List of participants in the creation–evolution controversy

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This is a list of people and organisations involved in the creation-evolution controversy.

Scientific community[edit]


  • The United States National Academy of Sciences has made a number of statements opposing creationism. They state, "Creationism, intelligent design, and other claims of supernatural intervention in the origin of life or of species are not science because they are not testable by the methods of science."[1]
  • The American Association for the Advancement of Science (the world's largest general scientific society) contrasts the "scientific robustness of the contemporary theory of biological evolution"[2] with the proposed teaching of intelligent design that will "confuse students about the nature of science".[3]
  • The Royal Society is opposed to creationism being taught as science. The society is committed to the teaching of evolution as the best explanation for the history of life on earth.[4]
  • The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) supports the teaching of evolutionary biology in schools, and opposes the teaching of creationism. They hold that science classes should teach evolution; that teachers should be "nonjudgmental" of students' religious views; and that "creation science" and "intelligent design" should not be taught.[5]
  • The National Center for Science Education was founded in 1981 to oppose creationism and is led by Eugenie Scott. It has 4,000 members and operates a website. It also runs Project Steve, a list of over 1300 certified Doctorate holding pro-evolution signatories named Steve (or Stephen or some variant thereof), as a parody of creationist attempts to collect signature lists of experts who doubt evolution.
  • The American Association of Physics Teachers states that "we do not endorse teaching the 'evidence against evolution,' because currently no such scientific evidence exists. Nor can we condone teaching "scientific creationism," "intelligent design," or other non-scientific viewpoints as valid scientific theories."[6]
  • The American Astronomical Society supports teaching evolution, noting that many astronomical observations show changes in the universe over a long period of time consistent with evolution. They state that "'Intelligent Design' fails to meet the basic definition of a scientific idea" and "does not belong in the science curriculum."[7]
  • The American Geophysical Union states that "Earth History and the Evolution of Life Must Be Taught: Creationism Is Not Science," thus the AGU "opposes all efforts to require or promote teaching creationism or any other religious tenets as science."[8] In addition, the American Geological Institute, the Association for Women Geoscientists, the Geological Society of America, the Paleontological Society, the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology and the Society for Organic Petrology all have position statements supporting the teaching of evolution and opposing the teaching of non-scientific ideas.
  • The Board of Directors of the American Chemical Society supports "evolution as the only scientifically accepted explanation for the origin and diversity of species." [9]
  • The American Physical Society's governing Council has long expressed its opposition to the inclusion of religious concepts such as intelligent design and related forms of creationism in science classes.[10] APS is the world's largest professional body of physicists, representing over 43,000 physicists in academia and industry in the US and internationally.
  • Kansas Citizens for Science is a group that is trying to fight the revision of science standards in Kansas.
  • CSICOP and The Skeptics Society are anti-pseudoscience organizations with creationism among their targets.
  • The Talk.Origins Archive is a large website of articles critiquing creationary ideas, plus a discussion forum; there is an extensive set of links to sites of interest on both sides of the debate - including True. Origins.
  • Talk Reason is a take-off of the archive that deals exclusively with debunking intelligent design.



Intelligent design[edit]



Old-Earth creationists[edit]

  • The American Scientific Affiliation is an organization of professional scientists who also have a commitment to the Christian faith and has been in existence since 1948. There has been long-standing dialog in this organization between members who believe that there is no conflict between evolutionary science and religious ideas and other members who believe that there is a conflict.
  • Reasons To Believe is a progressive creationist organisation founded in 1986 by Hugh Ross. It publishes a number of books and operates a website. Ross opposes biological evolution but accepts mainstream theories of geological and astronomical history.
  • Answers In Creation is an old-earth creationist website that supports both progressive creationists and theistic evolutionists. This is accomplished by examining young-earth creationist arguments and showing the flaws they contain.

