List of 20th-century outdoor proponents and outdoor educators

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This is a list of prominent 20th-century wilderness explorers, naturalists, survival instructors, and exponents of outdoor education, adventure education, adventure therapy, wilderness therapy, etc.

Name Notability Reference
Ansel Easton Adams Outdoorsman, environmentalist, photographer.
George Adamson and Joy Adamson Wildlife conservationists who famously raised Elsa the lioness and inspired the movie and song Born Free.
Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen Polar explorer. Traveled to the South Pole in 1911, and to the North Pole in 1926.
"Anastasia" of Siberia Wilderness dweller. The subject of Vladimir Nikolaevic Megre's Anastasia / Ringing Cedars books, she lives in the Siberian taiga (arboreal forest), immersed in nature, amongst plants, animals, and nature spirits which provide for all her needs. After her parents' accidental deaths, she was raised by two sages, her grandfather and great-grandfather. Her story has inspired thousands to take up country living, simplicity, and nature awareness.[1] Vladimir Megre
Roy Chapman Andrews Naturalist, adventurer, explorer. President of The Explorers Club. Honorary Scout, Boy Scouts of America.
Bradford Angier Country dweller. Authored many books on camping, hiking, backpacking, horsepacking, foraging, outdoor skills, and country living.
David Arama Outdoor programs and wilderness survival instructor. Director, WSC Survival School. David Arama
Aram Attarian Physical educator specializing in outdoor and adventure education. Compiled The Research and Literature on Challenge Courses.[2] Aram Attarian
Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell / 1st Baronet Baden-Powell of Bentley / 1st Baron Baden-Powell of Gilwell (Robert Stephenson Smyth Powell) British Army scout, intelligence officer,[3] and general. Founder of the Scout Movement and The Scout Association.[4] [5] Organised Scout Huts (emulating YMCA Huts) for soldiers' R&R in WW2.[6] "Chief Scout of the World". Many works include books on military scouting (reconnaissance) and youth Scouting, including Scouting for Boys,[10] bestseller of the 20th century, and Rovering to Success[11]. Name source of Mt. Baden-Powell in California. Received the Silver Buffalo award of the Boy Scouts of America in 1926. Lord Baden-Powell and Kurt Hahn are arguably the most famous experiential / outdoor / adventure educators of the 20th century. [7]
Frederick Marshman Bailey Soldier, intelligence officer, linguist, explorer.
Ian Baker Explorer of the Himalayas and scholar of Tibetan Buddhism. With Brian Harvey and Ken Storm, explored the Tsangpo Gorge and discovered massive hidden waterfall in the Tsangpo River in 1998.[8] [9]
Robert Abram Bartlett Foremost Arctic explorer. Honorary Scout, Boy Scouts of America.
Wolf G. Bauer Boy Scout,[10] foldboater, skier, climber, ceramic engineer, climbing instructor, mountain rescuer, conservationist, kayaker. Co-founder, with Ome Daiber and Dr. Otto Trott, of the Mountain Rescue Council (Seattle Mountain Rescue). His climbing courses in The Mountaineers and its Climbers' Notebook were the direct progenitors of Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills. [11] [12]
Daniel Carter Beard Outdoorsman; illustrator. Founder of the Sons of Daniel Boone, later known as the Boy Pioneers. Co-founder of the Boy Scouts of America and the Camp Fire Girls. Received the Silver Buffalo of the BSA in 1926. Honorary Member, Alpha Phi Omega. Many works. Books by Dan Beard
John Bennett Technical diver. First human to scuba dive deeper than 1000 feet. A Journey to 308 Meters
Robert Birkby Eagle Scout. Trail builder. Adventure guide in Africa, Alaska, Nepal, Siberia, etc. Writer, Boy Scouts of America: wrote 10th, 11th, and 12th editions of Boy Scout Handbook, 4th edition of Fieldbook, Backpacking Merit Badge Pamphlet, etc. Author.[13] Robert Birkby
Jens Bjerre Adventurer. Conducted expeditions in Africa and Australia.
Christian John Storey Bonington Soldier, climber. Recipient of many honors, including election as honorary president of the British Orienteering Federation, the Hiking Club, the Lancaster University Mountaineering Club, and Mountain Wilderness. Many works.
William Dickson Boyce Entrepreneur, newspaper publisher, philanthropist, safari explorer. Founder of the Boy Scouts of America and the Lone Scouts of America. [14] [15] [16] [17]
David Breashears Cinematographer, climber.
Steve Brill Naturalist, nature guide, environmental educator. Authored books on foraging for edible and medicinal plants.
David Ross Brower Climber; environmentalist; founder of Earth Island Institute, Fate of the Earth Conferences, Friends of the Earth, John Muir Institute for Environmental Studies, League of Conservation Voters, North Cascades Conservation Council, and Sierra Club Foundation. Member of the Board and Executive Director of the Sierra Club.
Tom Brown, Jr. (White Coyote) Tracker. Proponent of wilderness living, conservation, and spirituality; trained for ten years by "Stalking Wolf." Founded The Tracker school in New Jersey and Tracker Search and Forensic Investigation. Many pupils include Tim Corcoran and Jon Young.[18] Wrote about extreme wilderness training, practices and abilities, including those similar to Tibetan (which allows a person to survive in freezing temperatures) and rlun.gom (which enables a person to travel great distances swiftly without effort or exhaustion). Warns of ecological collapse unless humanity works to prevent it. Many works.[19] [20]
Frederick Russell Burnham Soldier of fortune, prospector, cowboy, hunter. US Army scout. British Army officer and chief of scouts; nicknamed "king of scouts"; taught woodcraft to Baden-Powell during the Second Matabele War; commanded the Lovat Scouts, the first British Army sniper unit (during the Second Boer War). He was active in the Boy Scouts of America, was conferred the title of Honorary Scout, and received the Silver Buffalo in 1936. Name source of Mt. Burnham in California. Fred Burnham [21]
Richard Evelyn Byrd, Jr. Naval aviator, officer, and polar explorer. Honorary Scout, Boy Scouts of America.
Norbert Casteret Climber and prominent caver.
George Kruck Cherrie Naturalist, explorer. Honorary Scout, Boy Scouts of America.
James Lippitt Clark Scientist, explorer, taxidermist, sculptor. Honorary Scout, Boy Scouts of America.
Helen Herz Cohen Director of Camp Walden, an all-girls summer camp in Maine.
Mark Collard Experiential educator. Project Adventure Certified Trainer. Inspire Your Group
William Floyd Collins Pioneer US caver.
Tim Corcoran Teacher of wilderness skills, nature awareness, and spiritual philosophy. Pupil of Tom Brown. Founded Headwaters Outdoor School. Authored Growing Up with a Soul Full of Nature. Headwaters Teachers
Joseph Cornell / Bharat Nature educator and author. His Sharing Nature with Children has had wide international influence. Student of yoga; pupil of Svāmī Kriyānanda Giri.
