List of parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

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Participation in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

The list of parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty encompasses the states which have signed and ratified or acceded to the international agreement limiting the spread of nuclear weapons.

On 1 July 1968, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) was opened for signature. Russia (a successor of the Soviet Union), the United Kingdom, and the United States are the three depositary states; states wishing to become a party to the NPT must deposit their instruments of ratification, accession or succession at the respective capitals of the depositary states: London, Moscow, and Washington, D.C.. The treaty came into force and closed for signature on 5 March 1970 with the deposit of ratification of the three depositary states and 40 others. Since then, states that did not sign the treaty may only accede to it, which China and France did in 1992.

Date NPT first effective (including USSR, YU, CS of that time)
     1st decade: ratified or acceded 1968-1977
     2nd decade: ratified or acceded 1978-1987
     3rd decade: ratified or acceded 1988-1998 (and Cuba 2002)
     Never signed (India, Israel, Pakistan, South Sudan)

The treaty recognizes five states as nuclear-weapon states: the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China (also the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council). Four other states are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons: India, Pakistan and North Korea have openly tested and declared that they possess nuclear weapons, while Israel has had a policy of opacity regarding its nuclear weapons program. India, Israel, and Pakistan have never signed the treaty. North Korea was a party to the treaty but announced its withdrawal on 10 January 2003; its withdrawal became effective ninety days later.[1] However, there is disagreement among the parties to the treaty whether North Korea's withdrawal was in conformity with the terms of the treaty.[2]

As of July 2011, 189 states are recognized as parties to the treaty. Montenegro is the most recent state to have joined, having submitted its instrument of succession on 3 June 2006.[1] In addition, the Republic of China (Taiwan), which is currently only recognized by 21 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971; Taiwan has accepted comprehensive IAEA safeguards and the measures of the Additional Protocol to verify that its nuclear program is entirely peaceful.[3] Four UN member states have never signed the treaty: India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Sudan. The Cook Islands and Niue, two associated states of New Zealand which have had their "full treaty-making capacity" recognised by United Nations Secretariat,[4] are not parties to the treaty but consider themselves bound by its provisions by virtue of their administration by New Zealand when the latter ratified the NPT.[5]

The NPT remains the most widely subscribed to arms control treaty in history.[6]

Ratified or acceded states[edit]

188 UN member states and observer Holy See are parties to the NPT.

Multiple dates indicate the different days in which states submitted their signature or deposition, varied by location. This location is noted by: (L) for London, (M) for Moscow, and (W) for Washington D.C.

Bolded states with a dagger (dagger) are recognized as nuclear weapons states by the treaty.

