George King[7]:3 1954[7]:3 UFO-Christian[7]:3
African Church Incorporated[11]:26 Jacob Kehinde Coker[12] 1901[12] Anglican Communion
African Independent Churches, also known as African Initiated Churches[11]:26–27 Multiple Christianity; Indigenous
African Theological Archministry, previously Order of Damballah Hwedo Ancestor Priests, Shango Temple, and Yoruba Temple[8]:31 Walter Eugene King[9]:934 1973[9]:934 Voodoo[9]:934
Agasha Temple of Wisdom[8]:32 Richard Zenor[9]:764 1943[9]:764 Spiritualism[9]:764
Agni Yoga Society[6]:6[8]:32 Nicholas Roerich[9]:876 mid-1920s[9]:876 Theosophical[9]:876
Ahmadiyya Movement[6]:6[8]:32–33[11]:27–28 Mirza Ghulam Ahmad[9]:985 1889[9]:985 Islam[9]:985
Aladura[6]:7[11]:28–29 Josiah Ositelu[9] 1930[9]:517 Pentecostal[9]:517
Alamo Christian Foundation, also known as Alamo Christian Church, Consecrated, Alamo Christian Ministries, and Music Square Church[6]:7[8]:33–34[11]:29 Tony Alamo; Susan Alamo[7]:13 1969[7]:13 Fundamentalist; Communal[7]:13
Altruria[8]:34–35 Edward Biron Payne[9]:707 1894[9]:707 Christian Socialist Communal[9]:707
American Buddhist Movement[8]:35–36 1980[9]:1116 Western Buddhism[9]:1116
American Buddhist Society and Fellowship, Inc.[8]:36 Robert Ernest Dickhoff[9]:1102 1945[9]:1102 Tibetan Buddhism[9]:1102
American World Patriarchs[8]:37–38 Uladyslau Ryzy-Ryski[9]:309 1972[9]:309 Eastern Liturgy[9]:309
Amica Temple of Radiance[8]:38 Ivah Berg Whitten[9]:876 1932[9]:876 Theosophical[9]:876
Ananda Marga[6]:11[8]:41[11]:30–31[13]:370 Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar[9]:1001 1955[9]:1001 Hinduism[9]:1001
Ancient British Church in North America[8]:43 Jonathan V. Zotique[9]:1142 Homosexually Oriented[9]:1142
Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis[6]:11[8]:42–43[11]:31 H. Spencer Lewis[9]:841 1915[9]:841 Rosicrucianism[9]:841
Ancient Teachings of the Masters, also known as ATOM[8]:43 Darwin Gross[9]:1054 1983[9]:1054 Sant Mat[9]:1054
Anglo-Saxon Federation of America[6]:13[8]:43–44 Howard B. Rand[9]:651 1928[9]:651 British Israelism[9]:651
Ansaaru Allah Community[8]:44 As Siddid Al Imaan Al Haahi Al Mahdi[9]:986–987 late 1960s[9]:986–987" Black Islam[9]:986–987
Anthroposophy[6]:13[8]:44–47[11]:33–34 Rudolf Steiner[7]:20 1912[7]:20 Western Occultist[7]:20
Antiochian Catholic Church in America[8]:47 Gordon Mar Peter[9]:241 1980s[9]:241 Independent Catholic, Monophysite[9]:241
Antoinism[6] Louis-Joseph Antoine[6] 1910[6] Healing, Christian[6]
Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean)[8]:47–48 Samuel Heinrich Froehlich[9]:548 1906[9]:548 European Free-Church[9]:548
Apostolic Christian Church of America[8]:47–48 Samuel Heinrich Froehlich[9]:548 1830[9]:548 European Free-Church[9]:548
Apostolic Church[6]:15 Daniel Powell Williams[7]:23 1916[7]:23 Pentecostal[7]:23
Apostolic Church of Christ (Pentecostal)[8]:48 Johnnie Draft; Wallace Snow[9]:464 1969[9]:464 Apostolic Pentecostal[9]:464
Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God[6]:16 William Thomas Phillips[9]:465 1920[9]:465 Apostolic Pentecostal[9]:465
Arcane School[11]:38 Alice and Foster Bailey[9]:857 1937[9]:857 Alice Bailey Groups[9]:857
Arica School[6]:17[11]:38–39 Oscar Ichazo[9]:971 1968[9]:971 Sufism[9]:971
Art of Living Foundation, also known as Association for Inner Growth and Ved Vignan Maha Vidya Preeth[9]:1004 Sri Sri Ravi Shankar[9]:1004 1981[9]:1004 Hinduism[9]:1004
Arya Samaj[6]:18[11]:40–41 Mul Shankara[9]:1004 1875[9]:1004 Hinduism[9]:1004
Aryan Nations, also known as Church of Jesus Christ Christian, Aryan Nations[11]:91 Wesley Swift[9]:654 late 1940s[9]:654 British Israelism[9]:654
Ásatrú[14] Stephen McNallen[14] 1970s[14] Neo-pagan[14]
Assemblies of God[11]:41–42 merger[15]:106 1914[15]:106 Pentecostalism[15]:106
Assemblies of the Lord Jesus Christ[6]:18 merger[9]:466 1952[9]:466 Apostolic Pentecostal[9]:466
Assemblies of Yahweh[6]:19[11]:42 C.O. Dodd[9]:462 1937[9]:462 Adventist; Sacred Name[9]:462
Assembly of Christian Soldiers[6]:21 Jessie L. Thrift[9]:1131 1971[9]:1131 Unclassified, Ku Klux Klan-based[9]:1131
Assembly of Yahweh[6]:19[11]:42 Lorenzo Dow Snow
E. B. Adam[7]:30
1949[7]:30 Adventist[7]:30
Association for Research and Enlightenment[6]:21[11]:42–43 Edgar Cayce[7]:31 1931[7]:31 Occultist[7]:31
Association of Vineyard Churches[6]:316 John Wimber[9]:446 1982[9]:446 White Trinitarian Pentecostals[9]:446
Aum Shinrikyo, also known as Aleph[6]:23[11]:44–45[16][17] Shoko Asahara[9]:1073 1987[9]:1073 Japanese Buddhism[9]:1073
Ausar Auset Society[6]:24 R.A. Straughn[9]:842 mid-1970s[9]:842 Rosicrucianism[9]:842
Babism[18] Báb[18] 1844[18] Islam[18]
Bahá'í Faith[6]:25–26[11]:48–49 Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Nuri[9]:992 1863[9]:992 Middle Eastern, Baha'i[9]:992
Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship[11]:50–51 Bawa Muhaiyaddeen[9]:972 1971[9]:972 Sufism[9]:972
Bethel Ministerial Association[6]:32 Albert Franklin Varnell[9]:466 1934[9]:466 Apostolic Pentecostal[9]:466
Bible Presbyterian Church[6]:33 Carl McIntire[9]:370 1938[9]:370 Reformed Presbyterian[9]:370
Bible Way Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ[6]:34[8]:77 schism[9]:466 1957[9]:466 Apostolic Pentecostal[9]:466
The Blackburn Cult, also known as the Divine Order of the Royal Arms of the Great Eleven[19]:35 May Otis Blackburn[19]:1 1922[19]:1 Neopaganism and New Thought[19]:1
Brahma Kumaris[6]:37[11]:56–57[20] Dada Lekhraj[9]:1006 1936[9]:1006 Hinduism[9]:1006
Branch Davidian[6]:38[11]:59 Victor T. Houteff[9]:617 1930[9]:617 Seventh Day Adventist[9]:617
Branhamism[21]:37–40 William M. Branham[21]:37–40 1951[21]:37–40 Oneness Pentecostal[21]:37–40
Breatharians also known as Inedia[11]:60–61 Wiley Brooks[22]:30 1970s[22]:30 Hinduism-influenced[22]:30
The Brethren (Jim Roberts group), also known as The Body of Christ and The Garbage Eaters[9]:1131–1132 Jimmie T. Roberts[9]:1131–1132 c. 1970[9]:1131–1132 Unclassified Christian Churches[9]:1131–1132
British Israelism, also called Anglo-Israelism[6]:39–40[11]:61–62
Bruderhof, also known as the Hutterian Brethren and Hutterian Society of Brothers[11]:63–64 Eberhard Arnold[9]:709 c. 1920[9]:709 Communal[9]:709
Brunstad Christian Church[6]:269–270
Builders of the Adytum[6]:41–42[11]:67–68 Paul Foster Case[9]:891 1922[9]:891 Ritual magic[9]:891
Candomblé[6]:43–44[11]:68–69 19th century[7]:61 Syncretistic; Neo-African; Divination[7]:61
Cao Dai, also known as Dai Dao Tam Ky Pho Do[6]:44[11]:69–70 Ngô Văn Chiêu; Lê Văn Trung[7]:61 1919[7]:61 Syncretistic; Vietnamese Millenarian[7]:61
Cargo cults[6]:45[11]:70 Syncretistic; Nativist[7]:62
CAUSA International[11]:72 Sun Myung Moon[9]:837–838 1970[9]:837–838 Unification Church[9]:837–838
Celestial Church of Christ[11]:73 Samuel Oshoffa[7]:64 1947[7]:64 Nativist Christian Pentecostal[7]:64
The Centers Network[11]:73–74
Chabad-Lubavitch[6]:206,368[11]:70 Shneur Zalman of Liadi. late 18th century Chasidic movement in Orthodox Judaism.
Charismatic Movement[11]:78 1950s[21]:70
Chen Tao, also called God's Salvation Church and God Saves the Earth Flying Saucer Foundation[11]:78–79
Cheondoism, also called Chendogyo[11]:80–81
Cherubim and Seraphim, also known as Sacred Cherubim and Seraphim Society and Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim[11]:79 Moses Orimolade Tunolase[7]:65 c. 1925[7]:65 African Pentecostal[7]:65
Christ Apostolic Church[11]:82–83 T. O. Obadare[9]:479 1941[9]:479 Pentecostal[9]:479
Christadelphians, also called Thomasites[6]:50[11]:81–82 John Thomas[21]:48 1844[9]:107 Baptist family[9]:107
The Christian Community, also known as the Christian Community Church and Christengemeinschaft[11]:83 Rudolf Steiner
Friedrich Rittelmeyer[7]:70
1922[7]:70 Anthroposophy[7]:70
Christian Identity[6]:138[11]:84 1982[9]:652 British Israelism[9]:652
Christian Reformed Church in North America[11]:86 Gijsbert Haan[9]:365 1857[9]:365 Reformed Presbyterian[9]:365
Christian Science[6]:54[11]:86–87. Mary Baker Eddy[9]:741 1876[9]:741 Christian Science-Metaphysical;[9]:741 New Thought[23]
Christian World Liberation Front, also known as the Spiritual Counterfeits Project[11]:87–88 Jack Sparks; Fred Dyson; Pat Matrisciana[7]:76 1969[7]:76 Christian Fundamentalist-Millenarian[7]:76
Church of All Worlds[6]:58[11]:88–89 Tim Zell; Lance Christie[9]:909 1962[9]:909 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[9]:909
Church of Aphrodite[6]:58 Gleb Botkin[9]:911 1939[9]:911 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[9]:911
Church of Bible Understanding[6]:59[11]:89–90 Stewart Traill[7]:79 1971[7]:79 Adventist; Fundamentalist[7]:79
Church of Daniel's Band[6]:61 1893[9]:395 Non-Episcopal Methodism[9]:395
Church of God in Christ[6]:62 Charles H. Mason[7]:85 1908[7]:85 Pentecostal[7]:85
Church of God in Christ, Mennonite[6]:62[9]:530 John Holdeman[9]:530 c. 1870[9]:530 German Mennonite[9]:530
The Church of God (Jerusalem Acres)[6]:62 Grady R. Kent[9]:437 1957[9]:437 White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[9]:437
Church of God Mountain Assembly[6]:63, 65 J.H. Parks, Steve N. Bryant, Tom Moses, William O. Douglas 1906[9]:437 White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[9]:437
Church of God of Prophecy[6]:62–63 Ambrose Tomlinson[9]:438 1903[9]:438 White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[9]:438
Church of God with Signs Following[24]:300–301 George Went Hensley[9]:489 1920s[9]:489 Holiness Pentecostal[9]:489
Church of Israel[6]:65 Dan Gayman[9]:653 1974[9]:653 British Israelism[9]:653