George C. Daiber / Ome Daiber Boy Scout. Scoutmaster. Climber. Outdoor equipment designer. Rescuer. Co-founder, with Wolf Bauer and Otto Trott, of the Mountain Rescue Council (Seattle Mountain Rescue). Adviser, US Army. [22] [23] [24]
Edmund Wade Davis Biologist, anthropologist, and explorer in Africa, the Arctic, Asia, Australia, Greenland, and Latin America. PhD ethnobotany, Harvard U. Member of the Board of Directors of the Amazon Conservation Association. Recipient, Explorers Medal, Explorers Club (2011). Many works.[25] Wade Davis
Robert-Jacques de Joly Prominent caver. Founding chairman of the Spéléo-club de France.
Mick Dodge US Marine Corps soldier. Outdoorsman, forest dweller.
Charles Minot Dole / Minnie Dole Founder of the National Ski Patrol. During World War II, convinced the US War Department to form the US Army 10th Mountain Division, with which Dole and the National Ski Patrol were active in recruitment and training. Dole was inducted into the National Ski Hall of Fame in 1958. The Minnie Dole Collection at Denver Public Library
Chris Duff Sea kayaker. Made circumnavigations of Britain, Iceland, Ireland, and New Zealand South Island. Recipient of National Outdoor Book Awards for On Celtic Tides and Southern Exposure.
Jim Dutcher Creator/author of films and books about nature, especially wolves. With his wife Jamie, founded Living With Wolves.
Mark Elbroch Author of tracking books. Co-authored A Field Guide to Animal Tracks with Olaus Murie.
Doug Elliott Naturalist; herbalist; story teller. Doug Elliott
Ranulph Fiennes / 3rd Baronet Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes of Banbury Adventurer; soldier; explorer.
Colin Fletcher Hiker, soldier, farmer, prospector, river runner, backpacker. Authored The Complete Walker.
Dian Fossey Eminent primatologist, known for her 18 years of studying gorillas.
Steven Foster Explored around the world researching plant medicine. Authored books on medicinal plants.
Euell Theophilus Gibbons Outdoorsman and proponent of natural diets. Authored books on foraging. Euell Gibbons
Valerie Jane Morris Goodall / Jane Goodall Eminent primatologist, in childhood inspired by Edgar Rice Burroughs's Tarzan. The only human to be accepted into a troop of chimpanzees. Recipient of numerous honors.
Edward Urner Goodman / Chief Eagle Scoutmaster. Soldier. Camp Director of Treasure Island Scout Reservation. National Program Director of the Boy Scouts of America. Founded the BSA's Order of the Arrow[26] with Carroll Andrew Edson.[27] Honored and dubbed as "Chief Eagle" by the Blackfoot nation. Honorary Member, Alpha Phi Omega. [28] [29]
John Graham Exponent of outdoor leadership. [30]
Richard Harry Graves Founded and led a 60-man Australian jungle rescue detachment (attached to the US Army Air Force) that conducted some 300 rescue missions in enemy-held territory. After the war, he ran a bushcraft school for over twenty years. Authored Bushcraft. Graves' Bushcraft Books
Archibald Stansfeld Belaney / Grey Owl Adopted Ojibwe. Conservationist. Black Watch sniper. Subject of the film Grey Owl by Baron Attenborough of Richmond upon Thames.
George Bird Grinnell Anthropologist, historian, naturalist, conservationist. Honorary Scout, Boy Scouts of America. Many works.
Edward Michael Grylls / Bear Grylls Outdoor adventurer; summitted Chief Scout of The Scout Association.
Luther Halsey Gulick Physician. Co-founder of the Boy Scouts of America and the Camp Fire Girls.[31] [32] [33] YMCA Hall of Fame inductee 1992.
Kurt Matthias Robert Martin Hahn / Kurt Hahn Experiential educator. Founder of Schule Schloss Salem, Gordonstoun, and United World Colleges system. Founded Outward Bound® with Lawrence Durning Holt and James Martin Hogan.[34] Originator of the Moray Badge, the forerunner of the County Badge (developed by Jim Hogan), which was the forerunner of The Duke of Edinburgh's Award.[35] Baden-Powell and Kurt Hahn are arguably the most famous experiential / outdoor / adventure educators of the 20th century. The Expeditionary Learning schools movement is founded on the educational principles of Kurt Hahn and the experiences of Outward Bound USA. [36] [37] [38]
James C. Halfpenny / Jim Halfpenny Tracker, hunter, cross-country skier, climber, wilderness guide, biologist, research explorer, and expert on lynxes, cougars, wolves, wolverines, and especially bears. Self-described "scientist and educator who specializes in carnivores, cold, and tracking." Founded Track Education Center and Museum. Chairman of the Board of Directors, National Outdoor Leadership School. PhD mammalogy & ecology, U Colorado, 1980. Many works. James Halfpenny

Jim Halfpenny publications

Haripal Singh Ahluwalia Major, Indian Army. Climbed in Central Asia, Nepal, and Sikkim. First Indian to summit President of the Indian Mountaineering Foundation and the Delhi Mountaineering Association. Authored books on his climbing experiences.
Heinrich Harrer Climber. Authored Seven Years in Tibet[12].
Simo Häyhä Farmer, hunter, marksman, dog breeder. Became famous as the most deadly military sniper in history.
Sven Anders Hedin Linguist, explorer. Made travels through Asia, including 1927-1935 international archeological and scientific expedition to Mongolia, Gobi, and Xinjiang. [39] [40]
Claus Urbye Helberg Commando, skier, mountain guide, and central figure of the Norwegian Trekking Association. [41] [42]
Matthew Alexander Henson Explorer. Traveled towards the North Pole with Robert Peary in 1909.
Leslie James Hiddins Australian Army scout and wilderness promoter.
John Hillaby Hiker famed for long walking journeys and his accounts of these travels.
Edmund Percival Hillary and Tenzing Norgay Sherpa First humans to summit
William Hillcourt / Green Bar Bill (Vilhelm Hans Bjerregaard Jensen) Boy Scout; Scoutmaster; Scouting professional. Served in various positions in the Boy Scouts of America. Authored many books and articles on Scouting, outdoor activities, and Scout skills, including the first Scout Fieldbook and three editions of the Boy Scout Handbook of the BSA. Endeavored to maintain the outdoor orientation of US Boy Scouting. Recipient of the Bronze Wolf and the Silver Buffalo.[43] [44]
James Martin Hogan / Jim Hogan Scout leader, Wood Badge holder. First warden of the sea school at Aberdovey; co-founder of Outward Bound®.[45] [46]
Thomas F. Hornbein / Tom Hornbein Climber and anesthesiologist. In 1963, Tom Hornbein and Willi Unsoeld became the first climbers to summit via the West Ridge.
Ralph Sheldon Hosmer Forester.
Marvin Howard US Army lieutenant colonel. In 1954 founded Troop 290, North Carolina, Boy Scouts of America. The troop lasted 10 years, and has been the only mounted Scout unit in the history of the BSA, with each member required to care for and train a horse.
