List of pelycosaurs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This list of pelycosaurs is an attempt to create a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been included in the synapsida excluding mammals and purely vernacular terms. The list includes all commonly accepted genera, but also genera that are now considered invalid, doubtful (nomina dubia), or were not formally published (nomina nuda), as well as junior synonyms of more established names, and genera that are no longer considered pelycosaurs.

The list currently contains 83 generic names.

Naming conventions and terminology[edit]

Naming conventions and terminology follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Technical terms used include:

  • Junior synonym: A name which describes the same taxon as a previously published name. If two or more genera are formally designated and the type specimens are later assigned to the same genus, the first to be published (in chronological order) is the senior synonym, and all other instances are junior synonyms. Senior synonyms are generally used, except by special decision of the ICZN, but junior synonyms cannot be used again, even if deprecated. Junior synonymy is often subjective, unless the genera described were both based on the same type specimen.
  • Nomen nudum (Latin for "naked name"): A name that has appeared in print but has not yet been formally published by the standards of the ICZN. Nomina nuda (the plural form) are invalid, and are therefore not italicized as a proper generic name would be. If the name is later formally published, that name is no longer a nomen nudum and will be italicized on this list. Often, the formally published name will differ from any nomina nuda that describe the same specimen.
  • Nomen oblitum (Latin for "forgotten name"): A name that has not been used in the scientific community for more than fifty years after its original proposal.
  • Preoccupied name: A name that is formally published, but which has already been used for another taxon. This second use is invalid (as are all subsequent uses) and the name must be replaced. As preoccupied names are not valid generic names, they will also go unitalicized on this list.
  • Nomen dubium (Latin for "dubious name"): A name describing a fossil with no unique diagnostic features. As this can be an extremely subjective and controversial designation, this term is not used on this list.

List[edit]

Genus Authors Year Status Age Location Notes

Aerosaurus

Romer

1937

Valid.

Late Carboniferous[1] - Lower Permian[2]

United States of America[2]

Angelosaurus

Olson
Beerbower

1953

Valid.

Upper Permian[3]

United States of America[3]

Anglosaurus

Bruner

1991

Sic

N/A

N/A

Incorrect spelling for Angelosaurus[4]

Apsisaurus

Laurin

1991

Valid.

Lower Permian[5]

United States of America[5]

Formerly assigned as a "eosuchian" diapsid.[6]

Archaeobelus

Cope

1877

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Clepsydrops[4]

Archaeothyris

Reisz

1972

Valid.

Upper Carboniferous[1]

United States of America[1]

Archaeovenator

Reisz
Dilkes

2003

Valid.

Upper Carboniferous[7]

United States of America[7]

Arribasaurus

Williston

1914

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Ophiacodon[8]

Baldwinonus

Romer
Price

1940

Valid.

Late Carboniferous[1] - Early Permian[9]

United States of America[9]

Basicranodon

Vaughn

1958

Syn.

Lower Permian[1]

United States of America[1]

Synonym of Mycterosaurus[10]

Bathyglyptus

Case

1911

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Dimetrodon[8]

Bathygnathus

Leidy

1854

Valid.

Lower Permian[4]

United States of America[4]

Brachycnemius

Williston

1911

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Edaphosaurus[4][8]

Callibrachion

Boule
Glangeau

1893

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Haptodus[8]

Casea

Williston

1910

Valid.

Lower Permian[1]

France and United States of America[1]

Caseoides

Olson
Beerbower

1953

Valid.

Lower Permian[11]

United States of America[11]

Caseopsis

Olson

1962

Valid.

Upper Permian[12]

United States of America[12]

Clepsydrops

Cope

1875

Valid.

Late Carboniferous[4]

United States of America[4]

Colobomycter

Vaughn

1958

Valid.

Lower Permian[4]

United States of America[4]

Its a protorothyridid eureptile[13]

Cotylorhynchus

Stovall

1937

Valid.

Lower Permian[1]

United States of America[1]

Cryptovenator

Fröbisch
Schoch
Müller
Schindler
Schweiss

2011

Valid.

