List of official languages

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This is a list of official languages.

Official languages of supra-national institutions[edit]

See List of official languages by institution.

Official languages of sovereign countries[edit]

A[edit]

Afrikaans:

Albanian:

Amharic:

Arabic (see also List of countries where Arabic is an official language):

Armenian:

Aymara:

Azerbaijani:

B[edit]

Belarusian:

Bengali:

Berber:

Bislama:

Bosnian:

Bulgarian:

Burmese:

  • Burma (called Myanmar in the constitution)[16]

C[edit]

Cantonese:

Catalan:

Chinese, Mandarin:

Chichewa:

Croatian:

Czech:

  • Czech Republic
  • Slovakia (legislation states that a person using Czech language at a Slovak institution must be treated as if using Slovak language)

D[edit]

Danish:

Dari:

  • Afghanistan (a local variant of Persian, but defined as "Dari" in the Afghan constitution)[20]

Dhivehi:

Dutch:

Dzongkha:

E[edit]

English (see also List of countries where English is an official language):

Estonian:

F[edit]

Fijian:

Filipino:

Finnish:

French (see also List of countries where French is an official language):

G[edit]

Georgian:

German:

Greek:

Guaraní:

Gujarati:

H[edit]

Haitian Creole:

Hausa:

Hebrew:

Hindi:

  • India ("official language of the Union"; with English; 22 other regional languages)[38]
  • Fiji (with English and Bau Fijian; known constitutionally as Hindustani as an umbrella term to cover Urdu, as well as Hindi)[23]

Hiri Motu:

Hungarian:

I[edit]

Ibo:

Icelandic:

Indonesian:

Irish:

Italian:

J[edit]

Japanese:

K[edit]

Kazakh:

Khmer:

Kinyarwanda:

Kikongo:

Kirundi:

Kituba:

Korean:

Kurdish:

Kyrgyz:

L[edit]

Lao:

Latin:

Latvian:

Lingala:

Lithuanian:

Luxembourgish:

M[edit]

Macedonian:

Malagasy:

Malay:

Maltese:

Manx Gaelic:

Māori:

  • New Zealand (with English and New Zealand Sign Language)

Moldovan

Mongolian:

Montenegrin:

N[edit]

Ndebele (Southern and Northern):

Nepali:

New Zealand Sign Language:

Northern Sotho:

Norwegian:

  • Norway (two official written forms - Bokmål and Nynorsk)

O[edit]

Ossetian:

P[edit]

Punjabi

  • India (official with 21 other languages)[47]

Papiamento:

Pashtu:

Persian:

Polish:

Portuguese:

Q[edit]

Quechua:

R[edit]

Romanian:

  • Romania
  • Moldova (officially called Moldovan, although identical to Romanian according to the law of Moldova)[45]

Romansh:

Russian:

S[edit]

Sango

Serbian:

Seychellois Creole

Shona:

Sinhala:

  • Sri Lanka (with Tamil, and with English as a link language)

Slovak:

Slovene:

Somali:

Sotho:

Spanish:

Swahili:

Swati:

Swedish:

T[edit]

Tajik:

Tagalog:

Tamil:

Tetum:

Thai:

Tigrinya:

Tok Pisin:

Tshiluba

Tsonga:

Tswana:

Turkish:

Turkmen:

U[edit]

Ukrainian:

Urdu:

  • Pakistan (with English)
  • Fiji (with English and Bau Fijian; known constitutionally as Hindustani as an umbrella term to cover Urdu, as well as Hindi.)

Uzbek:

V[edit]

Venda:

Vietnamese:

W[edit]

Welsh:

X[edit]

Xhosa:

Y[edit]

Yoruba:

Z[edit]

Zulu:

Number of countries with the same official language[edit]

This is a ranking of languages by number of sovereign countries in which they are de jure or de facto official.

