List of papal bulls
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a very incomplete list of papal bulls by the year in which they were issued.
|1059||In nomine Domini
("In the name of the Lord")
|Nicholas II||Establishing cardinal-bishops as the sole electors of the pope.|
("The liberty of the Church")
|1079||Antiqua sanctorum patrum||Gregory VII||Granted the church of Lyon primacy over the churches of Gaul.|
|c. 1120||Sicut Judaeis
("Thus to the Jews")
|Callixtus II||Provides protection for the Jews who suffered from the hands of the participants in the First Crusade.|
|1136 (July 7)||Ex commisso nobis||Innocent II||Split Archbishop of Magdeburg from the rest of the Polish church.|
|1139 (March 29)||Omne Datum Optimum||Innocent II||Endorses the Knights Templar.|
("Soldiers of the Temple")
|Celestine II||Provides clergy protection to the Knights Templar and encourages contributions to their cause.|
("Soldiers of God")
|Eugene III||Allows the Knights Templar to take tithes and burial fees and to bury their dead in their own cemeteries.|
|1145 (December 1)||Quantum praedecessores
("How much did our predecessors")
|Eugene III||Calls for the Second Crusade.|
|Adrian IV||Gives the English King Henry II lordship over Ireland.|
|1179||Manifestis Probatum||Alexander III||Recognition of the kingdom of Portugal and Afonso Henriques as the first king.|
|1184 (November 4)||Ad Abolendam||Lucius III||Condemns heresy, and lists some punishments (though stops short of death).|
|1187 (October 29)||Audita tremendi
("Hearing what terrible...")
|Gregory VIII||Calls for the Third Crusade.|
|1192||Cum universi||Celestine III||Defined the Scottish Church as immediately subject to the Holy See.|
|1198||Post Miserabile||Innocent III||Calls for the Fourth Crusade.|
|1199 (March 25)||Vergentis in senium||Innocent III||This bull, addressed to the city of Viterbo, announced that heresy would be considered, in terms of punishment, the same as treason.|
|1205||Esti Judaeos||Innocent III||Jews were allowed their own houses of worship and would not be forced to convert. Jews were forbidden to eat with Christians or own Christian slaves.|
|1213||Quia maior||Innocent III||Calls for the Fifth Crusade.|
|1216 (December)||Religiosam vitam
("The religious life")
|Honorius III||Established the Dominican Order|
|1218||In generali concilio||Honorius III||Demanded the enforcement of the 4th Lateran Council that Jews wear clothing to distinguish themselves and that Jews be made to pay the tithe to local churches.|
|1219||Super speculam||Honorius III||Closed law schools in Paris and forbid the study of civil law.|
|1223 (November 29)||Solet annuere||Honorius III||Approves the Rule of St. Francis.|
|1228||Mira Circa Nos||Gregory IX||canonizing St. Francis of Assisi|
|1230||Quo elongati||Gregory IX||Resolved issues concerning the testament of Francis of Assisi.|
|1231 (April 13)||Parens scientiarum
("The Mother of Sciences")
|Gregory IX||Guarantees the independence of the University of Paris.|
|1232 (February 8)||Ille humani generis||Gregory IX||Instructed the Dominican prior of Regensburg to form an Inquisitional tribunal.|
("Even if the Jews")
|Gregory IX||Demands that Jews in Christian countries be treated with the same humanity with which Christians wish to be treated in heathen lands.|
|1233||Licet ad capiendos||Gregory IX||Marks the start of the Inquisition by the Church.|
|1234||Pietati proximum||Gregory IX||Confirms Germanic Orders rule of Kulmerland.|
|1234||Rex pacificus||Gregory IX||Announcement of the Liber Extra, the collection of papal decretals.|
|1235||Cum hora undecima
("Since the eleventh hour")
|Gregory IX||First bull authorizing friars to preach to pagan nations.|
|1239||Si vera sunt
("If they are true")
|Gregory IX||Orders the seizure and examination of Jewish writings, especially the Talmud, suspected of blasphemies against Christ and the Church.|
|1243||Qui iustis causis||Innocent IV||Orders a crusade to the Baltic lands. Repeated 1256 and 1257.|
|1244||Impia judeorum perfidia||Innocent IV||Stated that Jews could not hire Christian nurses.|
|1245||Inter alia desiderabilia||Innocent IV||Charges against Sancho II of Portugal.|
|1245 (March 5)||Dei patris immensa
("God the Father's immense...")