State[7][8][9][10] Signed Deposited Method
 Afghanistan 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 4 Feb 1970 (W)
5 Feb 1970 (M)
5 Mar 1970 (L)
Ratification
 Albania 12 Sep 1990 (L)
14 Sep 1990 (M)
28 Sep 1990 (W)
Accession
 Algeria 12 Jan 1995 (L, M, W) Accession
 Andorra 7 Jun 1996 (L)
25 Jun 1996 (W)
2 Jul 1996 (M)
Accession
 Angola 14 Oct 1996 (W)
30 Apr 2010 (M)
Accession
 Antigua and Barbuda 17 Jun 1985 (L) Succession from  United Kingdom
 Argentina 10 Feb 1995 (W)
17 Feb 1995 (L)
Accession
 Armenia 21 Jun 1993 (M)
15 Jul 1993 (W)
Accession
 Australia 27 Feb 1970 (L, M, W) 23 Jan 1973 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Austria 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 27 Jun 1969 (L, W)
28 Jun 1969 (M)
Ratification
 Azerbaijan 22 Sep 1992 (M) Accession
 Bahamas 11 Aug 1976 (L)
13 Aug 1976 (W)
30 Aug 1976 (M)
Succession from  United Kingdom
 Bahrain 3 Nov 1988 (W) Accession
 Bangladesh 31 Aug 1979 (L, M)
27 Sep 1979 (W)
Accession
 Barbados 1 Jul 1968 (W) 21 Feb 1980 (W) Ratification
 Belarus 9 Feb 1993 (M)
22 Jul 1993 (W)
23 Jul 1993 (L)
Accession
 Belgium 20 Aug 1968 (L, M, W) 2 May 1975 (L, W)
4 May 1975 (M)
Ratification
 Belize 9 Aug 1985 (L) Succession from  United Kingdom
 Benin 1 Jul 1968 (W) 31 Oct 1972 (W) Ratification
 Bhutan 23 May 1985 (W) Accession
 Bolivia 1 Jul 1968 (W) 26 May 1970 (W) Ratification
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 15 Aug 1994 (W) Succession from  SFR Yugoslavia
 Botswana 1 Jul 1968 (W) 28 Apr 1969 (L) Ratification
 Brazil 18 Sep 1998 (L, M, W) Accession
 Brunei 26 Mar 1985 (W) Accession
 Bulgaria 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 5 Sep 1969 (W)
18 Sep 1969 (M)
3 Nov 1969 (L)
Ratification
 Burkina Faso 25 Nov 1968 (W)
11 Aug 1969 (M)
3 Mar 1970 (W) Ratification
 Burundi 19 Mar 1971 (M) Accession
 Cabo Verde 24 Oct 1979 (M) Accession
 Cambodia 2 Jun 1972 (W)
25 Sep 1987 (M)
Accession
 Cameroon 17 Jul 1968 (W)
18 Jul 1968 (M)
8 Jan 1969 (W) Ratification
 Canada 23 Jul 1968 (L, W)
29 Jul 1968 (M)
8 Jan 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Central African Republic 25 Oct 1970 (W) Accession
 Chad 1 Jul 1968 (M) 10 Mar 1971 (W)
11 Mar 1971 (M)
23 Mar 1971 (L)
Ratification
 Chile 25 May 1995 (W) Accession
 Chinadagger 9 Mar 1992 (L)
12 Mar 1992 (M)
17 Mar 1992 (W)
Accession
 Colombia 1 Jul 1968 (W) 8 Apr 1986 (W)
29 Apr 1986 (M)
30 Apr 1986 (L)
Ratification
 Comoros 4 Oct 1995 (W) Accession
 Republic of the Congo 26 Jul 1968 (M) 23 Oct 1978 (W) Ratification
 Costa Rica 1 Jul 1968 (W) 3 Mar 1970 (W) Ratification
 Côte d'Ivoire 1 Jul 1968 (W) 6 Mar 1973 (W) Ratification
 Croatia 29 Jun 1992 (W) Succession from  SFR Yugoslavia
 Cuba 4 Nov 2002 (M) Accession
 Cyprus 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 10 Feb 1970 (M)
16 Feb 1970 (W)
5 Mar 1970 (L)
Ratification
 Czech Republic 1 Jan 1993 (M, W)
5 Apr 1993 (L)
Succession from  Czechoslovakia
Signed 1 July 1968
Deposited 22 July 1969
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 22 Jul 1968 (W)
17 Sep 1968 (L)
4 Aug 1970 (W) Ratification
 Denmark 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 3 Jan 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Djibouti 16 Oct 1996 (W) Accession
 Dominica 10 Aug 1984 (L) Succession from  United Kingdom
 Dominican Republic 1 Jul 1968 (W) 24 Jul 1971 (W) Ratification