Cliff Jacobson Authored books on camping, canoeing, and outdoor skills. Cliff Jacobson
Ellsworth Jaeger Exponent of American Indian lore. Authored Wildwood Wisdom.
John Nicholas Kallas Researcher, author, educator on foraging. Founded Wild Food Adventures outdoor school and the Institute for the Study of Edible Wild Plants and Other Forageables in 1993. Editor of Wild Food Adventurer Newsletter, 1996-2006. Conducts workshops, events, and training about wild foods. [47] [48]
Harold S. Keltner (1893-1986) and Joseph Friday (1888-1955) Founders of the YMCA Indian Guides - forerunner of the YMCA Adventure Guides and YMCA Roper Guides. National Longhouse
Horace Kephart Travel writer.[49]
James Kielsmeier Outward Bound® instructor. Proponent of experiential education and service learning. Founder of the National Youth Leadership Council and the Center for Experiential Education and Service-Learning (University of Minnesota).
Ernst Killander Soldier; Boy Scout leader; propagator of orienteering.
Frank Kingdon-Ward (Francis Kingdon Ward) Explorer, botanist. Made expeditions to Burma, China, India, and Tibet. Many works.
Stanton Davis Kirkham Naturalist, ornithologist, outdoor writer, nature philosopher.
Björn Kjellström Orienteering champion; co-inventor of protractor compass; co-founder of Silva compass company. Authored Be Expert with Map and Compass. Possibly the most well-known name in 20th-century orienteering.
Mors L. Kochanski Outdoor skills and wilderness survival instructor and author.[50]
Jon Krakauer Climber, writer.
Jerzy Kukuczka Climber. Second person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders.
Aldo Leopold Outdoorsman, professional forester, wildlife manager, ecologist, environmentalist, nature writer. [51]
Erhard Loretan Climber. Third person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders.
Richard Louv Journalist. Proponent of nature awareness and opponent of what he termed "nature-deficit disorder." Recipient of the Audubon Medal of the National Audubon Society.
Cody Lundin Survival instructor. Founded Aboriginal Living Skills School. Cody Lundin
Gary McGuffin and Joanie McGuffin Authors of Paddle Your Own Canoe and Paddle Your Own Kayak.
Donald Baxter MacMillan Arctic explorer. Honorary Scout, Boy Scouts of America.
John McPherson Exponent of wilderness living. His pupils included special forces survival instructors.[52] [53]
John W. Malo Wilderness traveler, canoeist.[54]
Mandip Singh Soin Climber, tour operator, proponent of ecotourism.
Alice Manfield Mountain guide.
Harvey Manning Hiking proponent, preservationist, and author of many mountain climbing and hiking books. Edited the first edition of the famous manual of The Mountaineers entitled Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills[13].[55] [56]
Édouard-Alfred Martel World pioneer of cave exploration, study, and documentation. Explored thousands of caves in France and other countries, popularised caving, introduced speleology as a distinct area of study, maintained an extensive archive, and founded the Société de Spéléologie (1895-1914), the world's first caving organization.
William Clifford Mason / Bill Mason Outdoorsman, canoeist, artist, and film maker. Authored The Path of the Paddle[57] and other books. Featured on Canadian postage stamp in 1998. [58]
Douglas Mawson Antarctic explorer.
Raymond Paul Mears Survival and bushcraft instructor, author, and television presenter. Founded Woodlore Ltd., "The School of Wilderness Bushcraft." Ray Mears
Reinhold Messner Climber, famous for ascending mountains, including, without bottled oxygen.[59] First person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders.
John P. Milton Outdoorsman; ecologist; teacher of t'ai chi ch'uan (tàijíquán), ch'i kung (qìgōng) and meditation. Conducted life transformation journeys in wilderness areas of Asia, Africa, North America, and South America. Founder of Sacred Passage, The Way of Nature Fellowship, and the Sacred Land Trust. [60] [61]
Joshua Lewis Miner, III Captain, US Army. Worked at Gordonstoun; took Kurt Hahn's ideas to the USA. Co-founder of Colorado Outward Bound® School with Charles Froelicher.[62] Founder of Outward Bound® USA. Inspired use of outdoor education in the Peace Corps. [63] [64]
Dee Molenaar Climber, park ranger, mountain guide. Inducted into American Alpine Club Hall of Mountaineering Excellence in 2012.
Eric W. Morse Proponent of wilderness canoeing.
John Muir Conservationist, founder of the Sierra Club, and inspiration of the US national park system. American Episcopal feast day April 22. Books by John Muir
Walter Muma Proponent of tracking, wilderness survival, and nature awareness. Organizer of Wildwood Trackers. [65] [66] [67]
Olaus Johan Murie Naturalist, wildlife biologist, "father of elk management." President of The Wilderness Society and The Wildlife Society, and Director of the Izaak Walton League. Recipient of the Audubon Medal and the Sierra Club John Muir Award. Authored A Field Guide to Animal Tracks with Mark Elbroch.
William Wilson Naismith Climber known for developing Naismith's rule.
Thomas Francis Neale / Tom Neale Wilderness dweller; spent 16 years living alone in the Cook Islands.
Rüdiger Nehberg Survival expert; human rights activist; advocate for indigenous people.
Ngawang Gombu Sherpa First person to summit twice, 1963 (with Jim Whittaker) & 1965. Nephew of Tenzing Norgay Sherpa.
James Neill Outdoor educator. Authored many articles. [68]
Ohiyesa / Charles Alexander Eastman North American Indian of the Isáŋyathi tribe of the Dakota nation; physician; author; worked closely with YMCA, Woodcraft Indians, and YMCA Indian Guides; co-founder of the Boy Scouts of America and Camp Fire Girls; YMCA Hall of Fame inductee 2010. [69] [70] [71] [72] [73]
Kenneth Oldham Conducted hiking, climbing, and outdoor education activities for children. First head of Whitehough Camp school, Lancashire, 1956-1983. Kenneth Oldham
Larry Dean Olsen Teacher of outdoor survival skills. Exponent of outdoor education, adventure-based counseling, and wilderness therapy. Founded BYU Survival Course which successfully served as experiential human transformation workshop for students. Board Member, National Association of Therapeutic Wilderness Camps. Authored acclaimed Outdoor Survival Skills.[74] Has written for the Boy Scouts of America and the US Air Force. Larry Dean Olsen
Sigurd Ferdinand Olson Wilderness guide, ecologist, highly-honored environmental advocate. Member of the Board of Trustees and President, National Parks Association. President, The Wilderness Society. Member of the Association of Interpretive Naturalists, the Ecological Society of America, The Explorers Club, The Nature Conservancy, and the Sierra Club. Recipient of many awards, including the Silver Antelope of the Boy Scouts of America. Authored many works, including The Boy Scouts Year Book. [75] Olson Olson
Daniel Eugene Osman / Dan Osman Exponent of extreme speed free solo climbing. Died in bungee jump accident.
