List of epics in the Kannada language

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Main article: Kannada literature

This is a list of available epics in the Kannada language (also called purana), a South Indian Dravidian language. Starting with the earliest available epic Adipurana by Pampa (941 C.E), Kannada writers have created a rich and active epic tradition. S.S. Bhusanurematha's Bhavyamanava (1983) is the latest in that tradition.[1] According to the Kannada scholar L.S. Sheshagiri Rao, though the Kannada epic tradition gained its initial inspiration from the Sanskrit epics, "the Kannada epic was neither derivative or imitative. It has developed the Valmiki and Vyasa traditions in its own distinctive ways". According to him, the Pampa Bharata (also called Vikramarjuna Vijaya, 941 CE ) and Kumaravyasa Bharata (also called Gadugina Bharata, 1425 CE) can rank among the "epics of the world".[2] According to the scholar Anthony Warder, references are made in later works to Kannada versions of the Ramayana and Mahabharata written prior to 941 C.E., and to other epics such as Karnataka Kumarasambhava and Varadhamana purana by Asaga (c. 850).[3] This list is by no means exhaustive. In addition to the epics listed here, there are numerous epics written 'in part' (called khanda or mahatmaya) starting with the part rendering of the Skanda-purana by Kumarapadmarasa in c. 1180.[4]

The list[edit]