|Innocent IV||Exposition of the Christian faith, and urged Mongols to accept baptism.|
|1245 (March 13)||Cum non solum
("With not only...")
|Innocent IV||Appeal to the Mongols to desist from attacking Christians and other nations, and an enquiry as to their future intentions. Innocent expresses desire for peace (possibly unaware that in the Mongol vocabulary, "peace" is a synonym for "subjection").|
|1245 (late March)||Cum simus super||Innocent IV||Letter addressed to multiple prelates and 'Christians of the East' which affirmed the primacy of the Roman Church and urged ecclesiastical unity.|
|1247||Lachrymabilem Judaeorum||Innocent IV||Urged the end of persecution of the Jews based the blood libel.|
|1247||Quae honorem conditoris omnium||Innocent IV||On the rules of the Carmelite Order|
|1248 (November 22)||Viam agnoscere veritatis||Innocent IV||Letter addressed to Baiju, king of the Mongols, in response to his embassy.|
|1252 (May 15)||Ad exstirpanda
("For the elimination")
|Innocent IV||Authorizes the use of torture for eliciting confessions from heretics during the Inquisition and executing relapsed heretics by burning them alive.|
|1254 (October 6)||Querentes in agro||Innocent IV||Recognised the University of Oxford and "confirmed its liberties, ancient customs and approved statutes".|
|1255||Clara claris praeclara
("Clare outstandingly clear")
|Alexander IV||On the canonization of St. Clare of Assisi|
|1263/1264||Exultavit cor nostrum
("Our heart has rejoiced")
|Urban IV||Letter from Urban to Hulagu, discussing the arrival of Hulagu's (uncredentialed) envoy John the Hungarian, cautiously welcoming, and announcing that William II of Agen, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, would be investigating further.|
|1264||?||Urban IV||Discussion of the Egyptian threat (no mention of Mongols).|
|1260s (undated)||Audi filia et
("Hear, O daughter, and")
|Urban IV or Clement IV||Caution to an unnamed Queen of Cyprus to cease her unchaste ways, and marry|
|1260s (undated)||De sinu patris
("The bosom of the Father")
|Urban IV or Clement IV||Admonishment to an unnamed nobleman to cease his adultery and return to his wife|
|1265||Licet Ecclesiarum||Clement IV||Stated that appointments to all benefices were a papal prerogative.|
|1267||Turbato corde||Clement IV||Legally barred Christians from converting to Judaism.|
|1272||"Letter on Jews"||Gregory X||Against the Blood Libel |
("Where there is danger")
|Gregory X||Established the papal conclave as the method of selection for a pope, imposing progressively stricter restrictions on cardinals the longer a conclave lasted to encourage a quick selection.|
|1279||"Exiit qui seminat"||Nicholas III||Confirming the rules of the Friar Minor|
|1281||Ad fructus uberes||Pope Martin IV||Gave Franciscan priests the right to preach and hear confession.|
|1283||Exultantes||Pope Martin IV||Relaxed the restrictions on poverty for Franciscans.|
|1288||Habet carissima filia||Pope Nicholas IV||Letter sent to Christian women at the court of the Mongol Ilkhan|
|1289||"Supra Motem"||Pope Nicholas IV||On the Rule of the Third Order of St. Francis|
|1291 (March)||Prae cunctis||Pope Nicholas IV||Authorized the Franciscans to start the inquisition in Bosnia.|
|1291||Gaudemus in Domino||Pope Nicholas IV||Letter sent to Arghun's third wife, Uruk Khatun, the mother of Nicholas (Oljeitu), Arghun's successor.|
|1291||Pastoralis officii||Pope Nicholas IV||Letter sent to two young Mongol princes, Saron and Cassian, urging their conversion to Christianity.|
|1296 (January 20)||Redemptor mundi
("Redeemer of the world")
|Boniface VIII||Named James II of Aragon as standardbearer, captain-general, and admiral of the Roman Church.|
|1296 (February 25)||Clericis Laicos
|Boniface VIII||Excommunicates all members of the clergy who, without authorization from the Holy See, pay to laymen any part of their income or the revenue of the Church, and all rulers who receive such payments.|
|1297||Super rege et regina
("About king and queen")
