List of organizations designated by the Southern Poverty Law Center as hate groups

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The following is a list of U.S.-based organizations classified by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) as hate groups.[1] The SPLC defines hate groups as those that "... have beliefs or practices that attack or malign an entire class of people, typically for their immutable characteristics."[1] The SPLC states: "Hate group activities can include criminal acts, marches, rallies, speeches, meetings, leafleting or publishing" but that "Listing here does not imply a group advocates or engages in violence or other criminal activity".[1]

Since 1981, the SPLC's Intelligence Project has published a quarterly Intelligence Report that monitors what the SPLC considers hate groups in the United States.[2][3] The Intelligence Report provides information regarding organizational efforts and tactics of these groups, and is cited by a number of scholars as reliable and as the most comprehensive source on U.S. hate groups.[4][5][6][7] The SPLC also publishes the HateWatch Weekly newsletter, which documents racism and extremism, and the Hatewatch blog, whose subtitle is "Keeping an Eye on the Radical Right".[8]

Apart from the listed groups themselves, the SPLC's hate group listings have been criticized by some political observers and prominent Republicans. These detractors include Ken Silverstein, Laird Wilcox, Dana Milbank, House Speaker John Boehner and Representative Michele Bachmann.[9][10]

Types of groups[edit]

The Southern Poverty Law Center counted 1,007 groups as active hate groups in the United States in 2012. Only organizations and their chapters known to be active during 2012 are included.[11]

The groups included:

Anti-LGBT[edit]

Anti-LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) or anti-gay can refer to activities in certain categories (or combination of categories): attitudes against or discrimination against LGBT people, violence against LGBT people, LGBT rights opposition and religious opposition to homosexuality.

Anti-immigrant[edit]

The SPLC's anti-immigrant group category are described as xenophobic, publishing racist propaganda, and/or confronting or harassing immigrants and their supporters.[16]

Anti-Muslim[edit]

Anti-Muslim hate groups are described as disputing Islam's status as a respectable religion, and depicting Muslims as irrational, intolerant and violent and sanctioning pedophilia, marital rape and child marriage.[18]

Black separatist[edit]

Black separatism is a movement to create separate institutions for people of African descent in societies historically dominated by whites. Black separatists also often seek a separate homeland. Black separatists generally think that black people cannot advance in a society dominated by a white majority.

Christian Identity[edit]

Christian Identity is a label applied to a wide variety of loosely affiliated believers and churches with a white supremacist theology.[21][22] Most promote a racist interpretation of Christianity. It emerged as an offshoot sect from British Israelism in the 1920s and 1930s.[23][24] Estimates are that these groups have 2,000 to 50,000 members in the United States,[25] and an unknown number in Canada and the rest of the British Commonwealth.


General hate[edit]

Holocaust denial[edit]

Holocaust denial is the act of denying that the Holocaust happened.[28] Most Holocaust deniers argue that the Holocaust is a hoax arising out of a deliberate Jewish conspiracy to advance the interest of Jews at the expense of other peoples.[29] The key claims of Holocaust denial are that: the German Nazi government had no official policy or intention of exterminating Jews, Nazis did not use extermination camps and gas chambers to mass murder Jews, and that the number of Jews killed by the Nazis was significantly lower than the historically accepted figure of 5 to 6 million.[30][31][32] Holocaust deniers generally do not use the term denial to describe their beliefs, and instead usually use the term historical revisionism.[33] Scholars use the term denial to differentiate Holocaust deniers from legitimate historical revisionists, who use established historical methodologies.[34]

Ku Klux Klan[edit]

Ku Klux Klan, often abbreviated "KKK" and informally known as "The Klan", is the name of three distinct past and present far-right[36][37][38][39] organizations in the United States, which have advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration, historically expressed through terrorism.[40] Since the mid-20th century, the KKK has also been anti-communist.[40] The current manifestation is splintered into several chapters and is classified as a hate group.[41]

Neo-Confederate[edit]