Late Carboniferous[14]

Germany[14]

Ctenorhachis

Hook
Hotton

1991

Valid.

Upper Permian[15]

United States of America[15]

Ctenospondylus

Romer

1936

Valid.

Lower Permian[11]

United States[11]

Cutleria

Lewis
Vaughn

1965

Valid.

Early Permian[16]

United States of America[16]

Delorhynchus

Fox

1962

Valid.

Lower Permian[9]

United States of America[9]

Originally descript as a pelycosaur, but probably a parareptile[17]

Datheosaurus

Schroeder

1905

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Haptodus[8]

Dimacrodon

Olson
Beerbower

1953

Valid?

Lower Permian[18]

United States[18]

Originally descript as an anomodont therapsid by Olson & Beerbower (1953) and Olson (1962), its lack any diagnostic features of anomodonts and rather represent pelycosaur-grade synapsids[18]

Dimetrodon

Cope

1878

Valid.

Early Permian[19] - Middle Permian

United States of America[19] and Germany [20]

Diopaeus

Cope

1892

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Ophiacodon[8]

Echinerpeton

Reisz

1972

Valid.

Upper Carboniferous[21]

Canada[21]

Edaphosaurus

Cope

1882

Valid.

Late Carboniferous[19] - Lower Permian[22]

Czech Republic [19] and United States of America[22]

Elcabrosaurus

Case

1907

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Sphenacodon[23]

Elliotsmithia

Broom

1937

Valid.

Middle-Upper Permian[24]

South Africa[24]

Embolophorus

Cope

1878

Valid.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Dimetrodon[8]

Ennatosaurus

Efremov

1956

Valid.

Lower Permian[25]

Russia[25]

Eothyris

Romer

1937

Valid.

Lower Permian[2]

United States of America[2]

Eumatthevia

Broom

1930

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Mycterosaurus[8]

Euromycter

Reisz
Maddin
Fröbisch
Falconnet

2011

Valid.

Early-Late Permian[26]

France[26]

Glaucosaurus

Williston

1915

Valid.

Lower Permian[27]

United States of America[27]

Haptodus

Gaudry

1866

Valid.

Late Carboniferous[1] - Lower Permian[28]

United States of America[1] and Europe[28]

Heleosaurus

Broom

1907

Valid.

Upper Permian[29]

South Africa[29]

Ianthasaurus

Reisz
Berman

1986

Valid.

Late Carboniferous[22]

United States of America[22]

Ianthodon

Kissel
Reisz

2004

Valid.

Upper Carboniferous[30]

United States of America[30]

Ianthosaurus

Reisz
Berman

1986

Sic

N/A

N/A

Incorrect spelling of Ianthasaurus

Lupeosaurus

Romer

1937

Valid.

Lower Permian[2]

United States of America[2]

Macromerion

Fritsch

1879

Valid.

Upper Carboniferous[31]

Germany[31]

Mesenosaurus

Efremov

1938

Valid.

Lower Permian[25]

Russia[25]

Mesonosaurus

Ivakhnenko
Kurzanov

1979

Sic

N/A

N/A

Incorrect spelling of Mesenosaurus

Milosaurus

DeMar

1970

Valid.

Upper Carboniferous[4]

United States of America[4]

Mycterosaurus

Williston

1915

Valid.

Lower Permian[1]

United States of America[1]

Naosaurus

Cope

1886

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Edaphosaurus[22]

Neosaurus

Nopsca

1923

Valid.

Lower Permian[31]

France[31]

Nitosaurus

Romer

1937

Valid.

Lower Permian[2]

United States of America[2]

Oedaleops

Langston

1965

Valid.

Lower Permian[9]

United States of America[9]

Ophiacodon

Marsh

1878

Valid.

Late Carboniferous-Lower Permian[1]

United States of America[1] and England[31]

Oromycter

Reisz

2005

Valid.

Lower Permian[32]

United States of America[32]

Oxyodon

Huene

1908

Preocc.

