List of epics in the Kannada language

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Main article: Kannada literature

This is a list of available epics in the Kannada language (also called purana, in prose or poem), a South Indian Dravidian language. Based on his research, the Kannada scholar L.S. Sheshagiri Rao claims that starting with the earliest available epic Adipurana by Pampa (941 C.E), Kannada writers have created a rich and active epic tradition. S.S. Bhusanurematha's Bhavyamanava (1983) is the latest in that tradition.[1] According to Rao, though the Kannada epic tradition gained its initial inspiration from the Sanskrit epics, "the Kannada epic was neither derivative or imitative. It has developed the Valmiki and Vyasa traditions in its own distinctive ways". According to him, the Pampa Bharata (also called Vikramarjuna Vijaya, 941 CE ) and Kumaravyasa Bharata (also called Gadugina Bharata, 1425 CE) can rank among the "epics of the world".[2] Based on medieval Kannada literary sources, the Indologist Anthony Warder claims there were Kannada versions of the Ramayana and Mahabharata prior to 941 C.E., and Kavya (or Mahakavya, epic poems) such as Karnataka Kumarasambhava by Asaga (c. 850).[3] According to the Kannada scholar R. Narasimhacharya, Chandraprabhapurana by Sri Vijaya, (court poet of King Amoghavarsha I) dates to the early 9th century.[4] This list is by no means exhaustive. In addition to the epics listed here, there are numerous epics written 'in part' (called khanda or mahatmaya) starting with the part rendering of the Skanda-purana by Kumarapadmarasa in c. 1180.[5]

The list[edit]

Famous epics in the Kannada language
Faith Epic Author Year (A.D.) Patron
Jainism Adipurana[4][6][7] Adikavi Pampa 941 Rashtrakuta Empire
Secular Vikramarjuna Vijaya (Pampa Bharatha)[4][6][7] Adikavi Pampa 941 Rashtrakuta Empire
Jainism Shantipurana[4][6][8] Sri Ponna 950 Rashtrakuta Empire
Jainism Trisastilaksanamahapurana[4][6][9] Chamundaraya 978 Western Ganga Dynasty
Jainism Ajitapurana[4][6][7] Ranna 993 Western Chalukya Empire
Secular Saahasabhima Vijaya (Gadayuddha)[4][6][7] Ranna 1000 Western Chalukya Empire
Jainism Varadhamanapurana[10][11] Nagavarma II 1042 Western Chalukya Empire
Jainism Mallinathapurana[7][12][13] Nagachandra 1105 Hoysala Empire
Jainism Ramachandracharitapurana[7][12][13] Nagachandra 1105 Hoysala Empire
Shaivism Girijakalyana[14][15][16] Harihara 1160 Hoysala Empire
Jainism Neminathapurana[7][16][17] Nemichandra 1170 Hoysala Empire
Vaishnavism Jagannathavijaya[14][16][18] Rudrabhatta 1180 Hoysala Empire
Jainism Chandraprabhapurana[16][19] Aggala 1189 Hoysala Empire
Jainism Varadhamanapurana[19][20] Achanna 1195 Yadavas of Devagiri
Jainism Yashodharacharite[7][16][21] Janna 1209 Hoysala Empire
Secular Harishchandrakavya[14][16][22] Raghavanka 1220 Hoysala Empire
Shaivism Siddharamapurana[14][22][23] Raghavanka 1220 Hoysala Empire
Shaivism Somanathacharite[24][22] Raghavanka 13th century Hoysala Empire
Shaivism Viresvara Charita[24][22] Raghavanka 13th century Hoysala Empire
Jainism Ananthanathapurana[7][16][25] Janna 1230 Hoysala Empire
Jainism Pushpadantapurana[16][19][26] Gunavarma II 1235 Hoysala Empire
Jainism Santisvarapurana[19][20] Kamalabhava 1235 Yadavas of Devagiri
Jainism Neminathapurana[19][27] Mahabalakavi 1254 Hoysala Empire