|Boniface VIII||Bestowed on James II of Aragon the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica.|
|1297||Excelso throno||Pope Boniface VIII||Jacopo Colonna and Pietro Colonna, both cardinals, were excommunicated by Pope Boniface VIII for refusing to surrender their relative Stefano Colonna (who had seized and robbed the pope's nephew) and refusing to give the pope Palestrina along with two fortresses, which threatened the pope. This excommunication was extended in the same year to Jacopo's nephews and their heirs, after the two Colonna cardinals denounced the pope's election as invalid and appealed to a general council.|
|1299 (27 June)||Scimus, Fili
("We know, my son")
|Boniface VIII||Challenged Edward I's claim to Scotland, stating the Scottish kingdom belonged to the apostolic see.|
|1299||De Sepulturis||Boniface VIII||Prohibited Crusaders from dismembering and boiling of the bodies so that the bones, separated from the flesh, may be carried for burial in their own countries.|
|1300 (22 February)||Antiquorum fida relatio||Boniface VIII||Reinstates the Jubilee Years, granting indulgence during those years for those who fulfill various conditions.|
|1302 (November 18)||Unam Sanctam
("The One Holy")
|Boniface VIII||Declares that there is no salvation outside the Church (Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus), and that the Church must remain united.|
|1307 (November 22)||Pastoralis praeminentiæ||Clement V||Orders the arrest of the Knights Templar and the confiscation of their possessions.|
|1307 (23 July)||Rex regnum||Clement V||Nominates seven Franciscans to act as papal suffragans in China.|
|Clement V||Sets out the procedure to prosecute the Knights Templar.|
|1308 (August 12)||Regnans in coelis
("Reigning in heaven")
|Clement V||Convenes the Council of Vienne to discuss the Knights Templar.|
|1310 (April 4)||Alma mater
("A nurturing mother")
|Clement V||Postpones the opening of the Council of Vienne until 1 October 1311, on account of the investigation of the Templars that was not yet finished.|
|1312 (March 22)||Vox in excelso
("A voice from on high")
|Clement V||Disbands the Knights Templar.|
|1312 (May 2)||Ad providam||Clement V||Grants the bulk of Templar property on to the Knights Hospitallers.|
|1312 (May 6)||Considerantes dudum||Clement V||Outlined the disposition for members of the Knights Templar.|
|1312 (May 16)||Nuper in concilio||Clement V||Gave Templar property to the Knights Templar|
|1312 (December 18)||Licet dudum||Clement V||Suspends privileges and confirms the disposition of property of the Knights Templar.|
|1312 (December 31)||Dudum in generali concilio||Clement V||Further considerations as to the question of the Templars' property.|
|1313 (January 13)||Licet pridem||Clement V||Further considerations as to the question of the Templars' property.|
|1317||Sane Considerante||John XXII||Elevated the Diocese of Toulouse to Archbishop and created six new bishoprics.|
|1318 (January 23)||Gloriosam ecclesiam||John XXII||The Franciscan "Spirituals" of Tuscany are declared heretics and excommunicated.|
|1318 (April 1)||Redemptor noster
|John XXII||Withdrew the Mongol Ilkhan's dominions and 'India' from the archdiocese of Khanbaligh, transferring to a Dominican province|
|1319||Ad ea ex quibus||John XXII||Created Portuguese Order of Christ.|
|1322||Quia nonnunquam||John XXII||Freedom of discussion in poverty controversy|
|1322||Ad conditorem canonum||John XXII||Continuation of poverty controversy|
|1323||Cum inter nonnullos||John XXII||Defines the belief in the poverty of Christ and the Apostles as heretical.|
|1324||Quia quorundam||John XXII||Condemned those that disagreed with Cum inter nonnullos|
|1329||Quia vir reprobus||John XXII|
|1329||In agro dominico||John XXII|
|1333 (December 2)||Summa providit altitudo consilii||John XXII|
("On the beatific vision of God")
|Benedict XII||Declared that the saved see Heaven (and thus, God) before Judgement Day.|
|1338||Exultanti precepimus||Benedict XII||Letter to Mongol ruler Ozbeg and his family, thanking them for having granted land to Franciscans to build a church|