Neo-Confederate is a term used by academics to describe the views of various groups and individuals who have a positive belief system concerning the historical experience of the Confederate States of America, the southern secession, and the southern United States — including proslavery ideology. Neo-Confederacy usually expresses veneration for Confederate leaders, soldiers, writers, symbols and other aspects of the Confederacy.[43] It advocates alternative interpretations of American history, particularly regarding the American Civil War, the history of the Southern United States and the founding of the United States. It portrays the southern United States as victims of war crimes and constitutional violations by Abraham Lincoln, the Northern United States and the Union armies.[44]

Neo-Nazi[edit]

Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II social or political movements seeking to revive Nazism or some variant thereof.[46][47][48][49] The term neo-Nazism can also refer to the ideology of these movements.[50][51] Although it does not have a single coherent philosophy, Neo-Nazism borrows elements from Nazi doctrine, including militant nationalism, fascism, anti-semitism, racism, xenophobia and homophobia.[52]

Racist skinheads[edit]

Racist skinheads are a white supremacist and anti-semitic offshoot of the skinhead subculture.[54][55][56] Many of them are affiliated with white nationalist organizations. Starting in the United Kingdom, the subculture eventually spread to North America, Europe and other areas of the world.[57][58][59] In 1988, there were approximately 2,000 neo-Nazi skinheads in the US.[60][61] According to a 2007 report by the Anti-Defamation League, groups such as white power skinheads, neo-Nazis, and the Ku Klux Klan, have been growing more active in the United States in recent years, with a particular focus on opposing non-white immigration, specifically from Mexico.[55]

Radical traditional Catholicism[edit]

According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, radical traditionalist Catholics who "may make up the largest single group of serious anti-Semites in America, subscribe to an ideology that is rejected by the Vatican and some 70 million mainstream American Catholics and many of their leaders have been condemned and even excommunicated by the official church.[63] Adherents of radical traditional Catholicism "routinely pillory Jews as 'the perpetual enemy of Christ'", reject the ecumenical efforts of the Vatican, and sometimes argue that all recent Popes are illegitimate.[63] Adherents are also "incensed by the liberalizing reforms" of the Second Vatican Council (1962–65), which condemned hatred for Jewish people and "rejected the accusation that Jews are collectively responsible for deicide in the form of the crucifixion of Christ."[63]

White nationalist[edit]

White nationalism is a political ideology that advocates a racial definition of national identity for white people (as opposed to multiculturalism) and a separate all-white nation state. White separatism and white supremacy are subgroups within white nationalism.[65] The former seek a separate white state, while the latter add ideas from social Darwinism and Nazism to their ideology.[65] The vast majority of white nationalists are separatists, and a smaller number of them are supremacists.[65] Both generally avoid the term supremacy, because it has negative connotations.[66] The contemporary white nationalist movement in the United States could be regarded as a reaction to what is perceived as a decline in white demographics, politics and culture.[67] According to Samuel P. Huntington, the contemporary white nationalist movement is increasingly cultured, intellectual and academically trained.[68] Some have suggested that rather than espousing violence, white nationalists use statistics and social science data to argue for a self-conscious white identity.[69] By challenging established policies on immigration, civil rights and racial integration, they seek to build bridges with more moderate conservative white people.[70]

White Power music[edit]