Jainism Kumudendu Ramayana[25][28][29] Kumudendu 1275 Hoysala Empire
Jainism Purvapurana (Adipurana)[30][31] Hastimalla 13th century Hoysala Empire
Shaivism Basavapurana[22][29][32] Bhima Kavi 1369 Vijayanagara Empire
Jainism Dharmanathapurana[33][34] Madhura 1385 Vijayanagara Empire
Shaivism Padmaraja purana[35][36] Padmananka 1385 Vijayanagara Empire
Vaishnavism Gadugina Bharata[14][18][37] Kumaravyasa, Timmanna Kavi 1425, 1510 Vijayanagara Empire
Shaivism Prabhulingaleele[14][37][38] Chamarasa 1425 Vijayanagara Empire
Shaivism Saundara purana[39][40] Bommarasa 15th century Vijayanagara Empire
Shaivism Revanasiddhesvara Purana[39][40][41] Chaturmukha Bommarasa 1500 Vijayanagara Empire
Shaivism Trisashti puratanara charite (Lingapurana)[37][42] Surangakavi 1500 Vijayanagara Empire
Vaishnavism Torave Ramayana[37][43][44] Kumara Valmiki (Narahari) 1500 Vijayanagara Empire
Jainism Nemi-Jinesa purana[33][45] Manjarasa III 1508 Vijayanagara Empire
Jainism Shantinathapurana[33] Santikirti 1519 Vijayanagara Empire
Vaishnavism Bhagavatha purana[44][46][47] Chatu Vitthalanatha 1520 Vijayanagara Empire
Secular Ramanatha Charite (Kumararama Charite)[32][37] Nanjunda Kavi 1525 Vijayanagara Empire
Jainism Salva Bharata[48][49][50] Salva 1550 Vijayanagara Empire
Vaishnavism Ramavijayacharitra[28] Devappa Kavi 1550 Vijayanagara Empire
Jainism Chandraprabhapurana[33][51] Doddayya 1550 Vijayanagara Empire
Jainism Bharatesha Vaibhava[32][49][52] Ratnakaravarni 1557 Vijayanagara Empire
Jainism Chandraprabhapurana[33] Doddananka 1578 Vijayanagara Empire
Shaivism Channabasavapurana[32][38][52] Virupaksha Pandita 1584 Vijayanagara Empire
Vaishnavism Chamarajokti Vilasa(Ramayana)[53][54] King Chamaraja Wodeyar V 1617-1637 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Advita Ramayana[55] Nijagunarya 1650 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Markandeya Ramayana[56][57] Timmarasa 1650 Mysore Kingdom
Secular Rajashekara Vilasa[58][59][60] Sadaksharadeva 1655 Mysore Kingdom
Shaivism Basavarajavijaya (Vrishabhendra Vijaya)[32][58][60] Sadaksharadeva 1671 Mysore Kingdom
Shaivism Shabarashankara Vilasa[60][58][61] Sadaksharadeva 1671 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Vishnupurana[58][62][63] Chikkaupadhyaya 1672 Mysore Kingdom
Jainism Ramachandra Charitre[64][65] Chandrashekara, Padmanabha 1700 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Jaiminibharata[32][44][58] Lakshmisha 1700 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Ramabhyudaya-Kathakusumamanjari[56][65][66] Timmamatya (Timmarya) 1700 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Bharata[56][65] Lakshmakavi 1728 Mysore Kingdom
Shaivism Lingapurana[42] Kalale Nanjaraja 1732 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Ramayana[67][68] Venkamatya 1770 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Kaushika Ramayana[67][69] Bathaleshvara 1770 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Shankara Ramayana[70] Timmanna 18th century Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Adhyatma Ramayana[70] Shankaranarayana 18th century Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Mulabala Ramayana[70] Haridasa 18th century Mysore Kingdom
Jainism Jinaramayana[28][71][72] Chandrasagaravarni 1810 Princely Mysore