Young-Earth creationists[edit]


  • The Creation Research Society, an organization of some 600 members each having a postgraduate degree in science, supports the study of origins with regard to creation science.
  • The Institute for Creation Research is based in San Diego and was founded in 1970 by Henry Morris. It is now led by his son, John Morris. ICR publishes a number of books and newsletters, as well as producing radio spots and operating a website and a small museum.
  • Answers in Genesis (AiG) is a creationist apologetics organization devoted to the beliefs of Young Earth creationism, specifically a plain reading of the first chapters of the Book of Genesis. Ken Ham is a notable creationist from AiG.
  • The Center for Scientific Creation, founded by creationist Dr. Walter Brown, is dedicated to studying origins from two different perspectives. It studies the earth as it exists today and formulates theories about what past events could have occurred to generate what we see today. It also looks at the Genesis account of origins and history, and formulates theories and predictions (of which there are 38) that science has not yet discovered, but based on Dr. Brown's theories, will be discovered when technology and research is applied in those areas. Creationists claim that some of his predictions of scientific discovery have already been found to be true, including his prediction about comet composition, discovered by the Deep Impact Mission on 4 July 2005.[14]
  • The True.Origin Archive is a website that responds to naturalistic interpretations of evidence in the Talk.Origins Archive website. It rebuts "the Neo-Darwinian macro-evolution origins model" in biology, information theory, paleontology, astronomy, etc.,[15] and explores modern design arguments.[16] The "Talk.Origins Archive Rebuttals" and "Guest Articles on Related Topics" cover a wide range of topics associated with evolution, the age of the earth, the global flood, and more. These include Tim Wallace's Five Major Evolutionist Misconceptions About Evolution,[17] rebuttals to evolutionary claims, a list of creationary positions on various issues, book reviews, bibliographies, and links to primary source material.
  • The Center for Origins Research, at Bryan College.
  • Probe Ministries is an evangelical Christian organization founded in 1973 by James F. Williams Jr. and Jon Buell, based in Plano, Texas. It is a Christian worldview and apologetics ministry headed by Ray Bohlin, a fellow of the Discovery Institute.[18]
  • Christian Answers provides online access to "over 45-thousand files" of Christian apologetics (including creationist) materials in 42 languages. Team members behind Christian Answers include: AIIA Institute; Answers in Genesis; Associates for Biblical Research; Creation Research Society; Eden Communications/Films for Christ; Ray Comfort/Living Waters Summit Ministries. Christian Answers maintains a list of scientists that subscribe to creationism.[19]
  • The Creation Science Association of Mid America (CSAMA) is Young Earth creationist organization[20] based in St Louis, Missouri.[21] In 1999 the Kansas State Board of Education relied heavily on CSAMA material in constructing science standards that minimized the tuition of evolution.[22]