Tony Pammer Canoeing instructor. Co-founder and CEO of the Outdoor Education Group. OEG
Bruce Parry Explorer, adventurer; soldier; outdoor film maker.
Doug Peacock Outdoorsman, grizzly bear watcher. Chairman of the Board of Trustees, Round River Conservation Studies.
Robert Edwin Peary Arctic explorer. Traveled towards the North Pole with Matthew Henson, along with the Inuit Ooqueah, Ootah, Egingwah, and Seeglo in 1909.
Clair Willard Perry / Clay Perry Writer and caver who reputedly coined the word spelunker.
Roger Tory Peterson Famous and multi-awarded naturalist, ornithologist, nature artist, "inventor of the modern field guide", and inspiration of the environmental movement. Many works.
Fernand Petzl Caver and founder of Petzl outdoor equipment.
Paul Kiesow Petzoldt Climber. Soldier, US Army 10th Mountain Division. Teton mountain guide. Assisted at early courses of the Colorado Outward Bound® School. Founded the National Outdoor Leadership School.[76] [77]
Rod Phillips, Gail Davis, and Neil Phillips Rover Scouts, Surrey-Thomas Rover Crew, Scouts Australia. Founders of rogaining.
Jerry Pieh Son of Bob Pieh. Outward Bound® instructor and school principal who pioneered the introduction of Outward Bound® methods into the mainstream school system; father of Project Adventure (founded with Mary Ladd Smith, Robert Lentz, Karl Rohnke, Jim Schoel and others), which gave impetus to Adventure-Based Counseling and the now standard and ubiquitous ropes courses, group initiatives, and trust-building games which take participants out of comfort zones. Project Adventure Evolution
Robert Pieh / Bob Pieh Founder of Minnesota Outward Bound® School.
Gifford Pinchot Founder, Society of American Foresters.
Jean-Pierre Gontran de Montaigne / Vicomte de Poncins Soldier, adventurer. Authored Kabloona[78] about his 15-month life with the Inuit in the Canadian Arctic.
Dick Pooley Climber. First President of the Mountain Rescue Association.
Clifford Hillhouse Pope China explorer and herpetologist. Honorary Scout, Boy Scouts of America.
Saxton Temple Pope Physician. Bow hunter.
Richard Louis Proenneke Wilderness dweller; lived alone in the Alaskan wilderness, 1968-1999.
Richard Prouty / Dick Prouty Proponent of adventure-based experiential education. President, Executive Director, and CEO, Project Adventure. [79]
Karl Prusik Physician; climber; inventor of the Prusik knot.
Emil Racoviță Biologist, explorer, caver, pioneer of biospeleology.
Philip James Ratz / Jim Ratz Eagle Scout. Instructor (1973-78), Alaska Director (1979-83), and Executive Director (1984-95) for the National Outdoor Leadership School. Founding Chairman, Leave No Trace Inc. President, Jackson Hole Mountain Guides. Director, American Mountain Guides Association (2000-05). Founder of the 1985 NOLS Wilderness Education and Leadership Symposium, the 1986 NOLS Wilderness Medicine Symposium, and the 1994 NOLS Wilderness Risk Management Conference. Authored Soft Paths. Jim Ratz
Paul Rezendes North American tracker. Nature photographer. Author of Tracking and the Art of Seeing.[80]
Robert B. Rheault Alumnus, US Military Academy, West Point. US Army Special Forces officer. Worked with Hurricane Island Outward Bound® School, 1969-2001.
Malcolm H. Ringwalt Teacher, counselor, clinical hypnotherapist. Founded (1985) Earth-Heart Institute of Vision and Healing. Conducts vision quests and spiritual growth retreats. Teaches philosophy courses at Tom Brown's Tracker School. Member of the Board of Directors, The Medicine Waters Nature Conservancy. MA counseling psychology.
Bill Riviere Author of books on camping and canoeing.[81]
Edgar Munroe Robinson YMCA summer camp director. The man who actually set up the fledgling Boy Scouts of America organization on its feet. He pulled together Ernest Thompson Seton (Woodcraft Indians), Daniel Carter Beard (Boy Pioneers), Peter Sporr Bomus (Boy Scouts of the United States), William Verbeck (National Scouts of America),[82] Luther Halsey Gulick (Playground Association), and others, and persuaded them to join the Boy Scouts of America[83] incorporated by William Dickson Boyce.[84] [85] [86] [87] Received the Silver Buffalo of the BSA in 1926. YMCA Hall of Fame inductee 2000. Honorary Member, Alpha Phi Omega. [88] [89]
Roy Lister Robinson / 1st Baron Robinson of Kielder Forest and Adelaide First President of the Society of Foresters of Great Britain. Honorary Member, Society of American Foresters. Honorary Member, Institute of Foresters of Australia. Member, Académie d'Agriculture de France.
Joseph Francis Charles Rock / Pohaku Explorer, ethnologist, and botanist.
Karl Rohnke Outward Bound® instructor. Author of books on ropes courses and adventure education, including The Complete Ropes Course Manual.[90] Co-founder, Project Adventure. Recipient, National Outdoor Book Award.[91]
Kenneth Kermit Roosevelt Explorer. British Army and US Army officer. Honorary Scout, Boy Scouts of America.
Theodore Roosevelt Politician, outdoor enthusiast, hunter, US Army officer, President of the USA. Chief Scout Citizen, Boy Scouts of America. Founder, Boone and Crockett Club.
Bradley James Rowe Proponent of scuba diving, river rafting, adventure programming, ecotourism, and sustainable development. Instructor, Colorado Outward Bound® School. Founder of Save the Rainforest Expeditions School and Outward Bound Costa Rica. CROBS Team
Calvin Rutstrum Cowboy, Marine Corps medic, conservationist, author of books on wilderness living.[92] Calvin Rutstrum Works
Carl Alwyn Schenck Founder, Biltmore Forest School.
James Willard Schultz / Apikuni / W. B. Anderson Explorer, national park guide, fur trader, and historian of the Blackfoot Indians. Many works. [93]
Robert Falcon Scott Explorer who reached the South Pole in 1912. [94]
Frederick Courtney Selous Adventurer, wilderness guide, military scout, hunter, sportsman, and vice commander of the Frontiersman Battalion (whose members, later, were early supporters of Baden-Powell and the Scout Movement). He was friends with Baden-Powell, Frederick Burnham, and Theodore Roosevelt. Selous became the pattern for the fictional Allan Quatermain who allegedly was the pattern for Indiana Jones. The Selous Scouts, the Rhodesian special forces regiment, was named after him.[95]
Ernest Thompson Seton / Black Wolf (Ernest Evan Thompson; Ernest Seton Thompson) British-Canadian-American naturalist, outdoor artist, conservationist. Founded the Woodcraft Indians and the Woodcraft League. Inspiration and major source of Baden-Powell's Scouting for Boys. Co-founder of the Boy Scouts of America and the Camp Fire Girls. Chief Scout of the Boy Scouts of America. He highly respected and promoted North American Indian culture,[96] and served as inspiration to E. Urner Goodman. Attacked by nature writer John Burroughs in the nature fakers controversy. Received the Silver Buffalo of the BSA in 1926. Many works. [97] [98] [99] [100] [101]
Ernest Henry Shackleton Antarctic explorer.
