List of parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention

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Participation in the Chemical Weapons Convention
  Signed and ratified
  Acceded
  Signed but not ratified
  Non-signatory

The member states of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) encompasses the states who have signed and ratified or acceded to the Chemical Weapons Convention, an international agreement outlawing the production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons.

On January 13, 1993, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) was opened for signature.[1] Fiji became the first state to ratify the treaty on January 20, 1993.[1] The treaty entered into force on April 29, 1997,[1] after it had been ratified by 65 states.[2] The treaty was closed for signature on the preceding day, and states that did not sign the convention can now only accede to it.[3] For states that ratified or acceded to the treaty after this date, the convention entered into force for them 31 days after their deposit of the instrument of ratification or accession.

A total of 196 states may become members of the Chemical Weapons Convention, including all 193 United Nations member states, the Cook Islands, Holy See and Niue. As of September 2013, 190 states have ratified or acceded to the treaty (most recently Syria on 14 September 2013[4]) and another two states have signed but not ratified the treaty.[1][5][6] Aside from newly independent South Sudan, all states which are not parties have been accused of possessing chemical weapons.

Of the six non-parties, both Angola and Myanmar have committed to ratifying the CWC.[7][8][9][10] Ahmet Üzümcü, director-general of the OPCW, stated in December 2013 that these two states as well as South Sudan were "very close" to becoming a party to the CWC, but that the remaining three states (Egypt, Israel and North Korea) had "regional reasons" for not joining.[11][12] The government of Myanmar has begun preparations for ratification.[13][14][15] Egypt has promised to ratify the CWC if Israel, the only state in the Middle East that is believed to possess nuclear weapons, signs the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.[16][17][18] Israel, meanwhile, has stated that it will ratify the CWC if all other non-parties in the region (of which only Egypt remains) do so as well,[16][19] though it has been reluctant to sign up due to an unwillingness to grant OPCW inspectors access to its military bases.[20] North Korea is thought to be unlikely to become a party for the foreseeable future.[21]

List of states parties[edit]