|1338||Dundum ad notitiam||Benedict XII||Letter to Mongol ruler Ozbeg recommending ambassadors, and thanking Ozbeg for prior favors shown to missionaries|
|1342||Gratiam Agimus||Clement VI||Declared the Franciscan Order as the official Custodian of the Holy Land in the name of the Church.|
|1343 January 27||Unigenitus Dei filius||Clement VI||Justified papal power to issue indulgences|
|1348 September 26||Quamvis Perfidiam||Clement VI||An attempt to dispel the rumor that the Jews caused the Black Death by poisoning wells.|
|1350||cum natura humana||Clement VI|
|1418 (April 4)||Rex regum||Crusade bull to King John of Portugal|
|1425||Sapientie immarcessibilis||Martin V||Foundation of the Old University of Leuven|
|Etsi cunctis fidei||Eugene IV||Prohibted imposition of inordinately high dues on converted Canary islanders|
|1434 (December 17)||Creator Omnium||Eugene IV||On slave raiding in the Canaries|
|1435||Sicut Dudum||Eugene IV||Forbidding the slavery of local natives in the Canary Islands by Spanish slave traders.|
|1437 (September 18)||Doctoris gentium||Eugene IV||Transfers the Council of Basel to Ferrara|
|1439 (January)||Eugene IV||Transfers the Council of Ferrara to Florence because of the plague|
|1439 (July 6)||Laetantur Coeli||Eugene IV|
|1441||Cantate Domino||Eugene IV|
|1442 (August 8)||Dundum ad nostram audientiam||Eugene IV||Complete separation of Jews and Christians (ghetto).|
|1442 (August 10)||Super Gregem Dominicum||Eugene IV||Revokes the privileges of the Castilian Jews and imposes severe restrictions on them. Forbids Castilian Christians to eat, drink, live or bathe with Jews or Muslims and declaring invalid the testimony of Jews or Muslims against Christians.|
|1442 (December 19)||Illius qui se pro divini||Eugene IV||On Henry of Portugal's "crusade" against the Saracens|
|1447 (June 23)||Super Gregem Dominicum||Nicholas V||Re-issues Eugene IV's bull against Castilian Jews to Italy.|
|1451 (January 7)||Nicholas V||Foundation of the University of Glasgow.|
|1451 (March 1)||Super Gregem Dominicum||Nicholas V||Third issuance of Eugenius IV's bull. Confirms the earlier revocation of privileges and restrictions against Spanish and Italian Jews.|
|1452 (June 18)||Dum diversas||Nicholas V||Authorizes Afonso V of Portugal to reduce any Muslims, pagans and other unbelievers to perpetual slavery.|
|1455 (January 8)||Romanus Pontifex
("The Roman pontiff")
|Nicholas V||Granting the Portuguese a perpetual monopoly in trade with Africa and allows the enslavement of natives.|
|1455||Exivi de paradiso||Clement V||On the rules of the Friar Minor|
|1456 (March 13)||Inter Caetera||Calixtus III||Confirmed the Bull Romanus Pontifex and gave the Portuguese Order of Christ the spiritualities of all lands acquired and to be acquired.|
|1456 (June 20)||Cum hiis superioribus annis and is titled Bulla Turcorum||Calixtus III||Announces the Fall of Constantinople and seeks funding for another crusade against the Turks.|
|1460 (January 18)||Execrabilis
|Pius II||Prohibits appealing a papal judgment to a future general council.|
|1470 (April 19)||Ineffabilis providentia
|Paul II||Declared that a Jubilee would take place every 25 years.|
|1476||Regimini Gregis||Sixtus IV||Threatens to excommunicate all captains or pirates who enslave Christians|
|1478 (November 1)||Exigit sinceræ devotionis||Sixtus IV||Authorized Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint inquisitors which created the Spanish Inquisition.|
|1481 (June 21)||Aeterni regis||Sixtus IV||Confirms the Treaty of Alcáçovas.|
|1482 (April 14)||Superna caelestis||Sixtus IV||By which Bl. Bonaventure, Is registered in the Canon of the Saints|
|1482 (April 18)||Ad Perpetuam Rei memoriam||Sixtus IV||Ordered humanitarian reforms to the Spanish Inquisition.|
|1484 (December 5)||Summis desiderantes||Innocent VIII||Condemns an alleged outbreak of witchcraft and heresy in the region of the Rhine River valley, and deputizes Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger as inquisitors to root out alleged witchcraft in Germany.|