Earl V. Shaffer US Army soldier. Called "The Crazy One" for making the first hike-through of the Appalachian Trail.
Karen and Frank Sherwood Primitive living instructors at Tom Brown's Tracker School for 15 years. Later founded (1995) Earthwalk Northwest. Instructors
"Stalking Wolf" Reportedly, a great Apache scout, master of wilderness living, nature mystic, and healer. After his parents and grandparents were massacred by the US Army, he was raised by his great-grandfather "Coyote Thunder" who gave him the missions to save the remnants of their tribe from annihilation, and to seek the common truth in various religions. He traveled on foot through the Americas for 63 years, mastering living in desert, forest, jungle, snow, and human settlements, ever expanding and deepening his knowledge, skill, awareness, and understanding of nature, human nature, religion, and spirituality. He learned meditation from a Chinese immigrant, and mentored Tom Brown.[102] [103] [104] [105]
Randy Stoltmann Hiker, climber, wilderness preservationist.
Les Stroud Musician, singer, songwriter. Wilderness guide, survival instructor, and television filmmaker and television presenter on outdoor themes. Pupil of David Arama and John McPherson.
Hudson Stuck Episcopal priest and explorer who was a leader of the first group to successfully summit Denali, the highest mountain in North America. American Episcopal feast day April 22.
Tabei Junko Japanese climber who became the first female to summit (1975).
Ernest Tapley / Tap Tapley Soldier, US Army 10th Mountain Division. Instructor, Colorado Outward Bound School. Instructor, National Outdoor Leadership School with Paul Petzoldt. [106]
Samuel Thayer Author of books on foraging. Sam Thayer Books
Wilfred Patrick Thesiger Soldier, adventurer, travel writer. Served with the Special Air Service and the Long Range Desert Group.
Richard Francis Thurman / John Thurman Gilwell Camp Chief. Authored books on Scouting and outdoor skills.[107] Received the Silver Buffalo award of the Boy Scouts of America in 1962.
Buck Tilton Outdoor educator and wilderness rescuer; co-founded Wilderness Medicine Institute of the NOLS with Melissa Gray;[108] authored many books on outdoor skills, especially known for works on wilderness medical emergency.[109] Authored over a thousand articles, plus columns[110] and blogs.[111] Received Paul Petzoldt Award for wilderness education and Warren Bowman Award for wilderness medicine. Buck Tilton
Otto Trott Climber. Co-founder, with Wolf Bauer and Ome Daiber, of the Mountain Rescue Council (Seattle Mountain Rescue).
Uemura Naomi Explorer, climber. First to reach the North Pole solo.
William F. Unsoeld / Willi Unsoeld Climber; Outward Bound® proponent. In 1963, Willi Unsoeld and Tom Hornbein became the first climbers to summit via the West Ridge.
Laurence Austine Waddell Army surgeon, chemist, explorer, linguist, ethnologist, archeologist. Cultural consultant of the Younghusband expedition to Tibet. [112]
Mark Wagstaff Outdoor, environmental, adventure, and challenge educator. Served in many positions with many organizations, including the North Carolina Outward Bound School, the Wilderness Education Association, and Leave No Trace. EdD, Oklahoma State U, 1997 (dss: Outdoor Leader Self-Awareness and Its Relationship to Co-Leaders' Perceptions of Influence). Mark Wagstaff
Watanabe Tamae Mountain climber.
Stewart Edward White Author of fiction and non-fiction books on adventure, travel, and outdoor living. Honorary Scout, Boy Scouts of America.
James W. Whittaker / Jim Whittaker Pupil of Wolf Bauer. First American to summit (1963) (with Nawang Gombu). He led the 1990 Earth Day 20 International Peace Climb of over a dozen American, Soviet, and Chinese climbers to the summit of The expedition also hauled off over two tons of trash left on the mountain by previous expeditions.
Richard Wiese World explorer. President, The Explorers Club.
Hubert Wilkins Polar explorer, ornithologist, pilot, soldier, geographer, and photographer. [113]
Alan S. Williams Founded Camp Directors Association of America in 1910, forerunner of the American Camping Association.
Lofty Wiseman / John Wiseman Special Air Service soldier and survival instructor. Authored The SAS Survival Handbook and other works.
Geoffrey Winthrop Young Climber. [114]
Jonathan R. Young / Jon Young Leader, educator and author on nature observation and environmental awareness. Pupil of Tom Brown. Associate of Kenyan tracker Norman "Ingwe" Powell (1914-2005). Founded Wilderness Awareness School. Created Kamana Naturalist Training Program. Authored Seeing Through Native Eyes and other works. [115] [116]
Francis Edward Younghusband Soldier, explorer, spiritual explorer. Administrative head of 1904 British expedition to President of the Royal Geographical Society.
Bruce Zawalsky Professional wilderness survival instructor. Chief Instructor, Boreal Wilderness Institute, Canada. BWI

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ The life and teachings of Vladimir Megre's lover "Anastasia" and of Tom Brown's mentor "Stalking Wolf" are profoundly inspiring, but the physical existence of each of these two characters has been questioned due to insufficient evidence and corroboration.
  2. ^ North Carolina State University / Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management / Alpine Towers International. [1] [2]
  3. ^ With his brother Baden Fletcher Smyth Baden-Powell (1860-1937), went spying in Russia, got detained, and escaped.
  4. ^ The Scout Movement is the most widespread associated network of outdoor adventure-based education implementers. There are several international federations within the Movement, the largest of which is the World Organization of the Scout Movement with headquarters in Genève, Switzerland.
  5. ^ Aside from Scouting affiliates, there also have been organizations which sprouted out and away from the root Scout idea.[3]
  6. ^ While organizing Scout Huts, he was suspected, probably erroneously, of involvement in intelligence work.
  7. ^ Many biographies of Baden-Powell have been written. Three of the most important accounts of the founding of the Scout Movement are Colin Walker's The Dawn of the World Scout Movement (Write Books), Walker's Brownsea: BP's Acorn (Write Books), and Scott & Murphy's The Scouting Party (Irving, Texas: Red Honor Press, 2010 [4]). Many books and articles by and about Baden-Powell are available on-line at Pine Tree Web. Some books by Baden-Powell are available on-line at Gutenberg. BP's Outlook
  8. ^ Chinese authorities downplayed the discovery by claiming that the falls had been photographed from the air in 1987. Fabled Tibetan Waterfalls Finally Discovered
  9. ^ Baker, Ian, The Heart of the World: a journey to Tibet's lost paradise, Penguin, 2006. ISBN 0143036025.