  • John Baumgardner is a geophysicist. Baumgardner has a B.S. from Texas Tech University, an M.S. from Princeton University, and a Ph.D. in geophysics and space physics from the University of California. He worked at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and modeled Catastrophic Plate Tectonics using a program developed for the supercomputers there.
  • Jerry Bergman is a creationary biologist and author. Bergman got a B.S. (1970) and a Ph.D. in biomedical science (1976)from Wayne State University. He earned a M.A. in Social Psychology (1986) from the Bowling Green State University and joined the teaching staff. He obtained a Ph.D. (1992) in human biology from Columbia Pacific University. He earned a M.S (1999) in biomedical science and a M.P.H degree (2001) from the Medical College of Ohio.
  • Leonard Brand is a biologist, paleontologist, and author. He has a PhD in biology from Cornell University. He is the Chair Professor of Loma Linda University Department of Earth and Biological Sciences. He experimented with amphibians making tracks in sand underwater.
  • Walt Brown is a famous proponent of creation science including flood geology and creationist cosmologies. He runs his own ministry called the Center for Scientific Creation and is famous for claiming that "evolutionists" refuse to debate him.
  • Harold Willard Clark was a creationary teacher and author. In 1920 he studied under George McCready Price at Pacific Union College, replacing Price (who had moved on to Union College, Nebraska) after graduation. in 1929, he dedicated his Back to Creationism to Price. Numbers credits this book with the introduction of the name "Creationism" to the movement, which had previously been known as "Anti-Evolution".
  • Robert V. Gentry concluded that a phenomenon, "polonium haloes", was an indication of a young earth. He earned a MS at Florida University. Additionally, Gentry has devised his own creationary cosmology.
  • Duane Gish became well known for debating evolutionists across America and in other countries. He was also Senior Vice President of ICR. His Creation Scientists Answer Their Critics was a creationary response to Strahler's and many other anti-creationist books.
  • Werner Gitt is a German engineer and young earth creationist. Gitt was an engineering professor at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's national institute for natural and engineering sciences. By the 1990s he assumed a leadership role in the German creationary movement, through the publication of several influential creationary books.
  • Ken Ham is the president of Answers in Genesis USA. A vocal advocate for a literal interpretation of the Book of Genesis, his cross-country speaking tours and many books make him one of the better known young-Earth creationists. He has a BS in applied science from the Queensland Institute of Technology and a Diploma in Education from the University of Queensland.
  • Kent Hovind is creationist and conspiracy theorist. Hovind's aim is to convince listeners to reject naturalistic theories of evolution, geophysics, and cosmology in favor of the literal Genesis creation narrative from the Bible. Hovind established Creation Science Evangelism in 1991, and frequently spoke at seminars at private schools and churches, debates, and on radio and television broadcasts. Since January 2007, Hovind has been serving a ten-year prison sentence after being convicted on 58 federal counts.
  • David Russell Humphreys has a B.S. from Duke University and earned a Ph.D in physics from Louisiana State University in 1972. He worked for General Electric and Sandia National Laboratories in nuclear physics, where he received a patent and a science award. He has proposed a creationary cosmology of the origin of the universe which he says resolves the distant starlight problem. Humphreys was an associate professor at The Institute for Creation Research and currently works for Creation Ministries International (USA).
  • Frank Lewis Marsh was a biologist, educator and creationary author who studied geology under George McCready Price. While teaching, Marsh studied advanced biology at the University of Chicago. He obtained an M.S. (1935)in zoology from Northwestern University. He earned a PhD (1940) in botany at the University of Nebraska. In 1963 he was one of the ten founding members of the Creation Research Society.
  • Andrew McIntosh is professor of thermodynamics and combustion theory at the University of Leeds. His group has received recognition for research on the physics behind the gaseous "cannon" of the bombardier beetle and his biomimetic application of this to the design of spray mechanisms, which has resulted in several patents.
  • Henry Morris and John Whitcomb in the early 1960s co-authored The Genesis Flood, the book credited with reviving interest in creation as an alternative to evolution. Dr. Morris is considered the "father" of modern creationism.
  • John D. Morris is an young earth creationist. Morris has a B.S. in Civil Engineering from Virginia Tech (1969), a M.S., University of Oklahoma (1977), and a Ph.D., University of Oklahoma (1980) in Geological Engineering. After his father's death, he became the president of the Institute for Creation Research.
  • Terry Mortenson is a lecturer and researcher for Answers in Genesis. He has a BA in math, University of Minnesota (1975), a M.Div in systematic theology from Trinity Evangelical Divinity School (1992) and is most noted for his PhD thesis from Coventry University (1996) in the history of geology, British Scriptural Geologists In The First Half Of The Nineteenth Century, (1996). A selection of chapters from the thesis were edited and published in the journal Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal from 1997 to 2002. A revised version of the thesis was published as The Great Turning Point: the Church’s Catastrophic Mistake on Geology—Before Darwin. (2004)[23]