N/A

N/A

Preoccupied by fish genus Oxyodon Brauer, 1906. Synonym of Sphenacodon[8]

Palaeohatteria

Credner

1888

Valid.

Early Permian[33]

Germany[33]

Palaeosphenodon

Baur

1889

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Palaeohatteria

Pantelosaurus

von Huene

1925

Valid.

Early Permian[34]

Germany[34]

Phreatophasma

Efremov

1954

Valid.

Middle Permian[25]

Russia[25]

Poecilospondylus

Case

1910

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Varanosaurus[35]

Poliosaurus

Case

1907

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Ophiacodon[8]

Protoclepsydrops

Carroll

1964

Valid.

Upper Carboniferous[21]

Canada[21]

Pyozia

Anderson
Reisz

2004

Valid.

Middle Permian[36]

Russia[36]

Ruthenosaurus

Reisz
Maddin
Fröbisch
Falconnet

2011

Valid.

Early-Late Permian[26]

France[26]

Ruthiromia

Eberth
Brinkman

1983

Valid.

Lower Permian[37]

United States of America[37]

Scoliomus

Williston
Case

1915

Syn.

Lower Permian[38]

United States of America[38]

Junior synonym of Sphenacodon[38]

Secodontosaurus

Romer

1936

Valid.

Lower Permian[4]

United States of America[4]

Sphenacodon

Marsh

1878

Valid.

Late Carboniferous[1]

United States of America[1] and England[31]

Stereophallodon

Romer

1937

Valid.

Late Carboniferous[9]-Early Permian[2]

United States of America[2]

Stereorhachis

Gaudry

1880

Valid.

Late Carboniferous[1]

France[1]

Theropleura

Cope

1878

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Ophiacodon (in partium) and Dimetrodon (in partium)[8]

Therosaurus

von Huene

1925

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Ophiacodon[8]

Thrausmosaurus

Fox

1962

Valid.

Lower Permian[17]

United States of America[17]

The type specie, T. serratidens, was declared to be a nomen dubium[17]

Trichasaurus

Williston

1913

Valid.

Lower Permian[4]

United States of America[4]

Replacement name for Trispondylus Williston, 1910

Trispondylus

Williston

1910

Preocc.

N/A

N/A

Preoccupied by phenacodontid Trispondylus Cope, 1884

Varanodon

Olson

1965

Valid.

Lower Permian[11]

United States of America[11]

Varanops

Williston

1911

Valid.

Lower Permian[1]

United States of America[1]

Varanosaurus

Broili

1904

Valid.

Lower Permian[1]

United States of America[1]

Xyrospondylus

Reisz
Heaton
Pynn

1982

Valid.

Upper Carboniferous[8]

United States of America[8]

Watongia

Olson

1974

Valid.

Middle Permian[39]

United States of America[39]