Language World Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania Countries
English 59 24 16 4 3 12 India, United States, Pakistan, United Kingdom. See the full list
French 29 21 2 - 5 1 France, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Canada, Madagascar. See the full list
Arabic 26 14 - 12 - - Egypt, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Morocco. See the full list
Spanish 21 1 19 - 1 1 Spain, Mexico, Equatorial Guinea, Easter Island in (Oceania). See the full list
Portuguese 10 6 1 1 1 - Brazil, Portugal, Mozambique, Angola. See full list
Russian 8 - - 3 5 - Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Abkhazia*, South Ossetia*, Transnistria*. See also the full list
German 8 1 - - 7 - Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Italy, Namibia
Italian 6 - - - 6 - Italy, Croatia, San Marino, Slovenia, Switzerland, Vatican City
Malay 4 - - 4 - - Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei
Swahili 4 4 - - - - Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Chinese, Mandarin 3 - - 3 - - China, Taiwan, Singapore
Dutch - 1 - 2 - Netherlands, Belgium, Suriname
Persian - - 3 - - Iran, Afghanistan (known as Dari), Tajikistan (known as Tajik)
Romanian - - - 3 - Romania, Moldova, Transnistria* (uses Cyrillic script there)
Serbian - - - 3 - Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*

Several languages are officially used in two countries, these are:

Note
Asterisk shows the countries which independence is disputed

Official regional and minority languages[edit]

Abaza:

Adyghe:

Aghul:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[56]

Aklanon:

  • Visayas (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kinaray-a, Surigaonon, Tagalog, and Waray-Waray)[57]

Albanian:

  • Serbia (in Kosovo and several municipalities in Central-Serbia)
  • Macedonia (in some municipalities)

Albanian:

Altay:

Arabic:

Aranese see Occitan

Armenian:

Assamese:

Avar:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[56]

Azeri:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[56]

Balkar:

Bashkir:

Basque:

Bengali:

Bikol:

  • Luzon and Visayas (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tagalog, and Waray-Waray)[57]

Bosnian:

Buryat:

Cantonese Chinese:

  • Hong Kong (for Chinese language, Cantonese is spoken de facto; co-official with English)
  • Macau (for Chinese language, Cantonese is spoken de facto; co-official with Portuguese)
  • parts of China

Catalan:

Cebuano:

  • Luzon and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray-Waray, and Yakan)[57]

Chavacano:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maguindanao, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, and Yakan)[57]

Chechen:

Cherkess:

Chipewyan:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Chukchi:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Chukchi population)[64]

Chuvash

Cree:

  • Northwest Territories (with Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Crimean Tatar

  • Crimea (with Russian and Ukrainian)

Croatian:

Dargwa:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[56]

Dolgan:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Dolgan population)[64]

Dutch:

English:

  • parts of Canada:
  • The United Kingdom:

Erzya:

Even:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Even population)[64]

Evenki:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Evenki population)[64]

Faroese:

Finnish:

  • Karelia (authorized language; with Karelian and Veps)[67]

French:

  • parts of Canada

Frisian (West):

Gagauz:

Galician:

  • part of Spain

German:

Greek:

Guaraní:

Gujarati:

Gwich'in:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Hawaiian:

Hiligaynon:

  • Visayas and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray-Waray, and Yakan)[57]

Hungarian:

Ibanag:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Sambal, and Tagalog)[57]

Ilocano:

  • Luzon and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Maguindanao, Maranao, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, and Yakan.)[57]

Ingush:

Inuinnaqtun:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))
  • Nunavut (with English, French, and Inuktitut)

Inuktitut:

  • Nunavut (with English, French, and Inuinnaqtun)
  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Inuvialuktun:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Irish:

Italian:

Ivatan:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ibanag, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Sambal, and Tagalog)[57]

Japanese:

Kabardian

Kalaallisut:

Kalmyk:

Kannada:

Kapampangan:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ilocano, Ibanag, Ivatan, Pangasinan, Sambal, and Tagalog)[57]

Karachay:

Karelian:

  • Karelia (authorized language; with Finnish and Veps)[67]

Kashmiri:

Kazakh:

Khakas:

Khanty:

Kinaray-a:

  • Visayas (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Surigaonon, Tagalog, and Waray-Waray)[57]

Komi:

  • Komi (state language; with Russian)[74]

Komi-Permyak:

Korean:

Kumyk:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[56]

Kyrgyz:

Lak:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[56]

Lezgian

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[56]

Macedonian:*part of Albania

Maguindanao:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, and Yakan)[57]

Malayalam:

Mansi:

Maranao:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maguindanao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, and Yakan)[57]

Marathi:

Mari (Hill and Meadow):

Mayan:

Moksha:

Mongolian:

Náhuatl:

Nenets:

Nepali:

  • India (with 22 other regional languages)

Nogai:

Occitan (Aranese):

Oriya:

Ossetic (Digor and Iron dialects):

Pangasinan:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Sambal, and Tagalog)[57]

Portuguese:*part of the People's Republic of China

Punjabi:

Romanian:

  • Vojvodina (with Croatian, Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak and Ruthenian)

Russian. Russian is fixed as a state language in the Constitutions of the republics of the Russian Federation:

Rusyn:

  • Vojvodina (with Croatian, Serbian, Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak)
  • Ukraine
    • Zakarapts'ka region (with Ukrainian, Hungarian)

Rutul:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[56]

Sakha:

Sambal:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, and Tagalog)[57]

Sami:

  • Finland (in four municipalities)
  • Norway (in six municipalities in two provinces)
  • Sweden (in four municipalities and surrounding municipalities)

Sanskrit:

  • India (with 22 other regional languages)

Sarikoli:

Scottish Gaelic:

Scots:

Selkup:

Serbian:

Sindhi:

North and South Slavey:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Slovak:

  • part of Serbia
  • Vojvodina (with Croatian, Serbian, Hungarian, Romanian and Ruthenian)

Slovene:

Spanish:

Surigaonon:

  • Visayas and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray-Waray, and Yakan)[57]

Tabasaran:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[56]

Tagalog:

  • Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tausug, Waray-Waray, and Yakan)[57]

Tahitian:

Tamil:

Tat:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[56]

Tatar:

Tausug:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maguindanao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Maranao, and Yakan)[57]

Telugu:

Tibetan:

  • Tibet Autonomous Region (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Aba (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Garzê (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Diqing (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Wenshan (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Gannan (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Haibai (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Hainan (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Huangnan (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Golog (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Gyêgu (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Haixi (with Mongolian and Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Muli (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Tianzhu (with Chinese (Mandarin))

Tłįchǫ:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, and South Slavey)

Tsakhur:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[56]

Tswana:

Turkish:

Tuvan:

  • Tyva (state language; with Russian)[81]

Udmurt:

Urdu:

Uyghur:

Veps:

  • Karelia (authorized language; with Finnish and Karelian)[67]

Vietnamese:

Waray-Waray:

Welsh:

Yakan:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maguindanao, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, and Tausug)[57]

Yiddish:

Yukaghir:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Yukaghir population)[64]