  10. ^ Encouraged by Harry Higman, his Scoutmaster in Seattle Troop 145, Wolf Bauer was one of three Boy Scouts selected in 1929 to receive free membership in The Mountaineers.
  11. ^ Lowell Skoog, "Wolf Bauer: Eighty Years on the Sharp End" in Northwest Mountaineering Journal.
  12. ^
  13. ^ Birkby: Lightly on the Land (Mountaineers, 1996, ISBN 0-89886-848-3). • Mountain Madness (Citadel, ISBN 0-8065-2876-1).
  14. ^ History of the Boy Scouts of America
  15. ^ Scouting in the United States
  16. ^ Petterchak, Janice, 2003, Lone Scout: W. D. Boyce and American Boy Scouting, Rochester, Illinois: Legacy. ISBN 0-9653198-7-3
  17. ^ Reis, Mitch, The History of the Lone Scouts Through Memorabilia
  18. ^ Notwithstanding the presence of thousands of trackers, primitive living experts, and survival instructors in North America (including Boy Scout leaders, military instructors, professional foresters, scientists, outdoor adventurers, wilderness dwellers, Native North Americans, etc), Tom Brown's fame overshadowed them all. See Wildwood Survival for a listing of some of Tom Brown's former pupils and associates.
  19. ^ Tom Brown: The Tracker. • The Vision. • The Quest. • The Way of the Scout. • Grandfather. • Awakening Spirits. • The Science and Art of Tracking. • Tom Brown's Field Guide to Nature Observation and Tracking. • Tom Brown's Field Guide to Wilderness Survival. • Tom Brown's Field Guide to City and Suburban Survival.
  20. ^ Descriptions of books by Tom Brown are available at Tracker Trail.
  21. ^ Burnham, Frederick Russell, Scouting on Two Continents, Doubleday, 1926, reprinted 2010, ISBN 978-1-879356-31-3. • Burnham, Frederick Russell, Taking Chances, Haynes, 1944, reprinted 1994, ISBN 978-1-879356-32-0. • Carew, Harold David, The California Scout Who Stopped a Foreign War, 1930. • van Wyk, Peter, Burnham: King of Scouts: Baden-Powell's Secret Mentor, Trafford Publishing, 2003, ISBN 978-1-4122-0028-8. • West, James Edward & Peter Lamb, He-who-sees-in-the-dark, Brewer, Warren & Putnam, 1932.
  22. ^ "Mister Mountain Rescue"
  23. ^ Matie Johnson Daiber interview
  24. ^ Ome Daiber
  25. ^ Wade Davis: Book of Peoples of the World (ed). • The Clouded Leopard. • Grand Canyon. • Into the Silence. • Light at the Edge of the World. • The Lost Amazon. • Nomads of the Dawn. • One River. • Passage of Darkness. • Penan: Voice for the Borneo Rain Forest. • Rainforest. • The Sacred Headwaters. • The Serpent and the Rainbow. • Shadows in the Sun. • The Wayfinders.
  26. ^ originally known as Wimachtendienk Wingolauchsik Witahemui – "Brotherhood of Cheerful Service" in the language of the Lenni Lenape.
  27. ^ Goodman received the Vigil Honor in 1915. Goodman and Edson received the Distinguished Service Award in 1940.
  28. ^ Block, Nelson, 2000, A Thing of the Spirit: the life of E. Urner Goodman, Boy Scouts of America.
  29. ^ Davis, Kenneth (PhD history, U Virginia; Colonel, US Army), The Brotherhood of Cheerful Service: a history of the Order of the Arrow, Boy Scouts of America, 1990, 1995, 2000. ISBN 0839549989. ISBN 978-0839549987.
  30. ^ Graham, John, 1997, Outdoor Leadership, Seattle: The Mountaineers.
  31. ^ Camp Fire's founders included Luther Halsey Gulick, Charlotte Emily Vetter Gulick, Ernest Thompson Seton, Grace Gallatin Seton, Mary Caroline Beard, Adelia Belle Beard, Charles Alexander Eastman, James Edward West, Daniel Carter Beard, and Lee Franklin Hanmer.[5]
  32. ^ Officials of both the Boy Scouts of America and the Camp Fire Girls were: Ernest Kent Coulter, Robert H. Garrett, Luther Halsey Gulick, George E. Johnson, Joseph Lee, Benjamin Barr Lindsey, Edgar Munroe Robinson, Mortimer Loeb Schiff, Ernest Thompson Seton, Lucien T. Warner, and James Edward West. Compare lists in Handbook for Boys (BSA, 1911) and Camp Fire Girls Handbook.
  33. ^ James Edward West (and others) regarded Camp Fire as the sister organization of the Boy Scouts of America. West asserted exclusive BSA rights to the word "scout," and was largely successful in legally preventing other groups from using the term. West failed only with the Girl Scouts of the USA (even after appealing to Baden-Powell who refused to intervene in the dispute). Today, considerable differences prevent the BSA and the GSUSA from pursuing relations beyond cordiality.
  34. ^ The reputation of Outward Bound® is such that it has been the industry standard for outdoor adventure education.
  35. ^ which in turn gave birth to the International Award Association
  36. ^ A New York City public school was named after him - The Kurt Hahn Expeditionary Learning School.
  37. ^ Byatt, DA, ed, Kurt Hahn, 1886-1974: An Appreciation of His Life and Work, Elgin, Scotland: Gordonstoun School, 1976. • Flavin, Martin, Kurt Hahn's School and Legacy, Wilmington: Middle Atlantic, 1996, ISBN 978-0912608785. • Röhrs, Hermann & Hilary Tunstall-Behrens, eds, Kurt Hahn, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1970. • Veevers, Nick & Pete Allison, 2011, Kurt Hahn: Inspirational, Visionary, Outdoor and Experiential Educator, Rotterdam: Sense, ISBN 978-94-6091-468-3.
  38. ^ Kurt HahnOB birthOB referencesOB historyOB reading
  39. ^ Sven Hedin bibliography
  40. ^ Hedin works in Gutenberg
  41. ^ Saxon, Wolfgang, "Claus Helberg, 84, War Hero in the Norwegian Resistance" in New York Times, 13 March 2003. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  42. ^ Claus Urbye Helberg
  43. ^ Hillcourt was a trainee at the first Wood Badge course in the USA (ran by John Skinner Wilson), 1936, and served as Senior Patrol Leader at the second course some days later. He organized Wood Badge as a regular BSA program in 1948, serving as the first Course Leader. As the national director of training (a.k.a. the Deputy Gilwell Camp Chief), he wore five Wood Badge beads.
  44. ^ Block, Nelson, "William Hillcourt: Scoutmaster to the World", The Journal of Scouting History.
  45. ^ James Martin Hogan and Outward Bound® should not be confused with Irish science fiction writer James Patrick Hogan (1941-2010) and his science fiction novel Outward Bound (1999).