White power music is music that promotes white nationalism and expresses racism against non-whites.[73] White power music adopts the musical conventions, rhythms and forms of non-racist music to advance extreme white racism in various music genres, including pop, rock, country, experimental music and folk.[74][75] Specific white power music genres include Nazi punk, Rock Against Communism, hatecore and National Socialist black metal.[75]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "SPLCenter.org: Hate Groups Map". Tolerance.org. Retrieved June 5, 2013. 
  2. ^ Intelligence Report Get Informed web page Retrieved December 18, 2010
  3. ^ "Intelligence Report". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved September 18, 2007. 
  4. ^ Rory McVeigh. Structured Ignorance and Organized Racism in the United States. Social Forces, Vol. 82, No. 3, (Mar., 2004), p. 913 JSTOR
  5. ^ Backfire: How the Ku Klux Klan Helped the Civil Rights Movement By David Mark Chalmers Page 188
  6. ^ Untangling the web of hate: are online "hate sites" deserving of First Amendment Protection? By Brett A. Barnett. Google Books. December 31, 2007. ISBN 9781934043912. Retrieved January 24, 2012. 
  7. ^ "Illinois Association for Cultural Diversity reading list". Western Illinois University. Retrieved January 26, 2009. 
  8. ^ "Hatewatch Weekly". Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on August 21, 2007. Retrieved September 18, 2007. 
  9. ^ http://www.harpers.org/archive/2010/03/hbc-90006753
  10. ^ http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Society/2011/0223/Annual-report-cites-rise-in-hate-groups-but-some-ask-What-is-hate
  11. ^ SPLC Active U.S. Hate Groups web page Retrieved May 2, 2013
  12. ^ "Hate groups active in 2008". Intelligence Report. Spring 2009. pp. 52–58. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
  13. ^ "Active U.S. hate groups: Map". Intelligence Report. Spring 2009. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
  14. ^ "Hate websites active in 2008". Intelligence Report. Spring 2009, pp. 59–65.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al "Active Anti-LGBT Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  16. ^ "antiimmigrant". Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Active Anti-Immigrant Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  18. ^ http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-files/ideology/anti-muslim
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai "Active Anti-Muslim Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g "Active Black Separatist Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  21. ^ Eck, Diane (2001). A New Religious America: How a "Christian Country" has become the world’s most religiously diverse nation. New York:: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 347. 
  22. ^ Buck, Christopher (2009). Religious Myths and Visions of America: How Minority Faiths Redefined America's World Role. Praeger. pp. 107, 108, 213. ISBN 978-0313359590. 
  23. ^ Religion and the racist right: the origins of the Christian Identity movement, Michael Barkun, 1997, Preface, xii, xiii.
  24. ^ "Christian Identity". Adl.org. Retrieved January 24, 2012. 
  25. ^ Barkun, Michael (1996). "preface". Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. University of North Carolina Press. pp. x. ISBN 0-8078-4638-4. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z "Active Christian Identity Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as "Active General Hate Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  28. ^ Donald L Niewyk, The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, p.45: "The Holocaust is commonly defined as the murder of more than 5,000,000 Jews by the Germans in World War II."
  29. ^ A hoax designed to advance the interests of Jews:
    • "The title of App's major work on the Holocaust, The Six Million Swindle, is informative because it implies on its very own the existence of a conspiracy of Jews to perpetrate a hoax against non-Jews for monetary gain." Mathis, Andrew E. Holocaust Denial, a Definition, The Holocaust History Project, July 2, 2004. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
    • "Jews are thus depicted as manipulative and powerful conspirators who have fabricated myths of their own suffering for their own ends. According to the Holocaust deniers, by forging evidence and mounting a massive propaganda effort, the Jews have established their lies as ‘truth’ and reaped enormous rewards from doing so: for example, in making financial claims on Germany and acquiring international support for Israel." The nature of Holocaust denial: What is Holocaust denial?, JPR report No. 3, 2000. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
    • "Why, we might ask the deniers, if the Holocaust did not happen would any group concoct such a horrific story? Because, some deniers claim, there was a conspiracy by Zionists to exaggerate the plight of Jews during the war in order to finance the state of Israel through war reparations." Michael Shermer & Alex Grobman. Denying History: : who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and why Do They Say It?, University of California Press, 2000, ISBN 0-520-23469-3, p. 106.