The Church of Light[25]:210–211[26]:105–106 C.C. Zain[25]:210–211[26]:105–106 1932[25]:210–211[26]:105–106 Hermetism[25]:210–211[26]:105–106
Church of Satan[11]:91–92 Anton LaVey[27]:508–509 1966[27]:508–509 Satanism[27]:508–509
Church of the Creator[9]:668 Ben Klassen 1973 Liberal family[9]:668
Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster[28][29] or Pastafarianism Bobby Henderson 2005
Church of the Living Word, also known as The Walk[11]:92–93 John Robert Stevens[7]:386 1954[7]:386 Fundamentalist; Occultist[7]:386
Church of the Lord (Aladura)[11]:93 Josiah Ositelu[9]:517 1930[9]:517 Pentecostal Family[9]:517
Church of World Messianity[6]:94, 371[11]:94 Mokichi Okada[9]:1120 1934[9]:1120 Shintoism[9]:1120
Church Universal and Triumphant[6]:281[11]:94–95 Mark Prophet; Elizabeth Clare (Wolf) Prophet[7]:97 1958[7]:97 Theosophical; Occultist[7]:97
Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles, also known as CARP[11]:71 Sun Myung Moon[30][30] 1955[30] Unification Church[30]
Commandment Keepers: Holy Church of the Living God[6]:74[8]:180 Arnold Josiah Ford[9]:951 1924[9]:951 Black Judaism[9]:951
Community Chapel and Bible Training Center[6]:75 Donald Lee Barnett[9]:496 1967[9]:496 Latter Rain Pentecostal[9]:496
Concerned Christians[11]:96
Conservative Judaism[6]:76[11]:97 Sabato Morais, Marcus Jastrow, H. Pereira Mendes[9]:943 1887[9]:943 Mainline Judaism[9]:943
A Course in Miracles[6]:1[11]:98 Helen Schucman
William Thetford[7]:104
1975[7]:104 New Thought[7]:104
Covenant of the Goddess[6]:98[11]:48–49 merger[9]:915 1975[9]:915 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[9]:915
Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans[6]:99[11]:99 Margot Adler[9]:915 1987[9]:915 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[9]:915
The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord[6]:78[11]:99–100 James D. Ellison[9]:654 mid-1970s[9]:654 British Israelism[9]:654
Creativity[31] Ben Klassen[31] early-1970's Pantheism and Agnostic Atheism and White Racialism.[31]
Crossroads Movement[11]:100 1970s[24]:100
Cyberchurches[11]:103
Dalit Buddhist movement[32] Bhimrao Ramji Sakpal[32] 1956[32] Buddhism[32]
Dances of Universal Peace[33]
Dianic Wicca[6]:84 merger[9]:916 1971[9]:916 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[9]:916
Eckankar[6]:91 Paul Twitchell[9]:1056 1971[9]:1056 Sant Mat[9]:1056
Elan Vital (formerly Divine Light Mission)[6]:85–86[20]:126[34]:156 Shri Hans Ji Maharaj[9]:1055 1920s[9]:1055 Sant Mat[9]:1055
Esoteric Nazism[35]
est (Erhard Seminars Training)[1]:44[20]:126–127[36] Werner Erhard[37]:193 1971[21]:108[38]:167,171–172 Human Potential Movement,[5]:35[21]:107–108[39] Self religions[40]
Evangelical Methodist Church[6]:97 J.H. Hamblen[9]:396 1946[9]:396 Non-Episcopal Methodist[9]:396
Family Federation for World Peace and Unification[41] Sun Myung Moon[41] 1994[41] Unification Church[41]
Falun Gong[42] Li Hongzhi[9]:1126 1992[9]:1126
Family International, previously known as the Children of God, the Family of Love and the Family[7]:133[20]:126[43] David Berg[7]:133 1968[7]:133 Fundamentalist,[7]:133 Jesus movement offshoot,[43] with countercultural and Evangelical beliefs[27]:185
Fellowship of Isis[6]:103 Olivia Robertson[9]:888 1976[9]:888 Spiritual organization[9]:888
Feraferia[44] Frederick Adams[44] 1967[44] Neopagan, Goddess[44]
Findhorn Foundation[6]:104 Eileen Caddy; Peter Caddy; Alexis Edwards; Roger Benson[7]:138 1963[7]:138 Christian-Anthroposophistical-Rosicrucian[7]:138
Fire Baptized Holiness Church of God of the Americas[6]:104 W.E. Fuller[9]:482 1898[9]:482 Black Trinitarian Pentecostal[9]:482
Followers of Christ[9]:1137 Marion Reece (or Riess)[9]:1137[45] late 19th century[9]:1137 Unclassified[9]:1137 Pentecostal [45]
Foundation for A Course In Miracles[46] Kenneth and Gloria Wapnick[9]:751 1983[9]:751 Christian Science-Metaphysical; New Thought[9]:751
Fraternitas Rosae Crucis[6]:108 Paschal Beverly Randolph[9]:843 1858[9]:843 Rosicrucianism[9]:843
Freedomites[6]:272
Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO)[47] Sangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood) 1967[47] Buddhism
Fundamentalist Christianity[6]:113–114
General Church of the New Jerusalem[6]:117 schism[9]:763 1890[9]:763 Swedenborgianism[9]:763
Ghost Dance[6]:119
Global Peace Foundation[48] Hyun Jin Moon[49] 2007[48] Unification Church[48]
Grail Movement[6]:122–123 Oskar Ernst Bernhardt[9]:786 1924[9]:786 Spiritualist, Psychic and New Age; Channeling[9]:786
Hanuman Foundation[6]:129 Richard Alpert (Ram Dass)[21]:51 1980[9]:1013 Hinduism[9]:1013
Heaven's Gate[50] Marshall Herff Applewhite; Bonnie Lu Nettles[50] 1973[50] New Age, UFO[50]
Himalayan Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy[6]:133 Swami Rama[9]:1014 1971[9]:1014 Hinduism[9]:1014
