List of participating nations at the Summer Olympic Games

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Participating nations at the Opening Ceremony of the 1912 Games in Stockholm.

This is a list of nations, as represented by National Olympic Committees (NOCs), that have participated in the Summer Olympic Games between 1896 and 2012. As of the 2012 Games in London, all of the current 204 NOCs have participated in at least one edition of the Olympic Games, and athletes from Australia, France,[G] Great Britain, Greece, and Switzerland[H] have competed in all twenty-seven Summer Olympic Games.

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

Participating nations at the Opening Ceremony of the 1908 Games in London.

Early Games were not clearly documented with respect to participating nations. Competitors from 11 to 16 different nations participated in the inaugural 1896 Games, in Athens. Eleven nations (Australia, Austria, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) are mentioned in the official report for the Games,[1] and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) states that 14 nations were represented.[2] The NOCs for Bulgaria[3] and Chile[4] each claim that they were represented by a single athlete in Athens. Other sources also list Egypt, Italy, and the Turkish Empire.[5][6]

While official report was actually the summary of the sporting events held at the 1900 Exposition Universelle and so can not be considered as reliable source,[7] the IOC states that 24 nations participated in the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris,[8] but additional sources list up to 28 nations, with Haiti, Iran, Luxembourg, and Peru being the additions.[9][10] The 1904 Games, held in St. Louis, were poorly organized, with participation of only 12 nations,[11][12] and many events contested only by athletes from the host United States. Although the Intercalated Games of 1906 are no longer considered official Games of the Olympiad by the IOC, they helped restore the Olympic movement. Participation at subsequent Games grew steadily, with 22 nations in London for 1908[13] and 28 nations in Stockholm for the 1912 Games.[14] At these two Games (only), one of the delegations was actually a combined team of athletes from Australia and New Zealand, designated Australasia. The Games of 1916, planned for Berlin, were cancelled due to World War I.

Inter-war years[edit]

After the First World War, the Olympic Games resumed in 1920, in Antwerp. Twenty-nine nations participated,[15] but not Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, or Turkey, none of which were invited because of their roles in the war. Several newly created European states, such as Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, made their Olympic debut.

The Games grew rapidly for the 1924 Summer Olympics, in Paris, with 44 nations present,[16] even though Germany was still not invited back to the Games. This situation would change for the 1928 Games, in Amsterdam, where Germany returned to join a total of 46 participating nations.[17] Because of the economic effects of the Great Depression, competitors from only 37 nations—with less than half the number of participants that competed in Amsterdam—travelled to Los Angeles for the 1932 Summer Olympics.[18] The 1936 Summer Olympics, in Berlin, were attended by 49 nations (a new high) but were highly politicized.[19] The scheduled Games of 1940 in Tokyo and 1944 in London were each cancelled due to the outbreak of World War II in 1939.

Post-war years and Cold War era[edit]

Participating nations at the Opening Ceremony of the 1952 Games in Helsinki.

Twelve years after the previous Games, the 1948 Summer Olympics, in London, attracted competitors from 59 nations, including 14 that made their Olympic debut; once again, Germany was not invited to take part, and neither was Japan.[20] The 1952 Games, in Helsinki, again set a new high, with 69 nations participating, including the first appearance by the Soviet Union and the return of Germany and Japan.[21] The 1956 Summer Olympics, attended by 67 nations in Melbourne, were the first to be marred by a boycott.[22] Egypt, Iraq, and Lebanon withdrew in response to the Suez Crisis, and the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland withdrew in response to the Soviet invasion of Hungary. Interestingly, because of Australian quarantine restrictions, the equestrian events were held five months earlier in Stockholm, with a total of 29 participating nations, including five nations that did not compete in Melbourne.[23]

Participation by African and Latin American nations increased significantly during the 1960s. A total of 84 nations were represented at the 1960 Summer Olympics, in Rome,[24] 94 nations at the 1964 Games, in Tokyo,[25] and 112 nations at the 1968 Summer Olympics, in Mexico City.[26] The 1968 Games also marked the first time that West Germany and East Germany competed as independent teams. For the previous three Olympiads (1956–1964), the two NOCs were jointly represented by a united German team.[27] The 1972 Summer Olympics, in Munich, featured 121 nations, the highest total yet.[28]