Jainism Ramakathavatara[28][71][73] Devachandra ~1838 Princely Mysore
Secular Sangoli Rayana Dange (folk)[74][75] John Faithfull Fleet 1874 Bombay Presidency
Vaishnavism Adbhuta Ramayana[69][76][77] Muddanna 1885 Princely Mysore
Vaishnavism Shri Ramashwamedha[78][79] Muddanna 1896 Princely Mysore
Vaishnavism Mahabharata (prose)[80] Alasingrachar 1912 Princely Mysore
Vaishnavism Ramayana (prose)[81] Alasingrachar 1912 Princely Mysore
Vaishnavism Mahabharata (prose)[80] V.K.Galaganatha 1933 Princely Mysore
Vaishnavism Sri Ramayana Darshanam[32][78][82] Kuvempu 1949 Princely Mysore
Vaishnavism Vachanabharata (prose)[83] A.R.Krishnashastry 1950 Princely Mysore
Vaishnavism Ramayana (prose)[81] V. Sitaram Shastri 1960 Mysore state, India
Vaishnavism Ramavatara (prose)[81] S. Krishna Sharma 1965 Mysore state, India
Vaishnavism Sriramapattabhisheka[32][78][84] Masti 1972 Mysore state, India
Secular Bharatasindhu rashmi[85][86] V.K. Gokak 1982 Karnataka state, India
Secular Bhavyamanava[85] S.S.Bhusanurematha 1983 Karnataka state, India
Extinct epics in the Kannada language known from quotes and references by later writers
Faith Epic Author Year Patron
Jainism Chandraprabhapurana[87] Srivijaya early 9th century Rashtrakuta Empire
Jainism Karnataka Kumarasambhava[88][89][90] Asaga 853 Rashtrakuta Empire
Jainism Harivamsa (Neminathapurana)[88][91][92][90] Gunavarma I 900 Western Ganga Dynasty
Jainism Sudraka[88][91][92][90] Gunavarma I 900 Western Ganga Dynasty
Secular Bhuvanaika-Ramabhyudaya (Ramakatha)[6][8][93] Sri Ponna 950 Rashtrakuta Empire
Shaivism Hariharamahatva[24][22] Raghavanka early 13th century Hoysala Empire
Shaivism Sharabacharite[24][22] Raghavanka early 13th century Hoysala Empire

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Rao in Datta (1988), pp1180-1183, chapter-Epic(Kannada)
  2. ^ Rao in Datta (1988), p1183
  3. ^ Warder (1988), p240, pp247-248
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Narasimhacharya (1988), p18
  5. ^ Parameshwaranand (2001), vol 4 (M-R), pp1059-1074, p1061
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Sastri (1955), p356
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rao in Datta (1988), p1180, chapter-Epic(Kannada)
  8. ^ a b Mukherjee (1999), p291
  9. ^ Parameshwaranand (2001), p674, vol3 (I-L)
  10. ^ Pollock (2006), p. 340, p. 349
  11. ^ Nagaraj (2003), p. 327
  12. ^ a b Sastri (1955), pp357–358
  13. ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), p19
  14. ^ a b c d e f Rao in Datta (1988), p1181, chapter-Epic(Kannada)
  15. ^ Sastri (1955), pp361–362
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Narasimhacharya, (1988), p20
  17. ^ Sastri (1955), p358
  18. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p364
  19. ^ a b c d e Rice, E.P. (1921), p43
  20. ^ a b Kamath (1980), pp143-144
  21. ^ Sastri (1955), pp358–359
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Sastri (1955), p362
  23. ^ Rice E.P. (1921), pp60-61
  24. ^ a b c d Shiva Prakash (1997), p. 207
  25. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p359
  26. ^ Mukherjee (1999), p301
  27. ^ Joesph P.M. (1997), Jainism in South India, p260, ISBN 8185692238
  28. ^ a b c d Moily (2010), p4, introduction
  29. ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), p21
  30. ^ Singh (2001), p. 975