I AM Activity[6]:138 Guy Ballard[9]:873 I AM Groups; Ascended Masters[9]:873
Independent Fundamental Churches of America[6]:142 R. Lee Kirkland[7]:179 1922[7]:179 Unaffiliated Fundamentalist[7]:179
Insight Meditation Society[6]:143 Jack Kornfield, Sharon Salzberg, Joseph Goldstein[9]:1067 1976[9]:1067 Theravada Buddhism[9]:1067
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel[6]:108 Aimee Semple McPherson[9]:451 1923[9]:451 White Trinitarian Pentecostal[9]:451
International Community of Christ also known as Church of the Second Advent (CSA) and Jamilians[21]:139 Eugene Douglas Savoy[21]:139 1972[21]:139 New Age Occultist[21]:139
International Society for Krishna Consciousness[6]:146–148 Srila A.C. Bhaktivedanta[9]:997 mid-1960s[9]:997 Hinduism[9]:997
Jediism[51]:62 2000s[51]:62 Star Wars-inspired New Age[51]:62
Jehovah's Witnesses[6]:150, 152–153 Charles Taze Russell[9]:637 1870[9]:637 Adventist; Bible Student Groups[9]:637
Jesus Army (also known as "Jesus Fellowship Church" and "Bugbrooke Jesus Fellowship")[6]:153 Noel Stanton (split from Baptist Union)[13]:149–163 1977[13]:149–163 Fundamentalist, Communal[13]:149–163
Jesus Movement[6]:153[52] late 1960s[7]:196 Fundamentalist[7]:196
Jews for Jesus[6]:155 Moishe Rosen[7]:197 1970[7]:197 Fundamentalist Christianity[7]:197
John Frum[6]:155 1936[7]:197 Syncretistic; Millenarian[7]:197
Kabbalah Centre[27]:292–293 Philip Berg[27]:292–293 1970s[27]:292–293 New Age[27]:292–293
Kemetic Orthodoxy[53] Tamara Siuda[53] 1988[53] Kemetic[53]
Kerista[6]:158 John Presmont[9]:730 1956[9]:730 Communal—After 1960[9]:730
Kopimism Isak Gerson 2012 Internet religion
Konkokyo[6]:161 Bunjiro Kawate[9]:1122 1859[9]:1122 Shintoism[9]:1122
Kripalu Center (Kirpalu)[6]:161 Amrit Desai[9]:1019 1966[9]:1019 Hinduism[9]:1019
Lama Foundation[6]:164 Steve Durkee[9]:731 1967[9]:731 Communal—After 1960[9]:731
Latter Rain Movement[6]:165 schism led by George Hawtin and Percy Hunt[7]:209 1946[7]:209 Millenarian Pentecostal[7]:209
Laymen's Home Missionary Movement[6]:165 Paul S. L. Johnson[9]:639 c. 1920[9]:639 Adventist; Bible Student Groups[9]:639
Lectorium Rosicrucianum[6]:165–166 1924[9]:844 Rosicrucianism[9]:844
The Living Word Fellowship[54] John Robert Stevens[9]:506 1951[9]:506 Latter Rain Pentecostals[9]:506
Local Church movement[6]:169, 171 Ni Shu-tsu (Watchman Nee)[9]:609–610 1920s[9]:609–610 Independent Fundamentalist; Other Bible Students[9]:609–610
Love Family, also known as the Church of Jesus Christ at Armageddon and Love Israel[11]:90–91 Paul Erdman[7]:216 1969[7]:216 Communal[7]:216
Lucis Trust[6]:172–173 Alice A. Bailey[7]:217 1923[7]:217 Occultist; Theosophical[7]:217
Madkhalism[55][56] Rabee Al-Madkhali[57][58] early 1990s[59][60][61] Islam[62][63]
Mahikari[6]:176 Kotama Okada[9]:1123 1959[9]:1123 Shintoism[9]:1123
Maranatha Campus Ministries[6]:178 Bob Weiner[7]:223 1972[7]:223 Pentecostalism[7]:223
Mazdaznan[6]:181 Otoman Zar-Adusht Ha'nish[9]:991 1902[9]:991 Zoroastrianism[9]:991
Meher Baba followers[34] Merwan Sheriar Irani[9]:991 1921[9]:991 Hindu-inspired[9]:991
Messianic Judaism[6]:184
Million Man March[64] Louis Farrakhan[64] 1995[64] Nation of Islam[64]
Mita Congregation[6]:186 Juanita García Peraza[9]:462 1940[9]:462 Deliverance Pentecostal[9]:462
Monastic Order of Avallon[65] Henri Hillion de Coatmoc'han[65] 1972[65] Neo-pagan[65]
Moody Church[6]:186 Dwight L. Moody[9]:602 1864[9]:602 Fundamentalist and Evangelical Churches[9]:602
Moorish Science Temple of America[6]:186, 188 Timothy Drew[9]:988 1925[9]:988 Black Islam[9]:988
Moral Re-Armament[6]:188, 190 Frank N. D. Buchman[7]:233 1921[7]:233
Latter Day Saint movement[6]:190, 192 Joseph Smith, Jr.[21]:187 1830[21]:187 Latter Day Saint movement; Mormonism;
Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness[6]:194 John-Roger Hinkins[9]:1054 1971[9]:1054 Sant Mat[9]:1054
Namdhari[6]:196 Balak Singh[7]:243 mid-19th century[7]:243 Sikhism[7]:243
Nation of Islam[66] Elijah Muhammad[7]:245 mid-1930s[7]:245 Black Muslims[7]:245
Nation of Yahweh[67]:217[6]:200 Hulon Mitchell, Jr.[9]:952–953 1970s[9]:952–953 Black Judaism[9]:952–953
National Spiritualist Association of Churches[6]:197 Harrison D Barrett, James M. Peebles, Cora L. Richmond[9]:772 1893[9]:772 Spiritualism[9]:772
Native American Church[6]:202 1906[9]:809 Entheogen Groups[9]:809
New Apostolic Church[6]:205 Heinrich Geyer[9]:1139 1863[9]:1139 Unclassified Christian Churches[9]:1139
New Kadampa Tradition[68]:310–311 Geshe Kelsang Gyatso[9]:1112 mid-1970s[9]:1112 Tibetan Buddhism[9]:1112
The New Message from God[69][70][71] Marshall Vian Summers 1992[72]
New Reformed Orthodox Order of the Golden Dawn[6]:207 1969[9]:923 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[9]:923
New Thought[6]:208 Phineas Parkhurst Quimby[7]:258 mid-19th century[7]:258 Metaphysical[7]:258
