This is a
list of , that is, writing systems for expressing numbers. numeral systems
By culture [ edit ]
By type of notation [ edit ]
Numeral systems are classified here as to whether they use
positional notation (also known as place-value notation), and further categorized by radix or base.
Standard positional numeral systems [ edit ]
The common names are derived
somewhat arbitrarily from a mix of Latin and Greek, in some cases including roots from both languages within a single name. [1 ]
Cantor set (all points in [0,1] that can be represented in ternary with no 1s); counting Tasbih in Islam; hand-foot-yard and teaspoon-tablespoon-shot measurement systems; most integer base economical
Quaternary Data transmission and
Hilbert curves; Chumashan languages, and Kharosthi numerals
Gumatj, Nunggubuyu, Kuurn Kopan Noot, and Saraveca languages; common count grouping e.g. tally marks
Diceware, Ndom, Kanum, and Proto-Uralic language (suspected)
Charles XII of Sweden, Unix-like permissions, DEC PDP-11, compact notation for binary numbers
Decimal Most widely used by modern civilizations
[2 ] [3 ] [4 ]
Jokingly proposed during the
French Revolution to settle a dispute between those proposing a shift to duodecimal and those who were content with decimal
Duodecimal Languages in the
Nigerian Middle Belt Janji, Gbiri-Niragu, Piti, and the Nimbia dialect of Gwandara; Chepang language of Nepal, and the Mahl dialect of Maldivian; dozen- gross-great gross counting; hours and months timekeeping; years of Chinese zodiac; foot and inch.
Conway base 13 function
Programming for the
HP 9100A/B calculator and image processing applications [5 ] [6 ]
Telephony routing over IP, and the
Base16 encoding; compact notation for binary data; tonal system
Celtic, Maya, Inuit, Yoruba, Tlingit, and Dzongkha numerals; Santali, and Ainu languages
Mapping the nonzero digits to the alphabet and zero to the space is occasionally used to provide
checksums for alphabetic data such as personal names, to provide a concise encoding of alphabetic strings, [7 ] or as the basis for a form of [8 ] gematria. [9 ]
Natural Area Code
Base32 encoding and the Ngiti language
Base36 encoding; use of letters with digits
Babylonian numerals; degrees-minutes-seconds and hours-minutes-seconds measurement systems; Ekari and Sumerian languages
The common names of the negative base numeral systems are formed using the prefix
nega-, giving names such as:
Non-positional notation [ edit ]
All known numeral systems developed before the
Babylonian numerals are non-positional. [12 ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ For the mixed roots of the word "hexadecimal", see Epp, Susanna (2010), (4th ed.), Cengage Learning, p. 91, Discrete Mathematics with Applications ISBN 9781133168669 .
^ The History of Arithmetic, Louis Charles Karpinski, 200pp, Rand McNally & Company, 1925.
^ Histoire universelle des chiffres, Georges Ifrah, Robert Laffont, 1994.
^ The Universal History of Numbers: From prehistory to the invention of the computer, Georges Ifrah, ISBN 0-471-39340-1, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 2000. Translated from the French by David Bellos, E.F. Harding, Sophie Wood and Ian Monk
^ HP Museum
^ Free Patents Online
^ Grannis, Shaun J.; Overhage, J. Marc; McDonald, Clement J. (2002), "Analysis of identifier performance using a deterministic linkage algorithm", Proc AMIA Symp., pp. 305–309, PMC 2244404, PMID 12463836 .
^ Stephens, Kenneth Rod (1996), Visual Basic Algorithms: A Developer's Sourcebook of Ready-to-run Code, Wiley, p. 215, ISBN 9780471134183 .
^ Sallows, Lee (1993), "Base 27: the key to a new gematria", Word Ways 26 (2): 67–77 .
^ Nasar, Sylvia (2001). A Beautiful Mind. Simon and Schuster. pp. 333–6. ISBN 0-7432-2457-4.
^ Ward, Rachel (2008), "On Robustness Properties of Beta Encoders and Golden Ratio Encoders", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 54 (9): 4324–4334, doi: 10.1109/TIT.2008.928235
^ Chrisomalis calls the Babylonian system "the first positional system ever" in Chrisomalis, Stephen (2010), , Cambridge University Press, p. 254, Numerical Notation: A Comparative History ISBN 9781139485333 .