    • "Since its inception...the Institute for Historical Review (IHR), a California-based Holocaust denial organization founded by Willis Carto of Liberty Lobby, has promoted the antisemitic conspiracy theory that Jews fabricated tales of their own genocide to manipulate the sympathies of the non-Jewish world." Antisemitism and Racism Country Reports: United States, Stephen Roth Institute, 2000. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
    • "The central assertion for the deniers is that Jews are not victims but victimizers. They 'stole' billions in reparations, destroyed Germany's good name by spreading the 'myth' of the Holocaust, and won international sympathy because of what they claimed had been done to them. In the paramount miscarriage of injustice, they used the world's sympathy to 'displace' another people so that the state of Israel could be established. This contention relating to the establishment of Israel is a linchpin of their argument." Deborah Lipstadt. Denying the Holocaust – The Growing Assault onTruth and Memory, Penguin, 1993, ISBN 0-452-27274-2, p. 27.
    • "They [Holocaust deniers] picture a vast shadowy conspiracy that controls and manipulates the institutions of education, culture, the media and government in order to disseminate a pernicious mythology. The purpose of this Holocaust mythology, they assert, is the inculcation of a sense of guilt in the white, Western Christian world. Those who can make others feel guilty have power over them and can make them do their bidding. This power is used to advance an international Jewish agenda centered in the Zionist enterprise of the State of Israel." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "Deniers argue that the manufactured guilt and shame over a mythological Holocaust led to Western, specifically United States, support for the establishment and sustenance of the Israeli state — a sustenance that costs the American taxpayer over three billion dollars per year. They assert that American taxpayers have been and continue to be swindled..." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "The stress on Holocaust revisionism underscored the new anti-Semitic agenda gaining ground within the Klan movement. Holocaust denial refurbished conspiratorial anti-Semitism. Who else but the Jews had the media power to hoodwink unsuspecting masses with one of the greatest hoaxes in history? And for what motive? To promote the claims of the illegitimate state of Israel by making non-Jews feel guilty, of course." Lawrence N. Powell, Troubled Memory: Anne Levy, the Holocaust, and David Duke's Louisiana, University of North Carolina Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8078-5374-7, p. 445.
  30. ^ "How many Jews were murdered in the Holocaust? How do we know? Do we have their names?", The Holocaust Resource Center Faqs, Yad Vashem website. Accessed February 17, 2011. See also appropriate section of the Holocaust article for the death toll.
  31. ^ Key elements of Holocaust denial:
    • "Before discussing how Holocaust denial constitutes a conspiracy theory, and how the theory is distinctly American, it is important to understand what is meant by the term "Holocaust denial." Holocaust deniers, or "revisionists," as they call themselves, question all three major points of definition of the Nazi Holocaust. First, they contend that, while mass murders of Jews did occur (although they dispute both the intentionality of such murders as well as the supposed deservedness of these killings), there was no official Nazi policy to murder Jews. Second, and perhaps most prominently, they contend that there were no homicidal gas chambers, particularly at Auschwitz-Birkenau, where mainstream historians believe over 1 million Jews were murdered, primarily in gas chambers. And third, Holocaust deniers contend that the death toll of European Jews during World War II was well below 6 million. Deniers float numbers anywhere between 300,000 and 1.5 million, as a general rule." Mathis, Andrew E. Holocaust Denial, a Definition, The Holocaust History Project, July 2, 2004. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
    • "In part III we directly address the three major foundations upon which Holocaust denial rests, including... the claim that gas chambers and crematoria were used not for mass extermination but rather for delousing clothing and disposing of people who died of disease and overwork; ... the claim that the six million figure is an exaggeration by an order of magnitude—that about six hundred thousand, not six million, died at the hands of the Nazis; ... the claim that there was no intention on the part of the Nazis to exterminate European Jewry and that the Holocaust was nothing more than the unfortunate by-product of the vicissitudes of war." Michael Shermer and Alex Grobman. Denying History: : who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and why Do They Say It?, University of California Press, 2000, ISBN 0-520-23469-3, p. 3.