 Ecuador 9 Jul 1968 (W) 7 Mar 1969 (W) Ratification
 Egypt 1 Jul 1968 (L, M) 26 Feb 1981 (L) Ratification
 El Salvador 1 Jul 1968 (W) 11 Jul 1972 (W) Ratification
 Equatorial Guinea 1 Nov 1984 (W) Accession
 Eritrea 16 Mar 1995 (W) Accession
 Estonia 7 Jan 1992 (L)
31 Jan 1992 (W)
Accession
 Ethiopia 5 Sep 1968 (L, M, W) 5 Feb 1970 (M)
5 Mar 1970 (L, W)
Ratification
 Fiji 21 Jul 1972 (W)
14 Aug 1972 (L)
29 Aug 1972 (M)
Succession from  United Kingdom
 Finland 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 5 Feb 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Francedagger 2 Aug 1992 (M)
3 Aug 1992 (L, W)
Accession
 Gabon 19 Feb 1974 (W) Accession
 Gambia 4 Sep 1968 (L)
20 Sep 1968 (W)
24 Sep 1968 (M)
12 May 1975 (W) Ratification
 Georgia 7 Mar 1994 (W) Accession
 Germany 28 Nov 1969 (L, M, W) 2 May 1975 (L, W) Ratification as  West Germany
Also  East Germany
Ratified 31 October 1969
 Ghana 1 Jul 1968 (M, W)
24 Jul 1968 (L)
4 May 1970 (L)
5 May 1970 (W)
11 May 1970 (M)
Ratification
 Greece 1 Jul 1968 (M, W) 11 Mar 1970 (W) Ratification
 Grenada 2 Sep 1975 (L)
3 Dec 1975 (W)
Succession from  United Kingdom
 Guatemala 26 Jul 1968 (W) 22 Sep 1970 (W) Ratification
 Guinea 29 Apr 1985 (M) Accession
 Guinea-Bissau 20 Aug 1976 (M) Accession
 Guyana 19 Oct 1993 (W) Accession
 Haiti 1 Jul 1968 (W) 2 Jun 1970 (W) Ratification
 Holy See 25 Feb 1971 (L, M, W) Accession
 Honduras 1 Jul 1968 (W) 16 May 1973 (W) Ratification
 Hungary 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 27 May 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Iceland 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 18 Jul 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Indonesia 2 Mar 1970 (L, M, W) 12 Jul 1979 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Iran 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 2 Feb 1970 (W)
10 Feb 1970 (M)
5 Mar 1970 (L)
Ratification
 Iraq 1 Jul 1968 (M) 29 Oct 1969 (M) Ratification
 Ireland 1 Jul 1968 (M, W)
4 Jul 1968 (L)
1 Jul 1968 (W)
2 Jul 1968 (M)
4 Jul 1968 (L)
Ratification
 Italy 28 Jan 1969 (L, M, W) 2 May 1975 (L, W)
4 May 1975 (M)
Ratification
 Jamaica 14 Apr 1969 (L, M, W) 5 Mar 1970 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Japan 3 Feb 1970 (L, M, W) 8 Jun 1976 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Jordan 10 Jul 1968 (W) 11 Feb 1970 (W) Ratification
 Kazakhstan 14 Feb 1994 (W)
21 Mar 1994 (L)
20 May 1994 (M)
Accession
 Kenya 1 Jul 1968 (W) 11 Jun 1970 (M) Ratification
 Kiribati 18 Apr 1985 (L) Succession from  United Kingdom
 Kuwait 15 Aug 1968 (M, W)
22 Aug 1968 (L)
17 Nov 1989 (W) Ratification
 Kyrgyzstan 5 Jul 1994 (M) Accession
 Laos 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 20 Feb 1970 (M)
5 Mar 1970 (L, W)
Ratification
 Latvia 31 Jan 1992 (L) Accession
 Lebanon 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 15 Jul 1970 (L, M)
20 Nov 1970 (W)
Ratification
 Lesotho 9 Jul 1968 (W) 20 May 1970 (W) Ratification
 Liberia 1 Jul 1968 (W) 5 Mar 1970 (W) Ratification
 Libya 18 Jul 1968 (L)
19 Jul 1968 (W)
23 Jul 1968 (M)
26 May 1975 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Liechtenstein 20 Apr 1978 (L, M, W) Accession
 Lithuania 23 Sep 1991 (L, W) Accession
 Luxembourg 14 Aug 1968 (L, M, W) 2 May 1975 (L, W)
4 May 1975 (M)
Ratification