  46. ^ Hogan, James Martin, 1968, Impelled Into Experiences: the story of the Outward Bound schools, Wakefield, Yorkshire: Educational Productions.
  47. ^ Author of Edible Wild Plants: Wild Foods From Dirt to Plate, 2010.
  48. ^ John Kallas
  49. ^ Horace Kephart: Camp Cookery. • Camping and Woodcraft. • The Cherokees of the Smoky Mountains. • Our Southern Highlanders.
  50. ^ Mors Kochanski: Basic Netting. • Basic Safe Travel and Boreal Survival Handbook. • Basic Weather Knowledge. • Basic Wilderness Survival in Cold Lacking Snow. • Basic Wilderness Survival in Deep Snow. • Bush Arts. • Bush Craft. • The Compass. • The Inuit Snow House. • Knife Sharpening. • Map Use. • The Northern Night Sky. • Survival Kit Ideas. • Tools of Survival and Survival Training. • Top Seven Knots and the Use of the Windlass. • 21 Wild Native Edible Plants. • The Two Kilogram Survival Kit Field Manual. • When You Meet a Black Bear. • Wilderness Steam Bath.
  51. ^ Tanner, Thomas, Aldo Leopold: The Man and His Legacy, 1995.
  52. ^ McPherson, John & Geri McPherson, Primitive Wilderness Living and Survival Skills, 2003, ISBN 0967877776, ISBN 978-0967877778
  53. ^ McPherson, John & Geri McPherson, Ultimate Guide to Wilderness Living, Ulysses, ISBN 1569756503, ISBN 978-1569756508.
  54. ^ John Malo: All-Terrain Adventure Vehicles. • Canoeing. • Complete Guide to Houseboating. • Family Guide to Warm Water Fishing. • Fly Fishing for Panfish. • Malo's Complete Guide to Canoeing and Canoe Camping. • Midwest Canoe Trails. • Motor Camping Around Europe. • Snowmobiling: The Guide. • Tranquil Trails. • Wilderness Canoeing.
  55. ^ the book which started Mountaineers Books
  56. ^ Kjeldsen, Jim, The Mountaineers: A History, Seattle: Mountaineers Books, 2006, ISBN 0-89886-599-9
  57. ^ ISBN 1-55209-328-X
  58. ^ Raffan, James, Fire in the Bones: Bill Mason and the Canadian canoeing tradition, PerennialCanada, HarperCollins. ISBN 0006385141. ISBN 978-0006385141.
  59. ^ The first summit ascent of Mt. Everest without supplemental oxygen was by Peter Habeler and Reinhold Messner in 1978. The first solo summit ascent of Mt. Everest without supplemental oxygen was by Reinhold Messner in 1980.
  60. ^ The Way of Nature Fellowship
  61. ^ John Milton
  62. ^ with funding from William K. Coors, Charles Cassius Gates, Jr., and Ruth Humphreys Brown
  63. ^ Miner, Joshua & Joseph Boldt, Outward Bound USA: learning through experience in adventure-based education, William Morrow, 1981.
  64. ^ Miner, Joshua & Joseph Boldt, Outward Bound USA: Crew, Not Passengers, Mountaineers Books, 2002, ISBN 978-0-89886-874-6
  65. ^ Wildwood Trackers
  66. ^ Wildwood Survival
  67. ^ Tracker Trail
  68. ^ James Neill
  69. ^ Charles Alexander Eastman
  70. ^ Martinez, David, 2009 Dakota Philosopher, St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society Press, ISBN 0-87351-629-X.
  71. ^ World Wisdom has published The Essential Charles Eastman (Ohiyesa), 2007, edited by Michael Fitzgerald.
  72. ^ Charles Eastman: Indian Boyhood. • Red Hunters and the Animal People. • The Madness of Bald Eagle. • Old Indian Days. • Wigwam Evenings. • Smoky Day's Wigwam Evenings. • The Soul of the Indian. • Indian Child Life. • Indian Scout Talks: A Guide for Boy Scouts and Campfire Girls. • The Indian Today. • From the Deep Woods to Civilization. • Indian Heroes and Great Chieftains. See Charles Eastman books at Gutenberg
  73. ^ Charles Eastman: A Selected Bibliography
  74. ^ 6th edition, Chicago Review, 1997, ISBN 1556523238, ISBN 978-1556523236.
  75. ^ Backes, David, A Wilderness Within, 1999.
  76. ^ He once stayed at the Dera Baba Jaimal Singh of the Radha Soami Satsang Beas, assisting Julian Johnson in surgical operations, an episode which ended tragically for Johnson. Petzoldt's version of events is narrated in Absolon, Molly, "Paul Tells His Story," The Leader, Fall 1995, Lander, Wyoming: NOLS.[6]
  77. ^ Ringholz, Raye Carleson, On Belay!, Mountaineers Books, ISBN 0-89886-725-8.
  78. ^ ISBN 1-55597-249-7
  79. ^ Dick Prouty, Jane Panicucci, Rufus Collinson, eds, 2007, Adventure Education: Theory and Applications, Human Kinetics.
  80. ^ Charlotte, Vermont: Camden, 1992, ISBN 0944475337, ISBN 0944475299.
  81. ^ Bill Riviere: Backcountry Camping. • The Camper's Bible. • The Complete Guide to Family Camping. • The Family Camper's Bible. • Family Campers' Cookbook. • Field Book of Mountaineering and Rock Climbing. • The Fresh-Water Fisherman's Bible. • The Gunner's Bible. • How to Build and Operate Private Family Campgrounds. • The L.L. Bean Guide to the Outdoors. • The Open Canoe. • Pole, Paddle, and Portage.
  82. ^ Bomus & Verbeck. Bomus & Verbeck. Bomus & Verbeck. Verbeck.
  83. ^ Handbook for Boys, BSA, 1911
  84. ^ with Edward S. Stewart and Stanley D. Willis
  85. ^ The YMCA was a strong supporter in the early days of Boy Scouting in the UK, the USA, and the Philippines. Today there still are YMCA Scout organizations in Europe.
  86. ^ Robinson also opened the first BSA office (a room at the YMCA building in New York), and installed the first BSA secretary (YMCA Secretary John Alexander).
  87. ^ In summation, Edgar Robinson absorbed previously founded "Scouting" organizations into the Boy Scouts of America, while James West eliminated competition by legally prosecuting later "Scout" groups (failing only with the Girl Scouts of the USA). Later, when West had taken effective control of the BSA, Boyce founded a separate organization, the Lone Scouts of America, but this too was later absorbed into the BSA by West.
  88. ^ Scouting in the United States
  89. ^ Rowan, Edward, 2005, To Do My Best: James E. West and the history of the Boy Scouts of America, Exeter, New Hampshire: Publishing Works. ISBN 1-933002-53-0
  90. ^ ISBN 0757540325. ISBN 978-0757540325.
  91. ^ His wife Gloree Rohnke is an educator, kayaker, Reiki practitioner, and t'ai chi ch'uan (tàijíquán) instructor.