  31. ^ Rocher Ludo, History of Indian Literature-The Puranas, vol 2, p76, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1986
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h Rao in Datta (1988), p1182, chapter-Epic(Kannada)
  33. ^ a b c d e Rice E.P.(1921), p.46
  34. ^ Sastri (1955), p360
  35. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p.21
  36. ^ Kotraiah in Sinaoli (2003), p131
  37. ^ a b c d e Narasimhacharya (1988), p22
  38. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p363
  39. ^ a b Narasimacharya (1988), p22
  40. ^ a b Puranik in Mohan Lal (1992), p4003
  41. ^ Rice E.P. (1921), p69
  42. ^ a b Parameshwaranand (2001), Volume 4 (M-R), p1063
  43. ^ Richman (2008), p17
  44. ^ a b c Sastri (1955), p365
  45. ^ Sharma, Sita Ram (1992), p17, Encyclopaedia of teaching languages in India, New Delhi : Anmol Publications
  46. ^ Rice (1921), p79
  47. ^ Parmeshwaranand (2001), Volume 4 (M-R), p1064
  48. ^ Shiva Prakash in Ayyappapanicker (1997), p212
  49. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p360
  50. ^ Rice E.P. (1921), p47
  51. ^ Joesph P.M. (1997), Jainism in South India, p287, ISBN 8185692238
  52. ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), p23
  53. ^ Parameshwaranand (2001), Volume 4 (M-R), p1060
  54. ^ Kamath (1980), p227
  55. ^ Krishnamoorthy & Mukhopadhyay (1991), p96
  56. ^ a b c Rice E.P. (1921), p92
  57. ^ I M Muthanna (1977), p216, Karnataka, history, administration & culture, Bangalore, Lotus Printers
  58. ^ a b c d e Narasimhacharya (1988), p24
  59. ^ Rice E.P. (1921), p84
  60. ^ a b c Yaravintelimath in Mohan Lal (1992), p3934
  61. ^ Sahitya Akademi (1987), p.620
  62. ^ Parameshwaranand (2001), Volume 4 (M-R), p1061
  63. ^ Rice E.P. (1921), p91
  64. ^ Rice E.P. (1921), p93
  65. ^ a b c Narasimhacharya (1988), p25
  66. ^ Krishnamoorthy & Mukhopadhyay (1991), p97
  67. ^ a b Brockington (1998), p501
  68. ^ Krishnamoorthy & Mukhopadhyay (1991), p98
  69. ^ a b Ashton and Christie (1977), p27
  70. ^ a b c Śrīhari, Caurirācan̲, Gōpālakrṣṇa (2003), p245, chapter-Ramayanas in Kannada literature
  71. ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), p26
  72. ^ Krishnamoorthy & Mukhopadhyay (1991), p92
  73. ^ Sinha (2013), p186
  74. ^ Murthy in K.M. George (1992), pp168
  75. ^ Prashad (2001), page xiii, chapter-Kannada folk epics, a profile
  76. ^ Murthy in K.M. George (1992), pp170
  77. ^ Krishnamoorthy & Mukhopadhyay (1991), p94
  78. ^ a b c Moily (2010), p5, introduction
  79. ^ Murthy in K.M. George (1992), p170
  80. ^ a b Krishnamoorthy in Amaresh Datta (1987), p37
  81. ^ a b c Krishnamoorthy in Amaresh Datta (1987), p39
  82. ^ Murthy in K.M. George (1992), p174
  83. ^ Krishnamoorthy in Amaresh Datta (1987), p38
  84. ^ Murthy in K.M. George (1992), p178
  85. ^ a b Rao in Datta (1988), p1183, chapter-Epic(Kannada)
  86. ^ K.M. George (1992), p672
  87. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), pp.17-18
  88. ^ a b c Dash & Pattanaik in Paul St-Pierre & Prafulla C. Kar, (2007), p.167
  89. ^ Warder A.K. (1988), p.241
  90. ^ a b c Sahitya Akademi (1987), pp618-619
  91. ^ a b Warder A.K. (1988), p240
  92. ^ a b Rice E.P. (1921), p30
  93. ^ Garg (1992), p67

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