Oahspe Faithists[73] John Ballou Newbrough 1882 UFO-Christian
Odinism[74] Orestes Brownson[74] 1848 [74] Neo-paganism[74]
Oomoto[6]:216 Mrs. Nao Deguchi[7]:266 1899[7]:266 Millenarian Shintoism[7]:266
Open Bible Standard Churches[6]:217 merger[9]:454 1935[9]:454 White Trinitarian Pentecostals[9]:454
Opus Dei[20]:126[27]:427–428[75][76]:3, 122–123[77][78][79]:251 Saint Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer[27]:427–428 1928[27]:427–428 Roman Catholic[27]:427–428
Ordo Templi Orientis[7]:270 Carl Kellner;[7]:270[27]:430 Theodor Reuss[27]:430 1895;[7]:270 1906[27]:430 Thelema[27]:430
Pentecostal Church of God[6]:225 1919[15]:109 Pentecostalism[15]:109
Pentecostalism[6]:224–225
Peoples Temple[6]:226[80] Jim Jones[9]:832 1955[9]:832 Other Psychic, New Age Groups[9]:832
Philosophical Research Society[6]:228 Manly Palmer Hall[9]:849 1934[9]:849 Occult Orders[9]:849
Pilgrims of Arès[81] Michel Potay[81] 1974[81]
Plymouth Brethren[6]:228–229[11]:61 John Nelson Darby[7]:281 1830[7]:281 Millenarian[7]:281
Potter's House also known as Christian Fellowship Ministries (CFM), The Door, Victory Chapel, Christian Center, Crossroads Chapel, etc.[21]:51–52 Wayman Mitchell[21]:51–52 1970[21]:51–52 Pentecostalism[21]:51–52
Radha Soami Satsang Beas[6]:234 Seth Shiv Dayal Singh[9]:1059 1861[9]:1059 Sant Mat[9]:1059
Raëlism[6]:234 Claude Vorilhon (Rael)[9]:806 1973[9]:806 Flying Saucer Groups[9]:806
Rainbow Family[6]:234, 236 Barry Adams[9]:732 late-1960s[9]:732 Communal—After 1960[9]:732
Rajneesh movement[6]:236, 238 Rajneesh Chandra Mohan[9]:1051 1966[9]:1051 Eastern Family[9]:1051
Ramtha[82] J. Z. Knight[83] 1977[84] New Age[82]
Rastafari[6]:241,243[85] Leonard Howell, Joseph Hibbert, Archibald Dunkley, Robert Hinds[9]:954 1935[9]:954 Black Judaism[9]:954
Reformed Druids of North America[6]:244 1960s[7]:299 Neo-Paganism[7]:299
Religious Science[6]:245–246 Ernest Holmes[7]:301 1948[7]:301 New Thought[7]:301
Risshō Kōsei Kai[6]:248 Nikkyo Niwano and Myoko Naganuma[86] 1938 [86] Nichiren Buddhist[86]
Rosicrucian Fellowship[6]:249 Carl Louis von Grasshof[9]:845 1909[9]:845 Rosicrucianism[9]:845
Sacred Name Movement[6]:251 Clarence Orvil Dodd 1930s Aventist; Church of God (Seventh-Day);
Sahaja Yoga[87] Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi[9]:1029 1970[9]:1029 Hinduism[9]:1029
Saiva Siddhanta Church[6]:251 Subramuniy[9]:1029 1957[9]:1029 Hinduism[9]:1029
The Salvation Army[6]:252, 254 William Booth[9]:419 1865[9]:419 Nineteenth Century Holiness[9]:419
Sant Nirankari Mission[6]:210 Baba Buta Singh Ji 1929 Sikhism
Scientology[20]:126[88][89][90] L. Ron Hubbard[9]:816 1955[9]:816 Other Psychic, New Age Groups[9]:816
Self-Realization Fellowship[6]:261 Paramahansa Yogananda[9]:1031 1935[9]:1031 Hinduism[9]:1031
Semitic Neopaganism[91] Raphael Patai[91] 1960s[91] Neo-paganism, Feminism[91]
Seventh-day Adventist Church[6]:262 Ellen G. White[9]:621 1860[9]:621 Seventh Day Adventists[9]:621
Seventh-day Adventist Reform Movement[6]:262–263 schism[9]:622–623 1925[9]:622–623 Seventh Day Adventists[9]:622–623
Shakers[6]:263, 265 Ann Lee[9]:724 1750s[9]:724 Communal—Before 1960[9]:724
Shepherd's Rod, also known as the Davidian Seventh-day Adventist Association[8]:189 Victor T. Houteff[9]:619 1935[9]:619 Seventh Day Adventists[9]:619
Shiloh Youth Revival Centers[6]:266 John J. Higgins, Jr.[9]:734 1969[9]:734 Communal—After 1960[9]:734
Shinnyo-en[6]:266–267 Shinjo Ito and Tomoji Ito[9]:1081 1936[9]:1081 Japanese Buddhism[9]:1081
Shinreikyo[6]:266 Kanichi Otsuka[9]:1123 post–World War II[9]:1123 Shintoism[9]:1123
Shri Ram Chandra Mission[92] Shri Ram Chandraji Maharaj[92] 1945[92] Hinduism[92]
Sivananda Yoga Vedanta Centres[6]:268–269 Kuppuswami Iyer[9]:1035 1935[9]:1035 Hinduism[9]:1035
Soka Gakkai International[6]:271[93] Tsunesaburo Makiguchi[9]:1082 1930[9]:1082 Nichiren Buddhism[9]:1082
Subud[6]:279 Muhammed Subuh[9]:981 1933[9]:981 Sufism[9]:981
Sufi Ruhaniat International[6]:279 Samuel L. Lewis[7]:342 1968[7]:342 Sufism[7]:342
Sukyo Mahikari[6]:281 Sekiguchi Sakae[7]:344 1978[7]:344 Mahikari Syncretistic[7]:344
Summum[6]:281 Claude Rex Nowell[9]:1141 1975[9]:1141 Unclassified Christian Churches[9]:1141
Tenrikyo[6]:287–288 Miki Nakayama[9]:1124 1838[9]:1124 Shintoism[9]:1124
Tolstoyan primitivism[94]:672 Leo Tolstoy[94]:672 1901[94]:672 Christian anarchism, Pacifism[94]:672
Toronto Blessing[95] Randy Clark[13]:122–123 1994[13]:122–123 Pentecostalism[13]:122–123
Transcendental Meditation[6]:292–293, 295–296 Brahmananda Saraswati (Guru Dev), Maharishi Mahesh Yogi[9]:1045 1958[9]:1045 Hinduism[9]:1045
True Buddha School[96] Lu Sheng-yen[96] Late 1980s Tibetan Buddhism/Taoism[96]
Twelve Tribes[6]:212, 334–335 Gene and Marsha Spriggs[9]:737 1972[9]:737 Communal—After 1960[9]:737