    • "Holocaust Denial: Claims that the mass extermination of the Jews by the Nazis never happened; that the number of Jewish losses has been greatly exaggerated; that the Holocaust was not systematic nor a result of an official policy; or simply that the Holocaust never took place." What is Holocaust Denial, Yad Vashem website, 2004. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
    • "Among the untruths routinely promoted are the claims that no gas chambers existed at Auschwitz, that only 600,000 Jews were killed rather than six million, and that Hitler had no murderous intentions toward Jews or other groups persecuted by his government." Holocaust Denial, Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 28, 2007.
  32. ^ "The kinds of assertions made in Holocaust-denial material include the following:
    • Several hundred thousand rather than approximately six million Jews died during the war.
    • Scientific evidence proves that gas chambers could not have been used to kill large numbers of people.
    • The Nazi command had a policy of deporting Jews, not exterminating them.
    • Some deliberate killings of Jews did occur, but were carried out by the peoples of Eastern Europe rather than the Nazis.
    • Jews died in camps of various kinds, but did so as the result of hunger and disease. The Holocaust is a myth created by the Allies for propaganda purposes, and subsequently nurtured by the Jews for their own ends.
    • Errors and inconsistencies in survivors’ testimonies point to their essential unreliability.
    • Alleged documentary evidence of the Holocaust, from photographs of concentration camp victims to Anne Frank’s diary, is fabricated.
    • The confessions of former Nazis to war crimes were extracted through torture." The nature of Holocaust denial: What is Holocaust denial?, JPR report No. 3, 2000. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
  33. ^ Refer to themselves as revisionists:
    • "The deniers' selection of the name revisionist to describe themselves is indicative of their basic strategy of deceit and distortion and of their attempt to portray themselves as legitimate historians engaged in the traditional practice of illuminating the past." Deborah Lipstadt. Denying the Holocaust—The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory, Penguin, 1993, ISBN 0-452-27274-2, p. 25.
    • "Dressing themselves in pseudo-academic garb, they have adopted the term "revisionism" in order to mask and legitimate their enterprise." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "Holocaust deniers often refer to themselves as ‘revisionists’, in an attempt to claim legitimacy for their activities. There are, of course, a great many scholars engaged in historical debates about the Holocaust whose work should not be confused with the output of the Holocaust deniers. Debate continues about such subjects as, for example, the extent and nature of ordinary Germans’ involvement in and knowledge of the policy of genocide, and the timing of orders given for the extermination of the Jews. However, the valid endeavour of historical revisionism, which involves the re-interpretation of historical knowledge in the light of newly emerging evidence, is a very different task from that of claiming that the essential facts of the Holocaust, and the evidence for those facts, are fabrications." The nature of Holocaust denial: What is Holocaust denial?, JPR report No. 3, 2000. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
  34. ^ Denial vs. "revisionism":
    • "This is the phenomenon of what has come to be known as 'revisionism', 'negationism', or 'Holocaust denial', whose main characteristic is either an outright rejection of the very veracity of the Nazi genocide of the Jews, or at least a concerted attempt to minimize both its scale and importance... It is just as crucial, however, to distinguish between the wholly objectionable politics of denial and the fully legitimate scholarly revision of previously accepted conventional interpretations of any historical event, including the Holocaust." Bartov, Omer. The Holocaust: Origins, Implementation and Aftermath, Routledge, pp.11–12. Bartov is John P. Birkelund Distinguished Professor of European History at the Watson Institute, and is regarded as one of the world's leading authorities on genocide ("Omer Bartov", The Watson Institute for International Studies).
    • "The two leading critical exposés of Holocaust denial in the United States were written by historians Deborah Lipstadt (1993) and Michael Shermer and Alex Grobman (2000). These scholars make a distinction between historical revisionism and denial. Revisionism, in their view, entails a refinement of existing knowledge about an historical event, not a denial of the event itself, that comes through the examination of new empirical evidence or a reexamination or reinterpretation of existing evidence. Legitimate historical revisionism acknowledges a "certain body of irrefutable evidence" or a "convergence of evidence" that suggest that an event_like the black plague, American slavery, or the Holocaust—did in fact occur (Lipstadt 1993:21; Shermer & Grobman 200:34). Denial, on the other hand, rejects the entire foundation of historical evidence..." Ronald J. Berger. Fathoming the Holocaust: A Social Problems Approach, Aldine Transaction, 2002, ISBN 0-202-30670-4, p. 154.