The next three Games were each marred by significant boycotts. At the 1976 Summer Olympics, in Montreal, only 92 nations were represented.[29] Twenty-nine African nations (Ivory Coast and Senegal being the only two exceptions) boycotted the Games because of New Zealand's participation, as New Zealand maintained other sporting relations with apartheid South Africa.[30] The largest Olympic boycott took place at the 1980 Games, in Moscow, when only 81 nations participated.[31] The United States led the boycott in protest of the December 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and were joined by more than 60 other nations. In response, the 1984 Summer Olympics, in Los Angeles, were boycotted by the Soviet Union and many of their allies, yet a total of 140 nations did participate.[32] The 1988 Games, in Seoul, marked a new high, with 160 participating nations.[33]

Recent Games[edit]

Several events in the 1990s led to a large increase in participating nations at the Olympic Games. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Baltic states competed as independent nations for the first time since 1936 at the 1992 Games, in Barcelona.[34] The remaining twelve ex-republics of the Soviet Union competed together as the Unified Team for these Games. A single German team competed for the first time since 1964, after the German reunification in 1990, while the breakup of Yugoslavia resulted in the Olympic debut of new nations.

The Centennial Olympics, in Atlanta, were attended by athletes from 197 nations,[35] including 24 nations making their Summer Games debut. Czechoslovakia had split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and all ex-Soviet republics competed as independent nations. The Games continued to grow, with 199 nations represented in Sydney, for the 2000 Summer Games,[36] and 201 nations in Athens, for the 2004 Summer Olympics.[37]

A record number of nations (204) were represented at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing,[38] with Marshall Islands and Tuvalu making their Olympic debut. After competing together as Serbia and Montenegro in 2004, Serbia and Montenegro sent independent teams to Beijing. Only Brunei failed to participate in the Games, after failing to register any athletes for competition.[39] The 2012 Games in London increased this record to 206 nations, even though only 204 NOCs were represented.[40] Brunei returned to the Games, but athletes from the former Netherlands Antilles competed as Independent Olympic Athletes, after the Netherlands Antilles Olympic Committee's membership in the IOC was withdrawn in 2011 as a consequence of the dissolution of the Caribbean country. One athlete from South Sudan also competed as an independent athlete, since the nation had not yet formed a National Olympic Committee after its independence in 2011.

List of nations[edit]

Description[edit]

This list includes all 204 current NOCs[41] and 20 obsolete NOCs, arranged alphabetically. The three-letter country code is also listed for each NOC. Since the 1960s, these codes have been frequently used by the IOC and each Games organizing committee to identify NOCs, such as within the official report of each Games.[42]

Several nations have changed during their Olympic history. Name changes due to geographical renaming are explained by footnotes after the nation's name, and other changes are explained by footnotes linked within the table itself. A select number of obsolete nations are also included in the table to more clearly illustrate past Olympic appearances for their successor nations:

Table legend[edit]

96   In the table headings, indicates the Games year, from 1896 through 2012
Participated in the specified Games
H Host nation for the specified Games
[A] Additional explanatory comments at the linked footnote
  The planned Games of 1916, 1940, and 1944 were cancelled due to world wars
  NOC superseded or preceded by other NOC(s) during these years

Alphabetical list[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V Y Z Total

A[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Afghanistan AFG 13
Albania ALB 7
Algeria ALG 12
American Samoa ASA 7
Andorra AND 10
Angola ANG 8
Antigua and Barbuda ANT 9
Argentina ARG 23
Armenia ARM see Russian Empire see Soviet Union EUN 5
Aruba ARU 7
Australia AUS ANZ H H 25
AustralasiaANZ[›] ANZ 2
Austria AUT 26
Azerbaijan AZE see Russian Empire see Soviet Union EUN 5

B[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Bahamas BAH 15
Bahrain BRN 8
Bangladesh BAN 8
Barbados BAR BWI 11
Belarus BLR see Russian Empire see Soviet Union EUN 5
Belgium BEL H 25
BelizeBIZ[›] BIZ 11
BeninBEN[›] BEN 10
Bermuda BER 17
Bhutan BHU 8
Bolivia BOL 13
Bosnia and Herzegovina BIH see Yugoslavia 6
Botswana BOT 9
Brazil BRA 21
British Virgin Islands IVB 8
Brunei BRU [L] 4
Bulgaria BUL [A] 19
Burkina FasoBUR[›] BUR 8
Burundi BDI 5