 Macedonia 30 Mar 1995 (L)
12 Apr 1995 (W)
Succession from  SFR Yugoslavia
 Madagascar 22 Aug 1968 (W) 8 Oct 1970 (W) Ratification
 Malawi 18 Feb 1986 (L)
19 Feb 1986 (W)
4 Mar 1986 (M)
Accession
 Malaysia 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 5 Mar 1970 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Maldives 11 Sep 1968 (W) 7 Apr 1970 (W) Ratification
 Mali 14 Jul 1969 (W)
15 Jul 1969 (M)
10 Feb 1970 (M)
5 Mar 1970 (W)
Ratification
 Malta 17 Apr 1969 (W) 6 Feb 1970 (W) Ratification
 Marshall Islands 30 Jan 1995 (W) Accession
 Mauritania 26 Oct 1993 (W) Accession
 Mauritius 1 Jul 1968 (W) 8 Apr 1969 (W)
14 Apr 1969 (L)
25 Apr 1969 (M)
Ratification
 Mexico 26 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 21 Jan 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Federated States of Micronesia 14 Apr 1995 (W) Accession
 Moldova 11 Oct 1994 (W) Accession
 Monaco 13 Mar 1995 (W) Accession
 Mongolia 1 Jul 1968 (M) 14 May 1969 (M) Ratification
 Montenegro 3 Jun 2006 (M)
12 Dec 2006 (L)
Succession from  Serbia and Montenegro
 Morocco 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 27 Nov 1970 (M)
30 Nov 1970 (L)
16 Dec 1970 (W)
Ratification
 Mozambique 4 Sep 1990 (M)
12 Sep 1990 (W)
20 Sep 1990 (L)
Accession
 Myanmar 2 Dec 1992 (W) Accession
 Namibia 2 Oct 1992 (L)
7 Oct 1992 (W)
9 Oct 1992 (M)
Accession
 Nauru 7 Jun 1982 (L) Accession
   Nepal 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 5 Jan 1970 (W)
9 Jan 1970 (M)
3 Feb 1970 (L)
Ratification
Netherlands Netherlands 20 Aug 1968 (L, M, W) 2 May 1975 (L, M, W) Ratification
 New Zealand 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 10 Sep 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Nicaragua 1 Jul 1968 (L, W) 6 Mar 1973 (W) Ratification
 Niger 9 Oct 1992 (W) Accession
 Nigeria 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 27 Sep 1968 (L)
7 Oct 1968 (W)
14 Oct 1968 (M)
Ratification
 Norway 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 5 Feb 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Oman 23 Jan 1997 (W) Accession
 Palau 14 Apr 1995 (W) Accession
 Panama 1 Jul 1968 (W) 13 Jan 1977 (W) Ratification
 Papua New Guinea 13 Jan 1982 (L)
25 Jan 1982 (W)
16 Feb 1982 (M)
Accession
 Paraguay 1 Jul 1968 (W) 4 Feb 1970 (W)
5 Mar 1970 (L)
Ratification
 Peru 1 Jul 1968 (W) 3 Mar 1970 (W) Ratification
 Philippines 1 Jul 1968 (W)
18 Jul 1968 (M)
5 Oct 1972 (W)
16 Oct 1972 (L)
20 Oct 1972 (M)
Ratification
 Poland 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 12 Jun 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Portugal 15 Dec 1977 (L, M, W) Accession
 Qatar 3 Apr 1989 (L)
10 May 1989 (M)
13 Jun 1989 (W)
Accession
 Republic of Korea 1 Jul 1968 (W) 23 Apr 1975 (W) Ratification
 Romania 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 4 Feb 1970 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Russiadagger 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 5 Mar 1970 (L, M, W) Ratification as  Soviet Union
 Rwanda 20 May 1975 (L, M, W) Accession
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 22 Mar 1993 (W) Accession
 Saint Lucia 28 Dec 1979 (L) Succession from  United Kingdom
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6 Nov 1984 (L) Succession from  United Kingdom
 Samoa 17 Mar 1975 (M)
18 Mar 1975 (W)
26 Mar 1975 (L)
Accession