|1493 (May 4)||Inter caetera
("Among the other")
|Alexander VI||On the division of the undiscovered world between Spain and Portugal|
|1493 (June 25)||Piis Fidelium||Alexander VI||Grants Spain vicarial power to appoint missionaries to the Indies.|
|1493 (Sept 26)||Dudum siquidem||Alexander VI||Territorial grants supplemental to Inter caetera|
|1497 (October 15)||Ad sacram ordinis||Alexander VI||The ancient custom of selecting the Prefect of the Apostolic Chapel from the Augustinian Order was given legal foundation.|
|1503 (December 26)||Julius II||Matrimonial dispensation for Henry VIII of England to marry Catherine of Aragon, his brother's widow.|
|1511||Pax Romana||Julius II||To stop the feuding between the Orsini and Colonna families|
|1513 (December 19)||Apostolici Regiminis||Leo X||Concerning immortality of the soul.|
|1514||Supernæ||Leo X||Declares that the cardinals in a body should come immediately after the pope and precede all others in the church.|
|1520 (June 15)||Exsurge Domine
("Arise, O Lord")
|Leo X||Demands that Martin Luther retract 41 of his 95 theses, as well as other specified errors, within sixty days of its publication in neighbouring regions to Saxony.|
|1521 (January 3)||Decet Romanum Pontificem
("[It] befits [the] Roman Pontiff")
|Leo X||Excommunicates Martin Luther.|
|1523-34? (?)||Intra Arcana||Clement VII||Allows use of violence for evangelising.|
|1537 (May 29)||Sublimus Dei||Paul III||Forbids the enslavement of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.|
|1538 (October 28)||In apostolatus culmine||Paul III|
|1540 (September 27)||Regimini militantis ecclesiae
("To the Government of the Church Militant")
|Paul III||Approves the formation of the Society of Jesus.|
|1543 (March 14)||Injunctum nobis||Paul III||Repealed a clause in the previous Bull which had only allowed the Society of Jesus sixty members.|
|1550 (July 21)||Exposcit debitum
("The Duty demands")
|Julius III||Second and final approval of the Society of Jesus|
|1553 (April 28)||Divina disponente clementia
("So predisposed by the divine clemency")
|Julius III||Create Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa the first patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church.|
|1555 (July 14)||Cum nimis absurdum
("Since it is absurd")
|Paul IV||Places religious and economic restrictions on Jews in the Papal States.|
|1559 (February 15)||Cum ex apostolatus officio
("By virtue of the apostolic office")
|Paul IV||Confirms that only Catholics can be elected Popes.|
|1564 (January 26)||Benedictus Deus
|Pius IV||Ratified all decrees and definitions of the Council of Trent.|
|1565 (January 17)||Æquum reputamus
("We consider it equal")
|1567||Ex omnibus afflictionibus||Pius V||Condemns 79 statements made by Michael Baius|
|1569 (February)||Hebraeorum gens sola
||Pius V||Restricted Jews in the Papal States to Rome and Ancona.|
|1570 (February 25)||Regnans in Excelsis
("Ruling from on high")
|Pius V||Declares Elizabeth I of England a heretic and releases her subjects from any allegiance to her.|
|1570 (July 14)||Quo Primum
("From the first")
|Pius V||Describes the method used to reform the Roman rite, promulgates the Missal of Pius V (Tridentine rite, and abrogates any other rite which cannot demonstrate two hundred year of continuous use|
|1581 (February 24)||Inter gravissimas
("Among the most important")
|Gregory XIII||Establishes the Gregorian calendar.|
|1586 (January)||Coeli et terrae
("The heavens and the lands")
|Sixtus V||Condemned "judicial astrology" as superstitious.|
|1586 (October)||Christiana pietas
|Sixtus V||Allowed Jews to settle in the Papal States, revoking Pius V's 1569 bull, Hebraeorum gens sola.|
|1588 (February 11)||Immensa Aeterni Dei
("The immense [wisdom] of Eternal God")
|Sixtus V||Reorganized the Roman Curia, establishing several permanent congregations to advise the Pope.|
|1588 (October)||[Contra procurantes, consulentes, & consentientes, quocumque modo abortum [Against Those who Procure [...] abortion]||Sixtus V|