C[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Cambodia CAM [H] 8
Cameroon CMR [K] 13
Canada CAN H 25
Cape Verde CPV 5
Cayman Islands CAY 9
Central African Republic CAF 9
Chad CHA 11
Chile CHI [B] 22
China, People's Republic of CHN see Republic of China H 9
Chinese TaipeiTPE[›] TPE see Republic of China 13
China, Republic ofROC[›] ROC see China, Chinese Taipei 3
Colombia COL 18
Comoros COM 5
Congo CGO 11
DR CongoCOD[›] COD 9
Cook Islands COK 7
Costa Rica CRC 14
Ivory CoastCIV[›] CIV 12
Croatia CRO Austria/Hungary see Yugoslavia 6
Cuba CUB 19
Cyprus CYP 9
Czech Republic CZE see Bohemia see Czechoslovakia 5
CzechoslovakiaTCH[›] TCH 16
BohemiaBOH[›] BOH 3

D[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Denmark DEN 26
Djibouti DJI [L] 7
Dominica DMA 5
Dominican Republic DOM 13

E[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Ecuador ECU 13
EgyptEGY[›] EGY [H] [K] 21
El Salvador ESA 10
Equatorial Guinea GEQ 8
Eritrea ERI 4
Estonia EST see Russian Empire see Soviet Union 11
Ethiopia ETH 12

F[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Fiji FIJ 13
Finland FIN H 24
France FRA H [G] H 27

G[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Gabon GAB 9
The Gambia GAM 8
Georgia GEO see Russian Empire see Soviet Union EUN 5
GermanyGER[›] GER H 15
East GermanyGER[›] GDR see EUA 5
West GermanyGER[›] FRG see EUA H 5
Unified Team of GermanyGER[›] EUA 3
SaarGER[›] SAA 1
GhanaGHA[›] GHA 13
Great Britain GBR H H H 27
Greece GRE H H 27
Grenada GRN 8
Guam GUM 7
Guatemala GUA 13
Guinea GUI 10
Guinea-Bissau GBS 5
GuyanaGUY[›] GUY 16

H[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Haiti HAI [C] 14
Honduras HON 10
Hong Kong HKG 15
Hungary HUN 25

I[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Iceland ISL 19
India IND 23
Indonesia INA 14
Iran IRI [D] 15
Iraq IRQ 13
Ireland IRL 20
Israel ISR 15
Italy ITA H 26

J[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Jamaica JAM BWI 16
Japan JPN H 21
Jordan JOR 9

K[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Kazakhstan KAZ see Russian Empire see Soviet Union EUN 5
Kenya KEN 13
Kiribati KIR 3
North Korea PRK 9
South Korea KOR H 16
Kuwait KUW 12
Kyrgyzstan KGZ see Russian Empire see Soviet Union EUN 5

L[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Laos LAO 8
Latvia LAT see Russian Empire see Soviet Union 10
Lebanon LIB 16
Lesotho LES 10
Liberia LBR [L] 11
Libya LBA [L] 9
Liechtenstein LIE 16
Lithuania LTU see Russian Empire see Soviet Union 8
Luxembourg LUX [E] 22

M[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Macedonia MKD see Yugoslavia IOP 5
Madagascar MAD 11
Malawi MAW 9
MalaysiaMAS[›] MAS see Malaya, North Borneo 12
MalayaMAS[›] MAL 2
North BorneoMAS[›] NBO 1
Maldives MDV 7
Mali MLI 12
Malta MLT 15
Marshall Islands MHL 2
Mauritania MTN 8
Mauritius MRI 8
Mexico MEX H 22
Federated States of Micronesia FSM 4
Moldova MDA see Russian Empire see Romania see Soviet Union EUN 5
Monaco MON 19
Mongolia MGL 12
Montenegro MNE see Yugoslavia see SCG 2
Morocco MAR [K] 13
Mozambique MOZ 9
MyanmarMYA[›] MYA 16

N[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Namibia NAM 6
Nauru NRU 5
Nepal NEP 12
Netherlands NED H [H] 25
Netherlands AntillesAHO[›] AHO [N] 13
New Zealand NZL ANZ 22
Nicaragua NCA 11
Niger NIG 11
Nigeria NGR 15
Norway NOR 24