 San Marino 1 Jul 1968 (W)
29 Jul 1968 (L)
21 Nov 1968 (M)
10 Aug 1970 (L)
20 Aug 1970 (M)
31 Aug 1970 (W)
Ratification
 Sao Tome and Principe 20 Jul 1983 (M) Accession
 Saudi Arabia 3 Oct 1988 (W) Accession
 Senegal 1 Jul 1968 (M, W)
26 Jul 1968 (L)
17 Dec 1970 (M)
22 Dec 1970 (W)
15 Jan 1971 (L)
Ratification
 Serbia 27 Apr 1992 (M)
5 Sep 2001 (W)
3 Jun 2006 (L)
Succession from  SFR Yugoslavia
Signed 10 July 1968 (L, M, W)
Deposited 4 March 1970 (W), 5 March 1970 (L, M)
[11]
Succession from  Serbia and Montenegro
 Seychelles 12 Mar 1985 (L)
14 Mar 1985 (M)
8 Apr 1985 (W)
Accession
 Sierra Leone 26 Feb 1975 (L, M, W) Accession
 Singapore 5 Feb 1970 (L, M, W) 10 Mar 1976 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Slovakia 1 Jan 1993 (M, W)
17 Apr 1993 (L)
Succession from  Czechoslovakia
Signed 1 July 1968
Deposited 22 July 1969
 Slovenia 7 Apr 1992 (L)
20 Aug 1992 (W)
Succession from  SFR Yugoslavia
 Solomon Islands 17 Jun 1981 (L) Succession from  United Kingdom
 Somalia 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 5 Mar 1970 (L)
12 Nov 1970 (W)
Ratification
 South Africa 10 Jul 1991 (W) Accession
 Spain 5 Nov 1987 (L, M, W) Accession
 Sri Lanka 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 5 Mar 1979 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Sudan 24 Dec 1968 (M) 31 Oct 1973 (W)
22 Nov 1973 (M)
10 Dec 1973 (L)
Ratification
 Suriname 30 Jun 1976 (W) Succession from  Netherlands
 Swaziland 24 Jun 1969 (L) 11 Dec 1969 (L)
16 Dec 1969 (W)
12 Jan 1970 (M)
Ratification
 Sweden 19 Aug 1968 (L, M, W) 9 Jan 1970 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Switzerland 27 Nov 1969 (L, M, W) 9 Mar 1977 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Syria 1 Jul 1968 (M) 24 Sep 1969 (M) Ratification
 Tajikistan 17 Jan 1995 (M) Accession
 Tanzania 31 May 1991 (L)
7 Jun 1991 (W)
18 Jun 1991 (M)
Accession
 Thailand 7 Dec 1972 (L) Accession
 Timor-Leste 5 May 2003 (W) Accession
 Togo 1 Jul 1968 (W) 27 Feb 1970 (W) Ratification
 Tonga 7 Jul 1971 (L)
15 Jul 1971 (W)
24 Aug 1971 (M)
Succession from  United Kingdom
 Trinidad and Tobago 20 Aug 1968 (W)
22 Aug 1968 (L)
30 Oct 1986 (L, W) Ratification
 Tunisia 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 26 Feb 1970 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Turkey 28 Jan 1969 (L, M, W) 17 Apr 1980 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Turkmenistan 29 Sep 1994 (W) Accession
 Tuvalu 19 Jan 1979 (L) Succession from  United Kingdom
 Uganda 20 Oct 1982 (W) Accession
 Ukraine 5 Dec 1994 (L, M, W) Accession
 United Arab Emirates 26 Sep 1995 (W) Accession
 United Kingdomdagger 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 27 Nov 1968 (L, W)
29 Nov 1968 (M)
Ratification
 United Statesdagger 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W) 5 Mar 1970 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Uruguay 1 Jul 1968 (W) 31 Aug 1970 (W) Ratification
 Uzbekistan 7 May 1992 (M) Accession
 Vanuatu 24 Aug 1995 (L) Accession
 Venezuela 1 Jul 1968 (W) 25 Sep 1975 (L)
26 Sep 1975 (W)
3 Oct 1975 (M)
Ratification
 Vietnam 14 Jun 1982 (M) Accession
 Yemen 23 Sep 1968 (M) 14 May 1986 (L)
26 Jan 1989(M)
Ratification as  North Yemen (L)
and  South Yemen (M)
 Zambia 15 May 1991 (W)
22 May 1991 (L)
5 Jul 1991 (M)
Accession
 Zimbabwe 26 Sep 1991 (L, M)
4 Oct 1991 (W)
Accession