State party[1] Signed Deposited Entered into force
 Afghanistan 14 January 1993 24 September 2003 24 October 2003
 Albania 14 January 1993 11 May 1994 29 April 1997
 Algeria 13 January 1993 14 August 1995 29 April 1997
 Andorra 27 February 2003 29 March 2003
 Antigua and Barbuda 29 August 2005 28 September 2005
 Argentina 13 January 1993 2 October 1995 29 April 1997
 Armenia 19 March 1993 27 January 1995 29 April 1997
 Australia 13 January 1993 6 May 1994 29 April 1997
 Austria 13 January 1993 17 August 1995 29 April 1997
 Azerbaijan 13 January 1993 29 February 2000 30 March 2000
 Bahamas, The 2 March 1994 23 April 2009 22 May 2009
 Bahrain 24 February 1993 28 April 1997 29 April 1997
 Bangladesh 14 January 1993 25 April 1997 29 April 1997
 Barbados 7 March 2007 6 April 2007
 Belarus 14 January 1993 11 July 1996 29 April 1997
 Belgium 13 January 1993 27 January 1997 29 April 1997
 Belize 1 December 2003 31 December 2003
 Benin 14 January 1993 14 May 1998 13 June 1998
 Bhutan 24 April 1997 18 August 2005 17 September 2005
 Bolivia 14 January 1993 14 August 1998 13 September 1998
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 16 January 1997 25 February 1997 29 April 1997
 Botswana 31 August 1998 30 September 1998
 Brazil 13 January 1993 13 March 1996 29 April 1997
 Brunei 13 January 1993 28 July 1997 27 August 1997
 Bulgaria 13 January 1993 10 August 1994 29 April 1997
 Burkina Faso 14 January 1993 8 July 1997 7 August 1997
 Burundi 15 January 1993 4 September 1998 4 October 1998
 Cape Verde 15 January 1993 10 October 2003 9 November 2003
 Cambodia 15 January 1993 19 July 2005 18 August 2005
 Cameroon 14 January 1993 16 September 1996 29 April 1997
 Canada 13 January 1993 26 September 1995 29 April 1997
 Central African Republic 14 January 1993 20 September 2006 20 October 2006
 Chad 11 October 1994 13 February 2004 14 March 2004
 Chile 14 January 1993 12 July 1996 29 April 1997
 China 13 January 1993 25 April 1997 29 April 1997
 Colombia 13 January 1993 5 April 2000 5 May 2000
 Comoros 13 January 1993 18 August 1993 17 September 2006
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the 14 January 1993 12 October 2005 11 November 2005
 Congo, Republic of the 15 January 1993 4 December 2007 3 January 2008
 Cook Islands 14 January 1993 15 July 1994 29 April 1997
 Costa Rica 14 January 1993 31 May 1996 29 April 1997
 Côte d'Ivoire 13 January 1993 18 December 1995 29 April 1997
 Croatia 13 January 1993 23 May 1995 29 April 1997
 Cuba 13 January 1993 29 April 1997 29 May 1997
 Cyprus 13 January 1993 28 August 1998 27 September 1998
 Czech Republic 14 January 1993 6 March 1996 29 April 1997
 Denmark 14 January 1993 13 July 1995 29 April 1997
 Djibouti 28 September 1993 25 January 2006 24 February 2006
 Dominica 2 August 1993 12 February 2001 14 March 2001
 Dominican Republic 13 January 1993 27 March 2009 26 April 2009
 East Timor 7 May 2003 6 June 2003
 Ecuador 14 January 1993 6 September 1995 29 April 1997
 El Salvador 14 January 1993 30 October 1995 29 April 1997
 Equatorial Guinea 14 January 1993 25 April 1997 29 April 1997
 Eritrea 14 February 2000 15 March 2000
 Estonia 14 January 1993 26 May 1999 25 June 1999
 Ethiopia 14 January 1993 13 May 1996 29 April 1997
 Fiji 14 January 1993 20 January 1993 29 April 1997
 Finland 14 January 1993 7 February 1995 29 April 1997
 France 13 January 1993 2 March 1995 29 April 1997
 Gabon 13 January 1993 8 September 2000 8 October 2000
 Gambia, The 13 January 1993 19 May 1998 18 June 1998
 Georgia 14 January 1993 27 November 1995 29 April 1997
 Germany 13 January 1993 12 August 1994 29 April 1997
 Ghana 14 January 1993 9 July 1997 8 August 1997
 Greece 13 January 1993 22 December 1994 29 April 1997
 Grenada 9 April 1997 3 June 2005 3 July 2005
 Guatemala 14 January 1993 12 February 2003 14 March 2003
 Guinea 14 January 1993 9 June 1997 9 July 1997
 Guinea-Bissau 14 January 1993 20 May 2008 19 June 2008
 Guyana 6 October 1993 12 September 1997 12 October 1997
 Haiti 14 January 1993 22 February 2006 24 March 2006
 Honduras 13 January 1993 29 August 2005 28 September 2005
 Hungary 13 January 1993 31 October 1996 29 April 1997
 Iceland 13 January 1993 28 April 1997 29 April 1997
 India 14 January 1993 3 September 1996 29 April 1997
 Indonesia 13 January 1993 12 November 1998 12 December 1998
 Iran 13 January 1993 3 November 1997 3 December 1997
 Iraq 13 January 2009 12 February 2009
 Ireland 14 January 1993 24 June 1996 29 April 1997
 Italy 13 January 1993 8 December 1995 29 April 1997
 Jamaica 18 April 1997 8 September 2000 8 October 2000
 Japan 13 January 1993 15 September 1995 29 April 1997
 Jordan 29 October 1997 28 November 1997
 Kazakhstan 14 January 1993 23 March 2000 22 April 2000
 Kenya 15 January 1993 25 April 1997 29 April 1997
 Kiribati 7 September 2000 7 October 2000
 Korea, South 14 January 1993 28 April 1997 29 April 1997
 Kuwait 27 January 1993 29 May 1997 28 June 1997
 Kyrgyzstan 22 February 1993 29 September 2003 29 October 2003
 Laos 13 May 1993 25 February 1997 29 April 1997
 Latvia 6 May 1993 23 July 1996 29 April 1997
 Lebanon 20 November 2008 20 December 2008
 Lesotho 7 December 1994 7 December 1994 29 April 1997
 Liberia 15 January 1993 23 February 2006 25 March 2006