Famous epics in the Kannada language
Faith Epic Author Year Patron
Jainism Adipurana[5][6][7] Adikavi Pampa 941 Rashtrakuta Empire
Secular Vikramarjuna Vijaya[5][6][7] Adikavi Pampa 941 Rashtrakuta Empire
Jainism Shantipurana[5][6][8] Sri Ponna 950 Rashtrakuta Empire
Secular Ramakatha[6][8][9] Sri Ponna 950 Rashtrakuta Empire
Jainism Trisastilaksanamahapurana[5][6][10] Chamundaraya 978 Western Ganga Dynasty
Jainsim Ajitapurana[5][6][7] Ranna 993 Western Chalukya Empire
Secular Gadayuddha[5][6][7] Ranna 1000 Western Chalukya Empire
Jainsim Mallinathapurana[7][11][12] Nagachandra 1105 Hoysala Empire
Jainsim Ramachandracharitapurana[7][11][12] Nagachandra 1105 Hoysala Empire
Shaivism Girijakalyana[13][14][15] Harihara 1160 Hoysala Empire
Jainsim Neminathapurana[7][15][16] Nemichandra 1170 Hoysala Empire
Vaishnavism Jagannathavijaya[13][15][17] Rudrabhatta 1180 Hoysala Empire
Jainism Chandraprabhapurana[15][18] Aggala 1189 Hoysala Empire
Jainism Varadhamanapurana[18][19] Achanna 1195 Yadavas of Devagiri
Jainsim Yashodharacharite[7][15][20] Janna 1209 Hoysala Empire
Shaivism Harishchandrakavya[13][15][21] Raghavanka 1220 Hoysala Empire
Shaivism Siddharamacharitra[13][21][22] Raghavanka 1220 Hoysala Empire
Jainism Ananthanathapurana[7][15][23] Janna 1230 Hoysala Empire
Jainism Pushpadantapurana[15][18][24] Gunavarma II 1235 Hoysala Empire
Jainism Santisvarapurana[18][19] Kamalabhava 1235 Yadavas of Devagiri
Jainism Neminathapurana[18] Mahabalakavi 1254 Hoysala Empire
Jainsim Kumudendu Ramayana[23][25][26] Kumudendu 1275 Hoysala Empire
Shaivism Basavapurana[21][26][27] Bhima Kavi 1369 Vijayanagara Empire
Vaishnavism Gadugina Bharata[13][17][28] Kumaravyasa, Timmanna Kavi 1425, 1510 Vijayanagara Empire
Shaivism Prabhulingaleele[13][28][29] Chamarasa 1425 Vijayanagara Empire
Shaivism Trisashti puratanara charite(Lingapurana)[28][30] Surangakavi 1500 Vijayanagara Empire
Vaishnavism Torave Ramayana[28][31][32] Kumara Valmiki (Narahari) 1500 Vijayanagara Empire
Vaishnavism Bhagavatha purana[32][33][34] Chatu Vitthalanatha 1520 Vijayanagara Empire
Secular Ramanatha Charite (Kumararama Charite)[27][28] Nanjunda Kavi 1525 Vijayanagara Empire
Jainism Salva Bharata[35][36][37] Salva 1550 Vijayanagara Empire
Vaishnavism Ramavijayacharitra[25] Devappa Kavi 1550 Vijayanagara Empire
Jainsim Bharatesha Vaibhava[27][36][38] Ratnakaravarni 1557 Vijayanagara Empire
Shaivism Channabasavapurana[27][29][38] Virupaksha Pandita 1584 Vijayanagara Empire
Vaishnavism Chamarajokti Vilasa(Ramayana)[39][40] King Chamaraja Wodeyar V 1617-1637 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Advita Ramayana[41] Nijagunarya 1650 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Markandeya Ramayana[42] Timmarasa 1650 Mysore Kingdom
Secular Rajashekara Vilasa[43][44] Sadaksharadeva 1655 Mysore Kingdom
Shaivism Basavarajavijaya (Vrishabhendra Vijaya)[27][43][44] Sadaksharadeva 1671 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Vishnupurana[43][45][46] Chikkaupadhyaya 1672 Mysore Kingdom
Jainism Ramachandra Charitre[47][48] Chandrashekara, Padmanabha 1700 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Jaiminibharata[27][32][43] Lakshmisha 1700 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Ramabhyudaya-Kathakusumamanjari[42][48][49] Timmamatya (Timmarya) 1700 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Bharata[42][48] Lakshmakavi 1728 Mysore Kingdom
Shaivism Lingapurana[30] Kalale Nanjaraja 1732 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Ramayana[50][51] Venkamatya 1770 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Kaushika Ramayana[50][52] Bathaleshvara 1770 Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Shankara Ramayana[53] Timmanna 18th century Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Adhyatma Ramayana[53] Shankaranarayana 18th century Mysore Kingdom
Vaishnavism Mulabala Ramayana[53] Haridasa 18th century Mysore Kingdom
Jainsim Jinaramayana[25][54][55] Chandrasagaravarni 1810 Princely Mysore
Jainism Ramakathavatara[25][54][56] Devachandra ~1838 Princely Mysore
Secular Sangoli Rayana Dange (folk)[57][58] John Faithfull Fleet 1874 Bombay Presidency
Vaishnavism Adbhuta Ramayana[52][59][60] Muddanna 1885 Princely Mysore
Vaishnavism Shri Ramashwamedha[61][62] Muddanna 1896 Princely Mysore
Vaishnavism Mahabharata (prose)[63] Alasingrachar 1912 Princely Mysore
Vaishnavism Ramayana (prose)[64] Alasingrachar 1912 Princely Mysore
Vaishnavism Mahabharata (prose)[63] V.K.Galaganatha 1933 Princely Mysore
Vaishnavism Sri Ramayana Darshanam[27][61][65] Kuvempu 1949 Princely Mysore
Vaishnavism Vachanabharata (prose)[66] A.R.Krishnashastry 1950 Princely Mysore
Vaishnavism Ramayana (prose)[64] V. Sitaram Shastri 1960 Mysore state, India
Vaishnavism Ramavatara (prose)[64] S. Krishna Sharma 1965 Mysore state, India
Vaishnavism Sriramapattabhisheka[27][61][67] Masti 1972 Mysore state, India
Secular Bharatasindhu rashmi[68][69] V.K. Gokak 1982 Karnataka state, India
Secular Bhavyamanava[68] S.S.Bhusanurematha 1983 Karnataka state, India

