In most jurisdictions, general elections are held between every three to five years. Many elections have a fixed timing according to a country's constitution, while some allow the government to dissolve Parliament, Congress or the representative assembly and call a fresh vote up to a certain time limit. In most countries the election for the representative assembly determines the government. In the countries which separately elect a President, the more prevalent best-practice is to hold the Presidential and the legislative election at the same time. A minority of countries split the Presidential and legislative elections, and schedule these at different times. In significant number of countries elections are staged, but are unfair enough to influence the election's outcome. The unfairness frequently involves human rights violations, including compromise of the right to participate in government through free elections, the right to freedom of association, or the right to free expression. Elections may also be unfair according to international standards if political campaign financing favours particular social interest groups, or if ownership rules create significant media bias.
^nb in Germany where there are elections each 4 years, the Federal Constitutional Court has held that five years is the limit that is compatible with living in a democratic society. The only democratic country which exceeds this period is Mexico with 6 years in Presidential elections. France exceeded this period until constitutional reform in 2012, reducing Presidential terms from 7 to 5 years.