Unrecognized state, abiding by treaty[edit]

The Republic of China (Taiwan), which is currently only recognized by 21 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971. When the PRC subsequently ratified the treaty, they described the Republic of China's (ROC) ratification as "illegal". The ROC has committed itself to continue to adhere to the requirements of the treaty, and the United States has declared that they still consider them to be "bound by its obligations".[12]

State Signed Deposited Method
 Republic of China 1 Jul 1968 27 Jan 1970 Ratification

Withdrawn state[edit]

Article X allows a state to leave the treaty if "extraordinary events, related to the subject matter of this Treaty, have jeopardized the supreme interests of its country", giving three months' (ninety days') notice. The state is required to give reasons for leaving the NPT in this notice. Article X.1 only requires a state to give three months' notice in total, and does not provide for other states to question a state's interpretation of "supreme interests of its country".

North Korea was a party to the treaty, but in 1993 they gave notice to withdraw from the NPT. However, after 89 days, North Korea reached agreement with the United States to freeze its nuclear program under the Agreed Framework and "suspended" its withdrawal notice. In October 2002, the United States accused North Korea of violating the Agreed Framework by pursuing a secret uranium enrichment program, and suspended shipments of heavy fuel oil under that agreement. In response, North Korea expelled IAEA inspectors, disabled IAEA equipment, and, on 10 January 2003, announced that it was ending the suspension of its previous NPT withdrawal notification.[1][2] There is disagreement among the parties to the treaty whether North Korea's withdrawal was in conformity with the terms of the treaty.[2] North Korea said that only one more day's notice was sufficient for withdrawal from the NPT, as it had given 89 days before.[13] The IAEA Board of Governors rejected this interpretation.[14] Most countries held that a new three-months withdrawal notice was required, and some[who?] questioned whether North Korea's notification met the "extraordinary events" and "supreme interests" requirements of the Treaty.[citation needed] The Joint Statement of 19 September 2005 at the end of the Fourth Round of the Six-Party Talks called for North Korea to "return" to the NPT, implicitly acknowledging that it had withdrawn.

State Deposited Method Withdrew Effective
 North Korea 12 Dec 1985 (M) Accession 10 Jan 2003 10 Apr 2003[15]

Non-signatory states[edit]

Four UN member states have never signed the treaty. The Cook Islands and Niue, two associated states of New Zealand which have had their "full treaty-making capacity" recognised by United Nations Secretariat,[4] are not parties to the treaty but consider themselves bound by its provisions by virtue of their administration by New Zealand when the latter ratified the NPT.[5]

State
 India
 Israel
 Pakistan
 South Sudan

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)". Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program - United States Department of Defense. Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program. Retrieved 2013-06-19. 
  2. ^ a b c "Democratic People's Republic of Korea: Accession to Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2013-03-01. 
  3. ^ "Safeguards Statement for 2011". IAEA. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  4. ^ a b "Organs Supplement" (PDF), Repertory of Practice (8), UN, p. 10 
  5. ^ a b Avenhaus, Rudolf; Kremenyuk, Viktor; Sjöstedt, Gunnar (2002). Containing the atom. Lexington Books. p. 123. "...the Cook Islands and Niue in the South Pacific-and the latter two consider themselves bound by the adherence to the NPT by New Zealand administering these two states when the NPT entered into force." 
  6. ^ Jean du Preez and William Potter. "North Korea's Withdrawal From the NPT: A Reality Check". James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) Information & Analysis. Retrieved 2008-07-26. 
  7. ^ "Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2013-02-28. 
  8. ^ "Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Archived from the original on 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
    "Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons [London Version]". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  9. ^ "Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons". United States Department of State. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
  10. ^ "Договор о нераспространении ядерного оружия" (in Russian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. 2012-03-05. Retrieved 2013-07-24. 
  11. ^ "Serbia: Succession to Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2013-03-02. 
  12. ^ "China: Accession to Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2013-03-03. 
  13. ^ "North Korea Profile – Nuclear Overview". Nti.org. Retrieved 2010-11-25. 
  14. ^ "Media Advisory 2003/48 – IAEA Board of Governors Adopts Resolution on Safeguards in North Korea – 12 February". Iaea.org. Retrieved 2010-11-25. 
  15. ^ Devon Chaffee (2003-04-10). "North Korea’s Withdrawal from Nonproliferation Treaty Official". Retrieved 2008-07-26.