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Rao in Datta (1988), pp1180-1183, chapter-Epic(Kannada)
  2. ^ Rao in Datta (1988), p1183
  3. ^ Warder (1988), p240, pp247-248
  4. ^ Parameshwaranand (2001), vol 4 (M-R), pp1059-1074, p1061
  5. ^ a b c d e f Narasimhacharya (1988), p18
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Sastri (1955), p356
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rao in Datta (1988), p1180, chapter-Epic(Kannada)
  8. ^ a b Mukherjee (1999), p291
  9. ^ Garg (1992), p67
  10. ^ Parameshwaranand (2001), p674, vol3 (I-L)
  11. ^ a b Sastri (1955), pp357–358
  12. ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), p19
  13. ^ a b c d e f Rao in Datta (1988), p1181, chapter-Epic(Kannada)
  14. ^ Sastri (1955), pp361–362
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Narasimhacharya, (1988), p20
  16. ^ Sastri (1955), p358
  17. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p364
  18. ^ a b c d e Rice, E.P. (1921), p43
  19. ^ a b Kamath (1980), pp143-144
  20. ^ Sastri (1955), pp358–359
  21. ^ a b c Sastri (1955), p362
  22. ^ Rice E.P. (1921), pp60-61
  23. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p359
  24. ^ Mukherjee (1999), p301
  25. ^ a b c d Moily (2010), p4, introduction
  26. ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), p21
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h Rao in Datta (1988), p1182, chapter-Epic(Kannada)
  28. ^ a b c d e Narasimhacharya (1988), p22
  29. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p363
  30. ^ a b Parameshwaranand (2001), Volume 4 (M-R), p1063
  31. ^ Richman (2008), p17
  32. ^ a b c Sastri (1955), p365
  33. ^ Rice (1921), p79
  34. ^ Parmeshwaranand (2001), Volume 4 (M-R), p1064
  35. ^ Shiva Prakash in Ayyappapanicker (1997), p212
  36. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p360
  37. ^ Rice E.P. (1921), p47
  38. ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), p23
  39. ^ Parameshwaranand (2001), Volume 4 (M-R), p1060
  40. ^ Kamath (1980), p227
  41. ^ Krishnamoorthy & Mukhopadhyay (1991), p96
  42. ^ a b c Rice E.P. (1921), p92
  43. ^ a b c d Narasimhacharya (1988), p24
  44. ^ a b Rice E.P. (1921), p84
  45. ^ Parameshwaranand (2001), Volume 4 (M-R), p1061
  46. ^ Rice E.P. (1921), p. 91
  47. ^ Rice E.P. (1921), p93
  48. ^ a b c Narasimhacharya (1988), p25
  49. ^ Krishnamoorthy & Mukhopadhyay (1991), p97
  50. ^ a b Brockington (1998), p501
  51. ^ Krishnamoorthy & Mukhopadhyay (1991), p98
  52. ^ a b Ashton and Christie (1977), p27
  53. ^ a b c Śrīhari, Caurirācan̲, Gōpālakrṣṇa (2003), p245, chapter-Ramayanas in Kannada literature
  54. ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), p26
  55. ^ Krishnamoorthy & Mukhopadhyay (1991), p92
  56. ^ Sinha (2013), p186
  57. ^ Murthy in K.M. George (1992), pp168
  58. ^ Prashad (2001), page xiii, chapter-Kannada folk epics, a profile
  59. ^ Murthy in K.M. George (1992), pp170
  60. ^ Krishnamoorthy & Mukhopadhyay (1991), p94
  61. ^ a b c Moily (2010), p5, introduction
  62. ^ Murthy in K.M. George (1992), p170
  63. ^ a b Krishnamoorthy in Amaresh Datta (1987), p37
  64. ^ a b c Krishnamoorthy in Amaresh Datta (1987), p39
  65. ^ Murthy in K.M. George (1992), p174
  66. ^ Krishnamoorthy in Amaresh Datta (1987), p38
  67. ^ Murthy in K.M. George (1992), p178
  68. ^ a b Rao in Datta (1988), p1183, chapter-Epic(Kannada)
  69. ^ K.M. George (1992), p672

References[edit]

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