O[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Oman OMA 8

P[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Pakistan PAK 16
Palau PLW 4
Palestine PLE 5
Panama PAN 16
Papua New Guinea PNG 9
Paraguay PAR 11
Peru PER [F] 17
Philippines PHI 20
Poland POL 20
Portugal POR 23
Puerto Rico PUR 17

Q[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Qatar QAT 8

R[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Romania ROU 20
Russia RUS see Russian Empire see Soviet Union EUN 5
Russian EmpireRU1[›] RU1 3
Rwanda RWA 8

S[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Saint Kitts and Nevis SKN 5
Saint Lucia LCA 5
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines VIN 7
Samoa SAM 8
San Marino SMR 13
São Tomé and Príncipe STP 5
Saudi Arabia KSA 10
Senegal SEN 13
Serbia SRB see Yugoslavia see SCG 3
Serbia and MontenegroSCG[›] SCG see Yugoslavia IOP 3
Indep. Olympic ParticipantsIOP[›] IOP 1
Seychelles SEY 8
Sierra Leone SLE 10
Singapore SIN [J] 15
Slovakia SVK see Hungary see Czechoslovakia 5
Slovenia SLO Austria/Hungary see Yugoslavia 6
Solomon Islands SOL 8
Somalia SOM 8
South Africa RSA 18
Soviet UnionURS[›] URS H EUN 9
Unified TeamEUN[›] EUN 1
Spain ESP [H] H 22
Sri LankaSRI[›] SRI 16
Sudan SUD 11
Suriname SUR [L] 11
Swaziland SWZ 9
Sweden SWE H 26
Switzerland SUI [H] 27
Syria SYR [I] 12

T[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Tajikistan TJK see Russian Empire see Soviet Union EUN 5
TanzaniaTAN[›] TAN 12
Thailand THA 15
Timor-Leste TLS [M] 3
Togo TOG 9
Tonga TGA 8
Trinidad and Tobago TRI BWI 16
British West IndiesBWI[›] BWI 1
Tunisia TUN [K] 13
Turkey TUR 21
Turkmenistan TKM see Russian Empire see Soviet Union EUN 5
Tuvalu TUV 2

U[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Uganda UGA 14
Ukraine UKR see Russian Empire see Soviet Union EUN 5
United Arab Emirates UAE 8
United States USA H H H H 26
Uruguay URU 20
Uzbekistan UZB see Russian Empire see Soviet Union EUN 5

V[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
Vanuatu VAN 7
Venezuela VEN 17
Vietnam VIE 14
Virgin Islands ISV 11

Y[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
YemenYEM[›] YEM see South Yemen, North Yemen 6
South YemenYEM[›] YMD 1
North YemenYEM[›] YAR 2
YugoslaviaYUG[›] YUG 16

Z[edit]

Nation Code 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
ZambiaZAM[›] ZAM 12
ZimbabweZIM[›] ZIM 12

Total[edit]

Year 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Total
NOCs number 14 24 12 22 28 29 44 46 37 49 59 69 72 83 93 112 121 92 80 140 159 169 197 199 201 204 204 2559

Notes[edit]

Obsolete nations notes[edit]