  92. ^ Calvin Rutstrum: Back Country. • Challenge of the Wilderness. • Chips from a Wilderness Log. • Greenhorns in the Southwest. • Hiking Back to Health. • Memoranda for Canoe Country. • The New Way of the Wilderness. • North American Canoe Country. • Once Upon a Wilderness. • Paradise Below Zero. • Way of the Wilderness. • A Wilderness Autobiography. • The Wilderness Cabin. • The Wilderness Life. • Wilderness Route Finder.
  93. ^ Schultz, James Willard, My Life as an Indian: the story of a red woman and a white man in the lodges of the Blackfeet, illustrated by George Bird Grinnell, New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1907; London: John Murray, 1907; Kessinger, 2005. ISBN 978-1-4179-5527-5. [7]
  94. ^ Cherry-Garrard, Apsley George Benet, The Worst Journey in the World.
  95. ^ Selous was killed by a German sniper in Africa.
  96. ^ consequently losing out in a power struggle with BSA executive Atty. James Edward West who, rather, favored the image and example of Baden-Powell, Theodore Roosevelt, and Fred Burnham
  97. ^ Witt, David, 2010, Ernest Thompson Seton: The Life and Legacy of an Artist and Conservationist, Gibbs Smith, ISBN 1423603915, ISBN 978-1423603917.
  98. ^ Seton, Julia, By a Thousand Fires, 1967.
  99. ^ Scott, David, "Did Baden-Powell Plagiarize Ernest Thompson Seton?"
  100. ^ Seton's conflicts with Baden-Powell, Dan Beard, and James West are narrated in Scott, David & Brendan Murphy, 2010, The Scouting Party, Irving, Texas: Red Honor Press, 2010.[8]
  101. ^ Books by Seton
  102. ^ The life and teachings of Tom Brown's mentor "Stalking Wolf" and of Vladimir Megre's lover "Anastasia" are profoundly inspiring, but the physical existence of each of these two characters has been questioned due to insufficient evidence and corroboration.
  103. ^ The most extended narrative of Stalking Wolf's life is Brown, Tom, Grandfather, New York: Berkley, ISBN 0-425-18174-X.
  104. ^ The narrative of Stalking Wolf's spiritual exploration is Brown, Tom, Awakening Spirits, New York: Berkley, ISBN 0-425-14140-3.
  105. ^ Brown, Tom, Conversations with Grandfather.
  106. ^ "Ernest Tapley, designer and builder of the Marble base camp, constructed the first Outward Bound challenge course in the United States in 1961." - Wagstaff, Mark, 2003, "History and Philosophy of Challenge Course Programming," in Wurdinger, Scott & Jeff Steffen, eds, Developing Challenge Course Programs for Schools, Kendall/Hunt. [9]
  107. ^ John Thurman: The Campfire Leader's Book. • Camping. • Fun with Ropes and Spars. • The Gilwell Camp Fire Book. • The Gilwell Story. • Outdoor Games for Scouts.The Patrol Leaders' Handbook. • Pioneering Principles.Pioneering Projects.Pioneering Projects Big and Small.Progressive Pioneering.The Scout and His Axe. • Scout Camps. • The Scout's Book of Gilwell. • The Second Gilwell Camp Fire Book. • Some Training Ideas for Scouts. • Summer Camp All Year Round.
  108. ^ Melissa Gray
  109. ^ Buck Tilton: America's Wilderness. • Backcountry First Aid and Extended Care. • The Basic Essentials of Avalanche Safety. • The Basic Essentials of Rescue in the Backcountry. • Boy Scouts of America Wilderness First Aid Manual. • Camping Healthy. • The Complete Book of Fire. • Cooking the One-Burner Way. • Don't Get Bitten.Don't Get Poisoned. • Don't Get Sick. • Don't Get Sunburned. • First Aid. • First Aid for Youths. • Hiking and Backpacking. • How to Die in the Outdoors. • Knots You Need. • Medicine for the Backcountry. • NOLS Winter Camping. • Outdoor Safety Handbook. • Outward Bound Ropes, Knots, and Hitches. • Ozone, UV and Your Health. • Sex in the Outdoors. • Tent and Car Camper's Handbook. • Trekker's Handbook. • Utah Hiking. • West Marine Little Book of Nautical Knots. • Wilderness First Responder.
  110. ^ Backpacker column
  111. ^ AMK blogs
  112. ^ Waddell, Among the Himalayas
  113. ^ Nasht, Simon, 2005, The Last Explorer, Sydney: Hachette / Hodder; New York: Arcade, ISBN 0-7336-1831-6.
  114. ^ Hankinson, Alan, 1995, Geoffrey Winthrop Young: Poet, Educator, Mountaineer, Hodder & Stoughton, 1995. ISBN 0-340-57609-X
  115. ^ Jon's Biography
  116. ^ 8 Shields Books

Wikipedia Links[edit]

External links[edit]


  • Attarian, Aram, 2001, "Trends in Outdoor Adventure Education," Journal of Experiential Education, 24 (3), p 141.
  • Cousineau, Claude, 1976, Hebertisme: a challenging outdoor activity.
  • Martin, Bruce & Mark Wagstaff, 2012, Controversial Issues in Adventure Programming, Human Kinetics, ISBN 978-1450410915.
  • Miles, John & Simon Priest, eds, Adventure Programming, State College, Pennsylvania: Venture, 1999, ISBN 1-892132-09-5.
  • Ogilvie, Ken, Roots and Wings: a history of outdoor education and outdoor learning in the UK, Russell House, 2013. ISBN 1905541848. ISBN 978-1905541843.
  • Roberts, Kenneth, Graham White, Howard Parker, 1974, The Character-Training Industry: adventure-training schemes in Britain, Newton Abbot, Devon: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-6394-8
  • "Significant Events in Adventure Programming that influenced the beginning of adventure therapy"[14]
  • Smith, Thomas & Clifford Knapp, eds, 2011, Sourcebook of Experiential Education: Key Thinkers and Their Contributions, New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-88441-9.
  • Keir Brooks Sterling, Richard Harmond, George Cevasco, Lorne Hammond, eds, 1997, Biographical Dictionary of American and Canadian Naturalists and Environmentalists, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1997. ISBN 0-313-23047-1
  • Turner, James Morton, "From Woodcraft to 'Leave No Trace': wilderness, consumerism, and environmentalism in twentieth-century America," in Environmental History, July 2002, v7, n3, pp 462–482, Durham, North Carolina: Forest History Society. [15]
  • van der Smissen, Betty & Judy Brookhiser, Bibliography of Research, Martinsville, Indiana: American Camping Association, 1982.
  • Vickery, Jim Dale, Wilderness Visionaries, 1986.
  • Wagstaff, Mark, A History of Challenge Courses [16]
  • Zelinski, Mark, 1991, Outward Bound: The Inward Odyssey, Hillsboro, Oregon: Beyond Words.