    • "At this time, in the mid-1970s, the specter of Holocaust Denial (masked as "revisionism") had begun to raise its head in Australia..." Bartrop, Paul R. "A Little More Understanding: The Experience of a Holocaust Educator in Australia" in Samuel Totten, Steven Leonard Jacobs, Paul R Bartrop. Teaching about the Holocaust, Praeger/Greenwood, 2004, p. xix. ISBN 0-275-98232-7
    • "Pierre Vidal-Naquet urges that denial of the Holocaust should not be called 'revisionism' because 'to deny history is not to revise it'. Les Assassins de la Memoire. Un Eichmann de papier et autres essays sur le revisionisme (The Assassins of Memory—A Paper-Eichmann and Other Essays on Revisionism) 15 (1987)." Cited in Roth, Stephen J. "Denial of the Holocaust as an Issue of Law" in the Israel Yearbook on Human Rights, Volume 23, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1993, ISBN 0-7923-2581-8, p. 215.
    • "This essay describes, from a methodological perspective, some of the inherent flaws in the "revisionist" approach to the history of the Holocaust. It is not intended as a polemic, nor does it attempt to ascribe motives. Rather, it seeks to explain the fundamental error in the "revisionist" approach, as well as why that approach of necessity leaves no other choice. It concludes that "revisionism" is a misnomer because the facts do not accord with the position it puts forward and, more importantly, its methodology reverses the appropriate approach to historical investigation... "Revisionism" is obliged to deviate from the standard methodology of historical pursuit, because it seeks to mold facts to fit a preconceived result; it denies events that have been objectively and empirically proved to have occurred; and because it works backward from the conclusion to the facts, thus necessitating the distortion and manipulation of those facts where they differ from the preordained conclusion (which they almost always do). In short, "revisionism" denies something that demonstrably happened, through methodological dishonesty." McFee, Gordon. "Why 'Revisionism' Isn't", The Holocaust History Project, May 15, 1999. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
    • "Crucial to understanding and combating Holocaust denial is a clear distinction between denial and revisionism. One of the more insidious and dangerous aspects of contemporary Holocaust denial, a la Arthur Butz, Bradley Smith and Greg Raven, is the fact that they attempt to present their work as reputable scholarship under the guise of 'historical revisionism'. The term 'revisionist' permeates their publications as descriptive of their motives, orientation and methodology. In fact, Holocaust denial is in no sense 'revisionism', it is denial... Contemporary Holocaust deniers are not revisionists — not even neo-revisionists. They are Deniers. Their motivations stem from their neo-nazi political goals and their rampant antisemitism." Austin, Ben S. "Deniers in Revisionists Clothing", The Holocaust\Shoah Page, Middle Tennessee State University. Retrieved March 29, 2007.
    • "Holocaust denial can be a particularly insidious form of antisemitism precisely because it often tries to disguise itself as something quite different: as genuine scholarly debate (in the pages, for example, of the innocuous-sounding Journal for Historical Review). Holocaust deniers often refer to themselves as ‘revisionists’, in an attempt to claim legitimacy for their activities. There are, of course, a great many scholars engaged in historical debates about the Holocaust whose work should not be confused with the output of the Holocaust deniers. Debate continues about such subjects as, for example, the extent and nature of ordinary Germans’ involvement in and knowledge of the policy of genocide, and the timing of orders given for the extermination of the Jews. However, the valid endeavour of historical revisionism, which involves the re-interpretation of historical knowledge in the light of newly emerging evidence, is a very different task from that of claiming that the essential facts of the Holocaust, and the evidence for those facts, are fabrications." The nature of Holocaust denial: What is Holocaust denial?, JPR report No. 3, 2000. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