Zhuang:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Section 6. Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996
  2. ^ Article 14. Albanian Constitution
  3. ^ Article 5. Kosovo Constitution
  4. ^ Article 5. Ethiopian Constitution
  5. ^ a b Article 4. Constitution of Iraq
  6. ^ a b Article 5. Constitution du Maroc
  7. ^ Article 12. Constitution of Armenia
  8. ^ Article 15. Constitution of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
  9. ^ a b c d Artículo 5. Constitución Política del Estado
  10. ^ a b c Artículo 48. Constitución Política del Perú
  11. ^ Article 21. Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan
  12. ^ a b Article 17. Constitution of the Republic of Belarus
  13. ^ 3. The state language. Constitution of Bangladesh
  14. ^ a b c Article 3. Constitution of the Republic of Vanuatu
  15. ^ Article 3. Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria
  16. ^ Article 450. Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar
  17. ^ Article 2. La Constitució del Principat d’Andorra
  18. ^ a b c d Articles 44, 53, 123. Constitution of the Republic of Singapore
  19. ^ Article 12. Constitution of the Republic of Croatia
  20. ^ a b c Article 16. Constitution of Afghanistan
  21. ^ Article 11. Constitution of the Republic of Maldives
  22. ^ Article 1. Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan
  23. ^ a b c Section 4. Fiji Constitution
  24. ^ a b Article 8. Constitution of Ireland 1937
  25. ^ Article 152 - National Language and Other Languages, Constitution of Malaysia
  26. ^ a b Article 49. Constitution of Mauritius
  27. ^ Namibia - Constitution, servat.unibe.ch/icl (International Constitutional Law collection), 1990, retrieved 2008-05-02  (Article 3)
  28. ^ a b Article 18. Constitution de la République Centrafricaine
  29. ^ a b c d e Article 1. Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  30. ^ a b Article 5. La Constitution de la République d’Haïti
  31. ^ a b c Article 5. Constitution de la République du Congo
  32. ^ a b c d Article 4. Constitution fédérale de la Confédération Suisse
  33. ^ a b Article 8. Constitution of Georgia
  34. ^ a b c (Russian) Статья 4. Конституция Республики Южная Осетия
  35. ^ a b App. D., Part 1, Art. 3. Constitution of Cyprus
  36. ^ a b Artículo 140. Constituciones de la República del Paraguay
  37. ^ a b c Article 55. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
  38. ^ Part XVII. Constitution of India
  39. ^ Article H. Fundamental Law of Hungary
  40. ^ a b Article 36. Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia
  41. ^ a b Article 7. Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan
  42. ^ Article 5. Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia
  43. ^ Article 165. North Korean Constitution
  44. ^ a b (Russian) Статья 10. Конституция Кыргызской Республики
  45. ^ a b Article 13. Constitution of the Republic of Moldova
  46. ^ a b c Article 12. Constitution of the Pridnestrovskaia Moldavskaia Respublica
  47. ^ Languages of India
  48. ^ a b c Article 2. Constitution of Tajikistan
  49. ^ Article 68. Constitution of the Russian Federation
  50. ^ (Russian) Статья 6. Конституция Республики Абхазия
  51. ^ Slovak language is defined as official language together with Czech language by several laws - e.g. law 500/2004, 337/1992. Source: http://portal.gov.cz. Cited: "Například Správní řád (zákon č. 500/2004 Sb.) stanovuje: "V řízení se jedná a písemnosti se vyhotovují v českém jazyce. Účastníci řízení mohou jednat a písemnosti mohou být předkládány i v jazyce slovenském..." (§16, odstavec 1). Zákon o správě daní a poplatků (337/1992 Sb.) „Úřední jazyk: Před správcem daně se jedná v jazyce českém nebo slovenském. Veškerá písemná podání se předkládají v češtině nebo slovenštině..." (§ 3, odstavec 1). http://portal.gov.cz
  52. ^ Section 3. Spanish Constitution
  53. ^ Article 7. The Constitution of Kenya (2010)
  54. ^ a b c d e Article 11 of the Constitution of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic
  55. ^ a b Article 5 of the Constitution of the Republic of Adygea
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Article 11 of the Constitution of the Republic of Dagestan
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s DepEd adds 7 languages to mother tongue-based education for Kinder to Grade 3. GMA News. July 13, 2013.
  58. ^ a b Article 13 of the Constitution of the Republic of Altay
  59. ^ a b c Article 76 of the Constitution of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic
  60. ^ a b Article 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan
  61. ^ a b Article 67 of the Constitution of the Republic of Buryatia
  62. ^ Article 108 of the Statute of the Zabaykalsky Krai
  63. ^ a b Article 10 of the Constitution of the Chechen Republic
  64. ^ a b c d e Article 6 of the Law of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) On languages in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
  65. ^ a b Article 8 of the Constitution of the Chuvash Republic
  66. ^ a b c Article 12 of the Constitution of the Republic of Mordovia
  67. ^ a b c Law of the Republic of Karelia On state support of Karelian, Veps and Finnish languages in the Republic of Karelia
  68. ^ a b Article 14 of the Constitution of the Republic of Ingushetia
  69. ^ a b Article 17 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kalmykia
  70. ^ Article 4 of the Law of the Republic of Altay On languages
  71. ^ a b Article 69 of the Constitution of the Republic of Khakassia
  72. ^ a b c Law of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug On the languages of the aboriginal minorities of the North living within the territory of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug
  73. ^ a b c Law of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug On native languages of the aboriginal minorities of the North within the territory of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
  74. ^ a b Article 67 of the Constitution of the Republic of Komi
  75. ^ Article 42 of the Statute of the Perm Krai
  76. ^ a b Article 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of Mari El
  77. ^ a b Article 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of North Ossetia—Alania
  78. ^ Article 11 of the Constitution of the Republic of Karelia
  79. ^ a b Article 46 of the Constitution of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
  80. ^ a b Article 8 of the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan
  81. ^ a b Article 5 of the Constitution of the Republic of Tyva
  82. ^ a b Article 8 of the Constitution of the Udmurt Republic
  83. ^ a b c d e f g h "Treće izvješće Republike Hrvatske o primjeni Europske povelje o regionalnim ili manjinskim jezicima". Government of Croatia. August, 2006. Retrieved 2014-03-30. 
  84. ^ a b c d e f g h i Government of Croatia. "NAPUTAK ZA DOSLJEDNU PROVEDBU ZAKONA O UPORABI JEZIKA I PISMA NACIONALNIH MANJINA U REPUBLICI HRVATSKOJ". Narodne novine. Retrieved 2014-03-30. 
  85. ^ a b c "Registar Geografskih Imena Nacionalnih Manjina Republike Hrvatske" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-03-30.