^ ANZ: In the 1908[13] and 1912[14] Games, athletes from Australia and New Zealand competed together as a single team, designated Australasia (ANZ).[43]
^ ROC: The Republic of China was designated as China from 1932[18] to 1948,[20] representing all of China (including Taiwan). After the Chinese Civil War the Chinese Taipei (TPE) participated using the Republic of China designation in 1956,[22] 1960,[24] and 1972.[28]
^ TCH: Czechoslovakia competed in 1920–1992, from 1994 represented by successor NOCs of Czech Republic (CZE) and Slovakia (SVK).
^ BOH: Prior to the foundation of Czechoslovakia after World War I, athletes from Bohemia (now part of the present-day Czech Republic) competed in 1900,[9] 1908,[13] and 1912.[14]
^ GER: (^GDR, ^FRG, ^EUA, ^SAA): Due the partition of Germany after World War II, Germany was represented by two teams at the 1952 Games — Germany and the Saar.[21] The Saar was reintegrated back into the Federal Republic of Germany in 1956, and Saar athletes then competed for Germany.[27] East Germany did not contribute athletes to the 1952 team, as the National Olympic Committee for the German Democratic Republic was only granted "provisional" recognition by the IOC in 1955.[44] For the Games of 1956–1964, Germany participated as a Unified Team, representing the National Olympic Committees of both West Germany and East Germany.[27] Retrospectively, the IOC uses the country code EUA for this team.[45] After the NOC for the German Democratic Republic was granted full recognition by the IOC in 1968, East Germany competed as an independent team.[44]
^ MAS: (^MAL, ^NBO): Athletes from Malaya (MAL) and North Borneo (NBO) competed as independent teams at the 1956 Games[22] and Malaya also competed at the 1960 Games,[24] prior to the formation of the Federation of Malaysia in 1963.
^ AHO: The NOC of the Netherlands Antilles was recognized by the IOC from 1950 until 2011 upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles.[46]
^ RU1: The Russian Empire participated in three Games prior to World War I.[9][13][14] After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation has participated since 1996.[35]
^ SCG: The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, consisting of the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro, was reconstituted as the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. At the 1996[35] and 2000[36] Games, the nation was still designated Yugoslavia (YUG). The Serbia and Montenegro designation and SCG code were first used at the 2004 Games.[37]
^ IOP: Because of United Nations sanctions in Security Council Resolution 757,[47] athletes from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) competed as Independent Olympic Participants (IOP) at the 1992 Games.[34] They were not permitted to compete in team sports such as basketball, handball, or water polo, and the Olympic flag was used in medal ceremonies.[48] Athletes from the Republic of Macedonia competed as Independent Olympic Participants (IOP) at the 1992 Games because their NOC had not been formed.
^ URS: Soviet Union competed in 1920–1992, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 represented by fifteen successor NOCs.
^ EUN: After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the fifteen ex-republics of the Soviet Union were all represented at the 1992 Summer Olympics. Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania participated as independent teams, and the other twelve nations participated as a combined Unified Team (EUN).[34]
^ BWI: Athletes from Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago competed as the British West Indies (BWI) at the 1960 Games.[24] The West Indies Federation only existed as a nation from 1958–1962, so the constituent nations once again competed independently in 1964.[25]
^ YEM: (^YMD, ^YAR): Prior to Yemenite unification in 1990, North Yemen participated as the Yemen Arab Republic (YAR) in 1984[32] and 1988,[33] and South Yemen participated as the Yemen Democratic Republic (YMD) in the 1988 Games.[33]
^ YUG: The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (officially the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes until 1929) participated as Yugoslavia in five Games before the Second World War. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia also participated using the Yugoslavia designation, for all Games between 1948–1988. For participation by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, see Serbia and Montenegro (SCG).

Name changes notes[edit]

^ BIZ: Belize participated under its former name of British Honduras (HBR) in 1968[26] and 1972.[28]
^ BEN: Benin was known as Dahomey (DAH) in 1972.[28]
^ BUR: Burkina Faso was known as Upper Volta (VOL) in 1972.[28]
^ COD: The Democratic Republic of the Congo was known as Zaire (ZAI) between 1984[32] and 1996.[35]
^ CIV: Côte d'Ivoire was known as Ivory Coast between 1964[25] and 1988.[33]
^ EGY: Egypt participated as the United Arab Republic between 1960[24] and 1968.[26]
^ GHA: Prior to Ghana's independence in 1957, Gold Coast participated in the 1952 Games.[21]
^ GUY: Prior to Guyana's independence in 1966, British Guiana participated from 1948[20] to 1964.[25]
^ MYA: Myanmar was known as Burma (BIR) between 1948[20] and 1988.[33]
^ SRI: Sri Lanka was known as Ceylon (CEY) between 1948[20] and 1972.[28]
^ TAN: Although Tanganyika and Zanzibar had already merged to form Tanzania in April 1964, the nation was designated Tanganyika in the official report of the 1964 Games.[25]
^ TPE: The Chinese Taipei was designated Republic of China (ROC) in 1956,[22] 1960,[24] and 1972,[28] and was designated Taiwan in 1964[25] and 1968.[26] In 1979, the IOC started to use Chinese Taipei to refer to this NOC, a compromise that was acceptable for the People's Republic of China to start participating in the Olympic Games.[49][50]
^ ZAM: Zambia achieved independence on the last day of the 1964 Games, but had participated as Northern Rhodesia (NRH) during those Games.[25]
^ ZIM: Prior to Zimbabwe's independence in 1980, Southern Rhodesia participated as Rhodesia (RHO) in 1928,[17] 1960,[24] and 1964.[25]