|1588||Triumphantis Hierusalem||Sixtus V||On St. Bonaventure|
|1591||[Constitutio moderatoria bullae [...] Sixti pp. 5, contra abortum]||Gregory XIV|
|1593||Caeca et Obdurata
("The Blind and Obdurate")
|Clement VIII||Expelled the Jews from the Papal States.|
|1603||Dominici Gregis||Clement VIII||Marian piety as the basis of the Church.|
|1631||Contra astrologos iudiciarios||Urban VIII||Condemns astrological predictions of the deaths of princes and popes.|
|1641 (6 March)||In eminenti Ecclesiae Militantis||Urban VIII||Censures Jansenist publications.|
|1644||Urban VIII||Grants pilgrims to the Jesuit mission at Ste. Marie, Canada "a Plenary Indulgence each year and the remission of all their sins."|
|1653 (May 31)||Cum occasione||Innocent X||Condemns 5 Jansenist propositions.|
|1659||Super Cathedram Principis Apostolorum||Alexander VII||Establishing the Catholic mission in Vietnam|
("To the sacred")
|1692||Romanum decet Pontificem
("It befits the Roman Pontiff")
|Innocent XII||Abolished the office of Cardinal-Nephew|
|Clement XI||Condemns Jansenism.|
|1738||In eminenti apostolatus specula
("In the high watchtower of the Apostolate")
|Clement XII||Bans Catholics from becoming Freemasons.|
|Benedict XIV||Beatified child martyr Andreas Oxner, said in a blood libel accusation to have been murdered by Jews in 1462.|
|1773||Dominus ac Redemptor Noster
("Our Master and Redeemer")
|Clement XIV||Permanently and irrevocably suppressing the Society of Jesus.|
|1814||Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum
("The care of all the churches")
|Pius VII||Reestablishes the Society of Jesus.|
|1824||Quod divina sapientia
("What divine wisdom")
|Leo XII||Restructures education in the Papal States under ecclesiastical supervision.|
|1831||Sollicitudo ecclesiarum||Gregory XVI||That in the event of a change of government, the church would negotiate with the new government for placement of bishops and vacant dioceses.|
|1850 (September 29)||Universalis Ecclesiae
("Of the Universal Church")
|Pius IX||Recreates the Roman Catholic hierarchy in England.|
|1866 (July 12)||Reversurus
("To came back")
|Pius IX||Extends to the Armenian Catholic Church the Western provisions about appointment of bishops.|
|1868 (June 29)||Aeterni Patris
("Of the Eternal Father")
|Pius IX||Summons First Vatican Council.|
|1869 (October 12)||Apostolicæ Sedis Moderationi
("To the spirit of the Apostolic See")
|Pius IX||Regulates the system of censures and reservations in the Catholic Church.|
("The eternal shepherd")
|Pius IX||Defines papal infallibility.|
|1880 (July 13)||Dolemus inter alia
("Among other things, we lament")
|Leo XIII||Reinstates the privileges of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), nullifying the bull Dominus ac Redemptor Noster of 21 July 1773.|
|1884 (November 1)||Omnipotens Deus
|Leo XIII||Accepted the authenticity of the relics at Compostela, Galicia, Spain.|
("Of the Apostolic care")
|Leo XIII||Declares all Anglican Holy Orders null and void.|
|Pius X||Allows the admittance of Communion to children who have reached the age of reason (about seven years old).|
|1930||Ad Christi Nomen||Pius XI||Created the Diocese of Vijayapuram.|
|1950 (November 1)||Munificentissimus Deus
("The most bountiful God")
|Pius XII||Defines the dogma of the Assumption of Mary.|
|1961 (December 25)||Humanae salutis
("Of human salvation")
|John XXIII||Summons Second Vatican Council.|
|1965 (November 18)||Dei Verbum
("Word of God")
|Paul VI||Aims to promote the "theological virtues" of faith, hope, and love, and strongly urges Christians to study the Bible as "a pure and lasting fount of the spiritual life".|
|1968 (25 July)||Humanae Vitae
|Paul VI||Reaffirms the teaching of the Church on married love, responsible parenthood, and the condemnation of most forms of birth control. (See also Casti Connubii.)|
|1998 (November 29)||Incarnationis mysterium
("The mystery of the Incarnation")
|Pope John Paul II||Indiction of the Great Jubilee of 2000|
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