 Libya 6 January 2004 5 February 2004
 Liechtenstein 21 July 1993 24 November 1999 24 December 1999
 Lithuania 13 January 1993 15 April 1998 15 May 1998
 Luxembourg 13 January 1993 15 April 1997 29 April 1997
 Macedonia 20 June 1997 20 July 1997
 Madagascar 15 January 1993 20 October 2004 19 November 2004
 Malawi 14 January 1993 11 June 1998 11 July 1998
 Malaysia 13 January 1993 20 April 2000 20 May 2000
 Maldives 1 October 1993 31 May 1994 29 April 1997
 Mali 13 January 1993 28 April 1997 29 April 1997
 Malta 13 January 1993 28 April 1997 29 April 1997
 Marshall Islands 13 January 1993 19 May 2004 18 June 2004
 Mauritania 13 January 1993 9 February 1998 11 March 1998
 Mauritius 14 January 1993 9 February 1993 29 April 1997
 Micronesia 13 January 1993 21 June 1999 21 July 1999
 Mexico 13 January 1993 29 August 1994 29 April 1997
 Moldova 13 January 1993 8 July 1996 29 April 1997
 Monaco 13 January 1993 1 June 1995 29 April 1997
 Mongolia 14 January 1993 17 January 1995 29 April 1997
 Montenegro [Note 1] 23 October 2006 3 June 2006
 Morocco 13 January 1993 28 December 1995 29 April 1997
 Mozambique 15 August 2000 14 September 2000
 Namibia 13 January 1993 27 November 1995 29 April 1997
 Nauru 13 January 1993 12 November 2001 12 December 2001
   Nepal 19 January 1993 18 November 1997 18 December 1997
 Netherlands 14 January 1993 30 June 1995 29 April 1997
 New Zealand 14 January 1993 15 July 1996 29 April 1997
 Nicaragua 9 March 1993 5 November 1999 5 December 1999
 Niger 14 January 1993 9 April 1997 29 April 1997
 Nigeria 13 January 1993 20 May 1999 19 June 1999
 Niue 21 April 2005 21 May 2005
 Norway 13 January 1993 7 April 1994 29 April 1997
 Oman 2 February 1993 8 February 1995 29 April 1997
 Pakistan 13 January 1993 28 October 1997 27 November 1997
 Palau 3 February 2003 5 March 2003
 Panama 16 June 1993 7 October 1998 6 November 1998
 Papua New Guinea 14 January 1993 17 April 1996 29 April 1997
 Paraguay 14 January 1993 1 December 1994 29 April 1997
 Peru 14 January 1993 20 July 1995 29 April 1997
 Philippines 13 January 1993 11 December 1996 29 April 1997
 Poland 13 January 1993 23 August 1995 29 April 1997
 Portugal 13 January 1993 10 September 1996 29 April 1997
 Qatar 1 February 1993 3 September 1997 3 October 1997
 Romania 13 January 1993 15 February 1995 29 April 1997
 Russia 13 January 1993 5 November 1997 5 December 1997
 Rwanda 17 May 1993 31 March 2004 30 April 2004
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 16 March 1994 21 May 2004 20 June 2004
 Saint Lucia 29 March 1993 9 April 1997 29 April 1997
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 20 September 1993 18 September 2002 18 October 2002
 Samoa 14 January 1993 27 September 2002 27 October 2002
 San Marino 13 January 1993 10 December 1999 9 January 2000
 São Tomé and Príncipe 9 September 2003 9 October 2003
 Saudi Arabia 20 January 1993 9 August 1996 29 April 1997
 Senegal 13 January 1993 20 July 1998 19 August 1998
 Serbia 20 April 2000 20 May 2000
 Seychelles 15 January 1993 7 April 1993 29 April 1997
 Sierra Leone 15 January 1993 30 September 2004 30 October 2004
 Singapore 14 January 1993 21 May 1997 20 June 1997
 Slovakia 14 January 1993 27 October 1995 29 April 1997
 Slovenia 14 January 1993 11 June 1997 11 July 1997
 Solomon Islands 23 September 2004 23 October 2004
 Somalia 29 May 2013 28 June 2013
 South Africa 14 January 1993 13 September 1995 29 April 1997
 Spain 13 January 1993 3 August 1994 29 April 1997
 Sri Lanka 14 January 1993 19 August 1994 29 April 1997
 Sudan 24 May 1999 23 June 1999
 Suriname 28 April 1997 28 April 1997 29 April 1997
 Swaziland 23 September 1993 20 November 1996 29 April 1997
 Sweden 13 January 1993 17 June 1993 29 April 1997
  Switzerland 14 January 1993 10 March 1995 29 April 1997
 Syria 14 September 2013 14 October 2013
 Tajikistan 14 January 1993 11 January 1995 29 April 1997
 Tanzania 25 February 1994 25 June 1998 25 July 1998
 Thailand 14 January 1993 10 December 2002 9 January 2003
 Togo 13 January 1993 23 April 1997 29 April 1997
 Tonga 29 May 2003 28 June 2003
 Trinidad and Tobago 24 June 1997 24 July 1997
 Tunisia 13 January 1993 15 April 1997 29 April 1997
 Turkey 14 January 1993 12 May 1997 11 June 1997
 Turkmenistan 12 October 1993 29 September 1994 29 April 1997
 Tuvalu 19 January 2004 18 February 2004
 Uganda 14 January 1993 30 November 2001 30 December 2001
 Ukraine 13 January 1993 16 October 1998 15 November 1998
 United Arab Emirates 2 February 1993 28 November 2000 28 December 2000
 United Kingdom 13 January 1993 13 May 1996 29 April 1997
 United States 13 January 1993 25 April 1997 29 April 1997
 Uruguay 15 January 1993 6 October 1994 29 April 1997
 Uzbekistan 24 November 1995 23 July 1996 29 April 1997
 Vanuatu 16 September 2005 16 October 2005
  Vatican City 14 January 1993 12 May 1999 11 June 1999
 Venezuela 14 January 1993 3 December 1997 2 January 1998
 Vietnam 13 January 1993 30 September 1998 30 October 1998
 Yemen 8 February 1993 2 October 2000 1 November 2000
 Zambia 13 January 1993 9 February 2001 11 March 2001
 Zimbabwe 13 January 1993 25 April 1997 29 April 1997
  States parties which are currently on the Executive Council
Notes
  1. ^ Succession from  Serbia and Montenegro