Two by Twos, also known as Cooneyites, Christian Conventions, the Workers and Friends, the Truth, etc.[6]:298 William Irvine[11]:330 1897[97] Independent fundamentalist family[9]:611
Umbanda[6]:299 Zélio Fernandino de Moraes[98] 1920[98] Spiritism[98]
Unarius Academy of Science[6]:300, 302–303 Ernest Norman, Ruth Norman 1954 UFO Religion
Unification Church[6]:300, 302–303 Sun Myung Moon[7]:365 1954[7]:365 Unification Church[7]:365
Unitarian Universalism[24]:335 consolidation[21]:308–310 1961[21]:308–310 Unitarian Universalism[21]:308–310
United Holy Church of America[6]:304 Isaac Cheshier[9]:487 1900[9]:487 Black Trinitarian Pentecostal[9]:487
United House of Prayer for All People[6]:304–305 Marcelino Manoel de Graca[7]:371 1925[7]:371 African American Pentecostal[7]:371
United Israel World Union[6]:305 David Horowitz[9]:959 1944[9]:959 Other Jewish Groups[9]:959
United Lodge of Theosophists[6]:305 Robert Crosbie[9]:855 1909[9]:855 Theosophy[9]:855
United Pentecostal Church International[6]:287–306 merger[9]:476 1945[9]:476 Apostolic Pentecostals[9]:476
Unity Church[6]:306–307 Charles Fillmore[7]:373 1903[7]:373 New Thought[7]:373
Universal Great Brotherhood[6]:310 Serge Raynaud de la Ferriere[9]:883 late 1940s[9]:883 Other Theosophical Groups[9]:883
Universal Life Church[6]:311 Kirby Hensley[9]:680 1962[9]:680 Liberal Family[9]:680
Universal White Brotherhood[99] Peter Deunov[9]:880 1900[9]:880 Other Theosophical Groups[9]:880
Urantia Foundation[21]:319–322 William S. Sadler[21]:319–322 1934[21]:319–322 UFO,[21]:319–322 Spiritualist, Psychic, New Age[9]:839 and Christian occultist[7]:380
Vajradhatu[6]:313 Chögyam Trungpa[9]:1115 1973[9]:1115 Tibetan Buddhism[9]:1115
Vale do Amanhecer[100] Tia Neiva[100] 1959[100] Spiritualism[100]
Vedanta Society[6]:314 Swami Vivekananda[7]:382 1894[7]:382 Hinduism[7]:382
Volunteers of America[6]:316 Ballington Booth and Maud Booth[9]:420 1896[9]:420 Nineteenth Century Holiness[9]:420
The Way International[6]:318 Victor Paul Wierwille[9]:608 1942[9]:608 Independent fundamentalist family[9]:608
The Way of the Livingness (Universal Medicine)[101] Serge Benhayon[101] 1999[101] Theosophical[102]
White Eagle Lodge[6]:319 Lady Elizabeth Carey[9]:884 1943[9]:884 Other Theosophical Groups[9]:884
Wicca[103] Gerald Gardner[21]:338 c. 1949[21]:338 Occultist[21]:338
Women's Federation for World Peace[104]:203–205 Hak Ja Han[104]:203–205 1992[104]:203–205 Unification Church[104]:203–205
The Word Foundation[6]:320 Harold W. Percival[9]:856 c. 1904[9]:856 Theosophy[9]:856

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Beckford, James A., ed. (1 January 1987). New religious movements and rapid social change. London: Sage Publications. ISBN 978-0803980037. 
  2. ^ Nelson, Geoffrey K. (3 December 1987). Cults, new religions and religious creativity. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0710208552. 
  3. ^ Swenson, Donald S. (15 August 2009). Society, spirituality, and the sacred : a social scientific introduction (2nd ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-9680-7. 
  4. ^ Coney, Judith (June 1998). "A Response to: Religious Liberty in Western Europe by Massimo Introvigne, Vol. 5, No. 2". ISKCON Communications Journal (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) 6 (1). 
  5. ^ a b Wilson, Bryan R.; Cresswell, Jamie, eds. (5 May 1999). New religious movements : challenge and response. London [u.a.]: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415200493. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (28 December 1992). Rosen, Roger, ed. The illustrated encyclopedia of active new religions, sects, and cults (1st ed.). New York: Rosen Pub. Group. ISBN 978-0823915057. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (1 June 1997). The illustrated encyclopedia of active new religions, sects, and cults (Rev. ed.). New York: Rosen Pub. Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-2586-5. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Lewis, James R. (July 1998). The encyclopedia of cults, sects, and new religions ([Nachdr.] ed.). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1573922227. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz ka kb kc kd ke kf kg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kq kr ks kt ku kv kw kx ky kz la lb lc ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lq lr ls lt lu lv lw lx ly lz ma mb mc md me mf mg mh mi mj mk ml mm mn mo mp mq mr ms mt mu mv mw mx my mz na nb nc nd ne nf ng nh ni nj nk nl nm nn no np nq nr ns nt nu nv nw nx ny nz oa ob oc od oe of og oh oi oj ok ol om on oo op oq or os ot ou ov ow ox oy oz pa pb pc pd pe pf pg ph pi pj pk pl pm pn po pp pq pr Melton, J. Gordon (December 2002). Encyclopedia of American religions (7th ed.). Detroit: Gale. ISBN 978-0787663841. 