    • "The deniers' selection of the name revisionist to describe themselves is indicative of their basic strategy of deceit and distortion and of their attempt to portray themselves as legitimate historians engaged in the traditional practice of illuminating the past. For historians, in fact, the name revisionism has a resonance that is perfectly legitimate – it recalls the controversial historical school known as World War I "revisionists," who argued that the Germans were unjustly held responsible for the war and that consequently the Versailles treaty was a politically misguided document based on a false premise. Thus the deniers link themselves to a specific historiographic tradition of reevaluating the past. Claiming the mantle of the World War I revisionists and denying they have any objective other than the dissemination of the truth constitute a tactical attempt to acquire an intellectual credibility that would otherwise elude them." Deborah Lipstadt. Denying the Holocaust – The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory, Penguin, 1993, ISBN 0-452-27274-2, p. 25.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Active Holocaust Denial Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  36. ^ O'Donnell, Patrick (Editor), 2006. Ku Klux Klan America's First Terrorists Exposed, p. 210. ISBN 1-4196-4978-7.
  37. ^ Chalmers, David Mark, 2003. Backfire: How the Ku Klux Klan Helped the Civil Rights Movement, p. 163. ISBN 978-0-7425-2311-1.
  38. ^ Berlet, Chip; Lyons, Matthew Nemiroff (2000). Right-wing populism in America: too close for comfort. Guilford Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-57230-562-5.
  39. ^ Rory McVeigh, The rise of the Ku Klux Klan: right-wing movements and national politics organizations. University of Minnesota Press. 2009.
  40. ^ a b Charles Quarles, The Ku Klux Klan and related American racialist and antisemitic organizations: a history and analysis, McFarland, 1999
  41. ^ Both the Anti-Defamation League and the Southern Poverty Law Center include it in their lists of hate groups. See also Bfrian Levin, Brian "Cyberhate: A Legal and Historical Analysis of Extremists' Use of Computer Networks in America" in Perry, Barbara, editor. Hate and Bias Crime: A Reader. p. 112 p. Google Books
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "Active Ku Klux Klan Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  43. ^ http://vastpublicindifference.blogspot.com/2008/05/confederate-monumental-landscape_26.html Confederate Monumental Landscape: Literate Sources
  44. ^ "The Lincoln Myth by Thomas DiLorenzo". Plpow.com. Retrieved January 24, 2012. 
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h "Active Neo-Confederate Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  46. ^ Lee McGowan (2002). The Radical Right in Germany: 1870 to the Present. Pearson Education. pp. 9, 178. ISBN 0-582-29193-3. OCLC 49785551. 
  47. ^ Brigitte Bailer-Galanda; Wolfgang Neugebauer. "Right-Wing Extremism in Austria: History, Organisations, Ideology". "Right-wing extremism can be equated neither with National Socialism nor with neo-Fascism or neo-Nazism. Neo-Nazism, a legal term, is understood as the attempt to propagate, in direct defiance of the law (Verbotsgesetz), Nazi ideology or measures such as the denial, playing-down, approval or justification of Nazi mass murder, especially the Holocaust." 
  48. ^ Martin Frost. "Neo Nazism". "The term neo-Nazism refers to any social or political movement seeking to revive National Socialism or a form of Fascism, and which postdates the Second World War. Often, especially internationally, those who are part of such movements do not use the term to describe themselves." 
  49. ^ Lee, Martin A. 1997. The Beast Reawakens. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, pp. 85–118, 214–34, 277–281, 287–330, 333–78. On Volk concept," and a discussion of ethnonationalist integralism, see pp. 215–218
  50. ^ Peter Vogelsang & Brian B. M. Larsen (2002). "Neo-Nazism". The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies. Retrieved December 8, 2007. "Neo-Nazism is the name for a modern offshoot of Nazism. It is a radically right-wing ideology, whose main characteristics are extreme nationalism and violent xenophobia. Neo-Nazism is, as the word suggests, a modern version of Nazism. In general, it is an incoherent right-extremist ideology, which is characterised by ‘borrowing’ many of the elements that constituted traditional Nazism." 
  51. ^ Ondřej Cakl & Klára Kalibová (2002). "Neo-Nazism". Faculty of Humanities at Charles University in Prague, Department of Civil Society Studies. Retrieved December 8, 2007. "Neo-Nazism: An ideology that draws upon the legacy of the Nazi Third Reich, the main pillars of which are an admiration for Adolf Hitler, aggressive nationalism (“nothing but the nation”), and hatred of Jews, foreigners, ethnic minorities, homosexuals and everyone who is different in some way." 
  52. ^ Werner Bergmann; Rainer Erb (1997). Anti-Semitism in Germany: The Post-Nazi Epoch Since 1945. Transaction Publishers. p. 91. ISBN 1-56000-270-0. OCLC 35318351. "In contrast to today, in which rigid authoritarianism and neo-Nazism are characteristic of marginal groups, open or latent leanings toward Nazi ideology in the 1940s and 1950s" 
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