Participation notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Bulgarian Olympic Committee claims that Charles Champaud, a Swiss gymnastics teacher living in Sofia, competed for the nation in 1896.[3]
  2. ^ Chile claims that one athlete, Luis Subercaseaux Errázuriz, competed for the nation in 1896.[4]
  3. ^ Some sources[9][51] consider Léon Thiércelin, a competitor in fencing at the 1900 Games, of Haitian nationality.
  4. ^ Some sources[9][51] consider Freydoun Malkom, a fencer who competed at the 1900 Games, of Persian nationality and therefore the first Olympic appearance by Iran.
  5. ^ Michel Théato's gold medal in the marathon at the 1900 Games is currently attributed to France, although it has since been discovered that he was born in Luxembourg.[9]
  6. ^ Some sources[9][51] consider Carlos de Candamo, a competitor in fencing at the 1900 Games, of Peruvian nationality.
  7. a b Sources are inconsistent regarding Albert Corey's participation for France in 1904. Although the Games report refers to Corey as a "Frenchman wearing the colors of the Chicago Athletic Association",[52] the IOC attributes his medal in the marathon to the United States instead of France, and in contradiction, the medal in the four mile team race to a mixed team composed of athletes from multiple nations instead of just the United States.[45]
  8. a b c d e Cambodia, Egypt, the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland participated in the equestrian events of the 1956 Games held in Stockholm in June,[23] but did not attend the Games in Melbourne later that year.[22]
  9. ^ Syria was part of the United Arab Republic in 1960, but it is unknown if any Syrian athletes participated as part of the UAR team.
  10. ^ Singapore was part of the Federation of Malaysia in 1964 before gaining independence in 1965.
  11. a b c d Cameroon, Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia competed for the first three days of the 1976 Games before withdrawing in support of the boycott by most African nations.[29]
  12. a b c d e Suriname at the 1960 Games, Libya at the 1964 Games, Liberia at the 1980 Games, Brunei at the 1988 Games, Djibouti at the 2004 Games took part in the Opening Ceremony, but neither athlete competed, so they are not counted as the participation nations at the IOC Olympic Games web site. Suriname's lone athlete withdrew from 1960 Games due to a scheduling error. Libya marched in the opening ceremony of the 1964 Games,[25] but then withdrew from competition. Liberia's athletes withdrew from 1980 Games after marching in the Opening Ceremony and took part of the boycott. Brunei's participation in the 1988 Games consisted only of a single official, but no competing athletes.[33] Djibouti marched in the Parade of Nations 2004 Games, but neither athlete competed.
  13. ^ Athletes from Timor-Leste competed as Individual Olympic Athletes (IOA) at the 2000 Games.[36]
  14. ^ Athletes from the former Netherlands Antilles competed as Independent Olympic Athletes (IOA) at the 2012 Games.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ De Coubertin, Pierre; Philemon, Timolean; Politis, N.G.; Anninos, Charalambos (1897). "Second Part: The Olympic Games in 1896" (PDF). The Olympic Games: BC 776 – AD 1896. Athens: Charles Beck. Retrieved 2008-02-04. 
  2. ^ "Athens 1896 Summer Olympics". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  3. ^ a b "Olympic Games Athens 1896". Bulgarian Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  4. ^ a b "La Presencia de Chile en los Juegos Olimpicos" (in Spanish). Comité Olímpico de Chile. Archived from the original on 2008-01-11. Retrieved 2008-02-04. 
  5. ^ Mallon, Bill; Widlund, Ture (1998). "1896 Olympic Games — Analysis and Summaries". The 1896 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, With Commentary. McFarland. pp. 22–23. ISBN 0-7864-0379-9. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  6. ^ De Wael, Herman (2005-06-13). "Herman's Top Athina 1896 Olympians". Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  7. ^ Exposition Universelle Internationale de 1900 – Rapports (PDF). Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  8. ^ "Paris 1900". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
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