  10. ^ a b c d Hakl, Hans Thomas (2010). "Franz Sättler (Dr. Musallam) and the Twentieth-Century Cult of Adonism". Pomegranate: the International Journal of Pagan Studies (United Kingdom: Equinox Publishing Ltd) 12 (1). ISSN 1528-0268. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk Chryssides, George D. (15 November 2001). Historical dictionary of new religious movements. Lanham, Md. [u.a.]: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810840959. 
  12. ^ a b Omoyajowo 1995, pp. xv, 113.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Chryssides, George D. (1999). Exploring new religions. London: Continuum. ISBN 9780826438904. 
  14. ^ a b c d Strmiska and Sigurvinsson 2005, pp. 127–180.
  15. ^ a b c d e Clark, Elmer T. (June 1940). The Small Sects in America (1st ed.). New York: Abingdon Press. ISBN 978-0687387038. 
  16. ^ Partridge, 2004, p. 261.
  17. ^ Saliba, 2003, p. 171.
  18. ^ a b c d Encyclopædia Iranica 1989, "Babism".
  19. ^ a b c d Fort, Samuel (9 October 2014). Cult of the Great Eleven. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 978-1502782588. [self-published source]
  20. ^ a b c d e f Bhugra, Dinesh, ed. (1996). Psychiatry and religion : context, consensus and controversies. London [u.a.]: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415089555. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Nichols, Larry A.; Mather, George; Schmidt, Alvin J. (13 August 2006). Dictionary of cults, sects, and world religions (Rev. and updated ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. ISBN 978-0310239543. 
  22. ^ a b c Bergman, Gregory (30 May 2006). Isms. Avon, MA: Adams Media. ISBN 978-1593374839. 
  23. ^ See:
    • Saliba, John A. Understanding New Religious Movements. Rowman Altamira, 2003, p. 26: "The Christian Science-Metaphysical Family. This family, known also as "New Thought" in academic literature, stresses the need to understand the functioning of the human mind in order to achieve the healing of all human ailments."
    • Lewis, James R. Legitimating New Religions. Rutgers University Press, 2003, p. 94: "Groups in the metaphysical (Christian Science–New Thought) tradition ... usually claim to have discovered spiritual laws which, if properly understood and applied, transform and improve the lives of ordinary individuals, much as technology has transformed society."
  24. ^ a b c Chryssides, George D. (17 April 2006). The A to Z of new religious movements (Rev. pbk. ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810855885. 
  25. ^ a b c d Lewis, James R. (2002). The encyclopedia of cults, sects, and new religions (2nd ed.). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1573928885. 
  26. ^ a b c d Greer, John Michael (8 October 2003). The new encyclopedia of the occult. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 978-1567183368. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Clarke, Peter B., ed. (22 December 2005). Encyclopedia of new religious movements. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-45383-7. 
  28. ^ http://www.patheos.com/blogs/friendlyatheist/2014/04/10/thanks-to-a-technicality-pastafarianism-is-now-an-official-religion-in-poland/
  29. ^ http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/pastafarian-recognized-texas-id-article-1.1436608
  30. ^ a b c d "In 1955, Reverend Moon established the Collegiate Association for the Research of the Principle (CARP). CARP is now active on many campuses in the United States and has expanded to over eighty nations. This association of students promotes intercultural, interracial, and international cooperation through the Unification world view." [2]
  31. ^ a b c Robinson 2005.
  32. ^ a b c d Ambedkar and the Hindu Culture
  33. ^ Van Bruinessen 2007, p. 258.
  34. ^ a b Beckford, James A. (15 September 2003). Social theory and religion. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0521773362. 
  35. ^ Goodrick-Clarke, p. 17.
  36. ^ See:
    • Lewis 2004, p. 187. "These two opposing strategies of new religious movements for delivering compensators I will term 'compensation delivery systems' (CDS). The gradual CDS can best be described as religion as a multi-level marketing (MLM) tactic - a term I take from the business world [...] Exemplars of new religious movements with a gradual CDS are Scientology and Erhard Seminar Training in its various manifestations."
    • Saliba 2003, p. 88. "Many of the new religions attract individuals by the promise of peace of mind, spiritual well-being, gratifying experiences, and material success. In so doing they stress their concern for the individual and highlight one's personal worth and self-development. This is especially so in human growth movements such as Scientology, The Forum (previously known as Erhard Seminar Training [EST]), and qualsi-religious encounter groups."
  37. ^ Aupers, Stef (2005). "'We Are All Gods': New Age in the Netherlands 1960-2000". In Sengers, Erik. The Dutch and Their Gods: Secularization and Transformation of Religion in the Netherlands. Studies in Dutch Religious History 3. Hilversum: Verloren. ISBN 9-065-50867-8. 
  38. ^ Clarke, Peter; Sutherland, Stewart, eds. (31 December 1991). The study of religion, traditional and new religions (Reprint ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415064323. 
  39. ^ See"
    • Nelson 1987, p. 177. "Finally his study of EST (Erhard Systems Training) provides an insight into the work of the human potential movement which aims at self realisation."
    • Puttick 2004, p. 406. "est was one of the most successful manifestations of the human potential movement (HPM)..."
  40. ^ See:
    • Ramstedt 2007, p. 6. "How can one find a definition of 'New Age' that will serve to bring so many different features together? One major difficulty in defining 'New Age' is that different writers draw different boundaries. Paul Heelas, for example, includes a significant number of what he calls the 'self religions': groups like Landmark Forum (also known simply as The Forum, formerly est or Erhard Seminar Training) and Programmes Limited (formerly Exegesis). Some writers trace the New Age back to William Blake (1757–1827); others see it as originating in the 'hippie' counter-culture in the USA in the 1960s, while the scholar of the New Age, Wouter Hanegraaff, places it later still, regarding it as beginning in the second half of the 1970s."