States that have signed but not ratified[edit]

State Signed
 Israel 13 January 1993
 Myanmar 14 January 1993

Non-signatory states[edit]

The following states have neither signed the Convention nor acceded to it.

Other[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction". United Nations Treaty Collection. 2013-02-14. Retrieved 2013-02-24. 
  2. ^ Chemical Weapons Convention, Article 21.
  3. ^ "Non-Signatory / Non-Acceding States". Retrieved 2008-07-22. 
  4. ^ "Reference: C.N.592.2013.TREATIES-XXVI.3 (Depositary Notification)". Secretary-General of the United Nations. 2013-09-14. Retrieved 2013-09-14. 
  5. ^ "Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2013-02-24. 
  6. ^ "OPCW Member States". Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. 2008-05-20. Retrieved 2008-07-22. 
  7. ^ "Report on universalization activities". Meeting of the States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction. 2012-11-19. Retrieved 2013-07-07. 
  8. ^ "Promise Seen in African Nation’s Nonproliferation Push". Nuclear Threat Initiative. 2013-06-06. Retrieved 2013-07-07. 
  9. ^ "Chemical Arms Ban States Gather With Change in Sight". Nuclear Threat Initiative. 2013-04-05. Retrieved 2013-07-07. 
  10. ^ "Myanmar Prepares to Ratify Chemical, Biological Weapons Treaties". 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2013-12-12. 
  11. ^ "OPCW: three nations close to joining chemical weapons convention". 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2013-12-12. 
  12. ^ Eaves, Elisabeth (2014-10-09). "Ahmet Uzumcu: Getting rid of chemical weapons in Syria and beyond". Retrieved 2014-10-11. 
  13. ^ "Statement of Myanmar Deputy Foreign Minister U Thant Kyaw at the 19th Conference of the State Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention, the Hague". Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. 2014-12-02. Retrieved 2014-12-05. 
  14. ^ "Myanmar Details Plans to Ratify Chemical Arms Accord". Nuclear Threat Initiative. 2014-06-06. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  15. ^ "National CWC Awareness Workshop and Mock Industry Inspection Exercise Held in Myanmar". Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. 2014-09-09. Retrieved 2014-10-11. 
  16. ^ a b Ravid, Barak (2013-09-12). "Israel adamant it won't ratify chemical arms treaty before hostile neighbors". Haaretz. Retrieved 2013-09-14. 
  17. ^ "Egypt refusing to sign WMD treaties". Jerusalem Post. 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2013-11-01. 
  18. ^ Gulhane, Joel (2013-11-10). "Arab League discusses WMDs at Egypt’s request". Retrieved 2013-12-09. 
  19. ^ Sanders, Edmund (2013-09-12). "Israel also facing questions about chemical weapons". LA Times. Retrieved 2013-09-14. 
  20. ^ Melman, Yossi (2013-11-04). "Israel wouldn't dare use nerve gas. So why not destroy it?". Retrieved 2013-11-14. 
  21. ^ "Chemical Weapons Control Isn’t All About Syria". Bloomberg News. 2013-10-02. Retrieved 2013-10-09. 
  22. ^ "Taiwan fully supports Chemical Weapons Convention". BBC. 2002-08-27. Retrieved 2013-10-06. 

External links[edit]