  • George McCready Price was a Canadian creationist. He produced several anti-evolution and creationary works, particularly on the subject of flood geology. His views did not become common among creationists until after his death, particularly with the modern creation science movement starting in the 1960s.
  • Marcus R. Ross is an American vertebrate paleontologist. Ross received his B.S. in Earth Science from Pennsylvania State University, his M.S. in Paleontology from the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology and his Ph.D. in Geosciences from the University of Rhode Island. Ross was featured in a February 2007 New York Times article about the conflict between his young Earth creationist beliefs and his doctoral dissertation (which involved extinct animals). He is presently an Assistant Professor of Geology in the Biology/Chemistry Department at Liberty University, where he is also the Assistant Director of the Center for Creation Studies.
  • Ariel A. Roth is a zoologist a leader in the field of flood geology. After receiving his PhD in Biology at the University of Michigan, Roth pursued research in invertebrate zoology and on fossil and living coral reefs funded by NOAA, the National Institutes of Health, and other government agencies. He obtained additional training in radiation biology, geology and mathematics at the University of California. Roth was professor and chairman of Biology at Andrews University and Loma Linda University. He was director of the Geoscience Research Institute and editor of the journal Origins for 23 years. He is a longtime member of the Geological Society of America and the Society for Sedimentary Geology. Roth has published articles in both scientific and popular journals and lectured worldwide.
  • Andrew A. Snelling is a geologist. He has a Ph.D. in geology from the University of Sydney and has worked as a consulting geologist. He was, for a decade, the geology spokesman for the Creation Science Foundation, the coordinating center for creationism in Australia. Since 2007 he has been employed by Answers in Genesis as a full-time geologist and editor-in-chief of the online peer-reviewed technical journal, Answers Research Journal.
  • Larry Vardiman obtained his B.S., University of Missouri (1965); B.S., St. Louis University (1967); M.S., Colorado State University (1972); Ph.D., in Atmospheric Science from Colorado State University (1974).
  • Walter Julius Veith is a zoologist and speaker known for his work in nutrition, creationism and Biblical exegesis with the Amazing Discoveries media ministry. Veith was professor of the zoology department at the University of Cape Town and taught in the medical bioscience department. During this time the department was awarded a Royal Society London grant for zoological research.
  • Carl Wieland is an young earth creationist, author and speaker. He is currently the Managing Director of Creation Ministries International (formerly Answers in Genesis - Australia), a Creationist apologetics ministry. CMI are the distributors of Creation magazine and the Journal of Creation.
  • Kurt Patrick Wise is an young earth creationist who serves as the Director of Creation Research Center at Truett-McConnell College. He has a PhD in geology from Harvard University. He's known for his writings in support for creationism as well as his work for the Creation Museum.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Conclusion, Science and Creationism". National Academy of Sciences. 
  2. ^ Dialogue on Science, Ethics and Religion at the Wayback Machine (archived February 26, 2006)
  3. ^ "AAAS Statement on Changes to Kansas Science Education Standards". 
  4. ^ "Royal Society press release". 
  5. ^ "NSTA Position Statement: The Teaching of Evolution". 
  6. ^ "AAPT Statement on the Teaching of Evolution and Cosmology". 
  7. ^ "AAS press release". 
  8. ^ "Earth History and the Evolution of Life Must Be Taught: Creationism Is Not Science". 
  9. ^ "Evolution Under Fire". 
  10. ^ "APS statement on creationism". 
  11. ^ "Wedge Strategy". Discovery Institute. 1999. 
  12. ^ "Wedge Strategy". Discovery Institute. 1999. Five Year Objectives. Spiritual & cultural renewal: Mainline renewal movements begin to appropriate insights from design theory, and to repudiate theologies influenced by materialism; Major Christian denomination(s) defend(s) traditional doctrine of creation & repudiate(s); Darwinism Seminaries increasingly recognize & repudiate naturalistic presuppositions; Positive uptake in public opinion polls on issues such as sexuality, abortion and belief in God 
  13. ^ "Hunter's biography". Discovery Institute. 
  14. ^ "In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood - Comet Composition". 
  15. ^ "Introduction". TrueOrigin homepage. 
  16. ^ [[William Paley|Paley, William]]. "List of Web Resources that Explore Modern Design Arguments". Natural Theology. Coachwhip Publishers edition. ISBN 1-930585-21-7. 
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ "Ray Bohlin". Probe Ministries. 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  19. ^ "Creationists holding DOCTORATES IN SCIENCE". Who's who in Creation/Evolution. 
  20. ^ Creationism's Trojan Horse. p. 222. 
  21. ^ Eugenie Scott, Niles Eldredge. Evolution Vs. Creationism. p. 103. 
  22. ^ John Clifford Green, Mark J. Rozell, Clyde Wilcox. The Christian Right in American Politics. p. 157. 
  23. ^ "Terry Mortenson Biography".