  41. ^ a b c d Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, page 47-52
  42. ^ Lewis 2004, p. 195.
  43. ^ a b Melton 2009, p. 676.
  44. ^ a b c d Ellwood 1971.
  45. ^ a b Peters 2008, pp. 186–187.
  46. ^ Lausanne Occasional Papers 1980.
  47. ^ a b Irons 2008, p. 206.
  48. ^ a b c Philippine Daily Inquirer 2008.
  49. ^ Global Leadership Council
  50. ^ a b c d Partridge, 2004, p. 406.
  51. ^ a b c Bouma, Gary (26 March 2007). Australian soul : religion and spirituality in the twenty-first century. Port Melbourne, Vic.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521673891. 
  52. ^ Gallagher 2006, p. 86.
  53. ^ a b c d Krogh 2004, p. 167.
  54. ^ Tucker 2004, pp. 360–362.
  55. ^ Omar Ashour, Libyan Islamists Unpacked: Rise, Transformation and Future. Brookings Doha Center, 2012.
  56. ^ Mohammad Pervez Bilgrami, Arab Counter-revolution on Threshold of Plummeting. World Bulletin, Sunday, September 21, 2014.
  57. ^ ICG Middle East Report N°31. Saudi Arabia Backgrounder: Who Are the Islamists? Amman/Riyadh/Brussels: International Crisis Group, 21 September 2004.
  58. ^ Roel Meijer, Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement, pg. 49. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.
  59. ^ Notes, Whatever Happened to the Islamists?: Salafis, Heavy Metal Muslims and the Lure of Consumerist Islam, pg. 291. Eds. Amel Boubekeur and Olivier Roy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012. ISBN 9780231154260
  60. ^ Hossam Tammam and Patrick Haenni, Islam in the insurrection? Al-Ahram Weekly, 3–9 March 2011, Issue No. 1037.
  61. ^ Professor Girma Yohannes Iyassu Menelik, The Emergence and Impacts of Islamic Radicalists, pg. 16. Munich: GRIN Publishing GmbH, 2009.
  62. ^ Omayma Abdel-Latif, "Trends in Salafism." Taken from Islamist Radicalisation: The Challenge for Euro-Mediterranean Relations, pg. 74. Eds. Michael Emerson, Kristina Kausch and Richard Youngs. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, 2009. ISBN 9789290798651
  63. ^ Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, Sheikh Rabi’ Ibn Haadi ‘Umayr Al Madkhali. The Muslim 500: The World's Most Influential Muslims
  64. ^ a b c d Nelson Jr., William E. (1998). "Black Church Politics and The Million Man March". In Best, Felton O. Black Religious Leadership from the Slave Community to the Million Man March; flames of fire. Lewiston, New York: The Edwin Mellen Press. p. 245. 
  65. ^ a b c d Marhic 1996, pp. 25-29.
  66. ^ Enroth 2005, p. 169.
  67. ^ Atkins, Stephen E. (30 August 2002). Encyclopedia of modern American extremists and extremist groups. Westport, Conn. [u.a.]: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0313315022. 
  68. ^ Barrett, David V. (2001). The new believers : a survey of sects, cults and alternative religions (Revised ed.). London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0304355921. 
  69. ^ Michael Roberts, Denver Westword, February 4, 2011. Retrieved 2013-3-27.
  70. ^ Howard Hughes, The Unexplained, Retrieved 2013-3-27
  71. ^ City Talk FM Liverpool Pete Price, 2012-11-25, Retrieved on 2013-3-27.
  72. ^ The Community Foundation of Boulder County, Retrieved on 2013-3-27
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  74. ^ a b c d Goodrick-Clarke 2002, p. 257.
  75. ^ Hayes 2006, pp. 16, 18–19
  76. ^ Arweck, Elisabeth (13 January 2006). Researching new religious movements : responses and redefinitions (1st ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415277549. 
  77. ^ Walsh 2004, pp. 174, 180–182.
  78. ^ Gold 2004, p. 46.
  79. ^ >Buxant, Coralie; Vassilis Saroglou (April 2008). "Joining and leaving a new religious movement: A study of ex-members' mental health". Mental Health, Religion & Culture (Center for Psychology of Religion, Department of Psychology, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium: Routledge) 11 (3): 251–271. doi:10.1080/13674670701247528. 
  80. ^ Reiterman 1982, pp. 49–52
  81. ^ a b c Mayer 2004, pp. 123–143.
  82. ^ a b Dawson 2006, p. 3.
  83. ^ Singer 1995, pp. 45, 120.
  84. ^ York 2004, p. 105.
  85. ^ Partridge 2004, pp. 62–64.
  86. ^ a b c Tamura 2001, pp. 203–204.
  87. ^ INFORM 2001.
  88. ^ Partridge 2003, pp. 188, 263–265.
  89. ^ Lewis 2003, p. 42.
  90. ^ Reece 2007, pp. 182–186.
  91. ^ a b c d Raphael 1998, pp. 198–215.
  92. ^ a b c d Mayer 1993, p. 213.
  93. ^ Wilson 1999, p. 10.
  94. ^ a b c d Barzun, Jacques (2000). From dawn to decadence : 500 years of western cultural life, 1500 to the present. New York: Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-092883-4. 
  95. ^ Lyon 2000, p. 106.
  96. ^ a b c Montreal Religious Sites Project
  97. ^ Johnson, Benton in Klass and Weisgrau 1999, p. 377.
  98. ^ a b c Smith and Prokopy 2003, p. 279-280.
  99. ^ (Fraternite Blanche Universelle) Mayer 1993, p. 370.
  100. ^ a b c d Dawson 2007, pp. 48-49.
  101. ^ a b c Leser, David (2012-08-25). "The Da Vinci Mode". The Sydney Morning Herald (Australia). Retrieved December 27, 2014. 
  102. ^ UK Government (24 August 2011). "The Way of the Livingness, The Religion of the Soul Trust: Charity Commission decision". UK Gov. Charity Commission. Retrieved December 22, 2014. 
  103. ^ Hanegraaff 1998, p. 87.
  104. ^ a b c d Bainbridge, William Sims (1997). The sociology of religious movements. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415912020. 

References[edit]

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