Winfeldia

Romer

1925

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Ophiacodon[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Berman, D. S.; Sumida, S. S.; Lombard, R. E. (1997). "Biogeography of primitive amniotes". In Sumida, S. J. & Martin, K. L. M. Amniote Origins - Completing the Transition to Land. Academic Press. pp. 85–140. ISBN 0-12-676460-3. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Romer, A. S. (1937). "New genera and species of pelycosaurian reptiles". Proccedings of the New England Zoological Club XVI: 90–96. 
  3. ^ a b Olson, E. C. & Barghusen, H. (1962). "Permian vertebrates from Oklahoma and Texas". Oklahoma Geological Survey 59: 1–20. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Bruner, J. C. (1991). "A catalogue of Type Specimens of Fossil Vertebrates in the Field Museum of Natural History. Classes Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and ichnites". Geology 22: 1–68. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.3392. 
  5. ^ a b Reisz, R.R.; Laurin, M. & Marjanovic, D. (2010). "Apsisaurs witteri from the lower Permian of Texas: yet another small varanopid synapsid, not a diapsid". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30 (5): 1628–1631. doi:10.1080/02724634.2010.501441. 
  6. ^ Laurin, M. (1991). "The osteology of a Lower permian eosuchian from Texas and a review of diapsid phylogeny". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 101 (1): 59–95. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1991.tb00886.x. 
  7. ^ a b Reisz, R. R. & Dilkes, D. W. (2003). "Archaeovenator hamiltonensis, a new varanopid from the upper carboniferous of Kansas". Canadian Journal of Earth Science 40 (4): 667–678. doi:10.1139/e02-063. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Carroll, R. L. (1988). Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. W. H Freeman Company. p. 688. ISBN 0-7167-1822-7. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Langston, W. (1965). "Oedalops campi (Reptilia: Pelycosauria) new genus and species from the Lower Permian of New Mexico and the family Eothryrididae". Bulletim of Texas Memorial Museum 9: 1–45. 
  10. ^ Reisz, R. R.; Wilson, H. & Scott, D. (1997). "Varanopseid synapsid skeletal elements from Richards Spur, a Lower Permian fissure fill near Fort Sill". Oklahoma Geology Notes 57: 160–170. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f Lucas, S. G. (2006). "Global Permian tetrapod biostratigraphy and biochronology". In Lucas, S. G.; Cassinis, G. & Schneider, J. W. Non-marine permian biostratigraphy and biochronology. Geological Society. pp. 65–94. ISBN 1-86239-206-4. 
  12. ^ a b Olson, E. C. (1962). "Late Permian Terrestrial Vertebrates, U.S.A. and U.S.S.R". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 52 (2): 1–196. doi:10.2307/1005904. JSTOR 1005904. 
  13. ^ Modesto, S. P. & Reisz, R. R. (2008). "New material of Colobomycter pholeter, a small parareptile from the Lower Permian of Oklahoma". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28 (3): 677–684. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2008)28[677:NMOCPA]2.0.CO;2. 
  14. ^ a b Fröbisch, J.; Schoch, R.R.; Müller, J.; Schindler, T. Schweiss, D. (2010). "A new basal sphenacodontid synapsid from the Late Carboniferous of the Saar-Nahe Basin, Germany". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 56: 113. doi:10.4202/app.2010.0039. 
  15. ^ a b Hook, R. W. & Hotton, N. (1991). "A new sphenacodontid pelycosaur (Synapsida) from the Wichita Group, Lower Permian of north-central Texas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 11: 37–44. doi:10.1080/02724634.1991.10011374. 
  16. ^ a b Lewis, G.E.; Vaughn, P.P. (1965). "Early Permian Vertebrates from the Cutler Formation of the Placerville Area, Colorado". United States Geological Survey Professional Papers 503 (C): 1–46. 
  17. ^ a b c d Evans, D. C.; Maddin, H. C. & Reisz, R. R. (2009). "A Re-evaluation of Sphenacodontid Synapsid Material from the Lower Permian Fissure Fills near Richards Spur, Oklahoma". Palaeontology 52 (1): 219–227. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00837.x. 
  18. ^ a b c Sidor, C.A. & Hopson, J.A. (1995). "The taxonomic status of the Upper Permian eotheriodont therapsids of the San Angelo Formation (Guadalupian), Texas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15 (suppl. 3): 53A. 
  19. ^ a b c d Dixon, D.; Cox, B.; Savage, R. J. G. & Gardine, B., ed. (1992). The Macmillan Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. Collier Books. p. 312. ISBN 0-02-042981-9. 
  20. ^ Berman, D. S.; Reisz, R. R.; Martens, T. & Henrici, A. C. (2001). "A new species of Dimetrodon (Synapsida: Sphenacodontidae) from the Lower Permian of Germany records first occurrence of genus outside North America". Canadian Journal of Earth Science 38 (5): 803–812. doi:10.1139/cjes-38-5-803. 
  21. ^ a b c d Benton, M. J. & Donoghue, P. C. J. (2006). "Paleontological Evidence to Date the Tree of Life". Molecular Biology and Evolution 24 (1): 26–53. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl150. PMID 17047029. 
  22. ^ a b c d e Modesto, S. P. & Reisz, R. R. (1990). "Taxonomic status of Edaphosaurus raymondi Case". Journal of Paleontology 60 (6): 1049–1051. 
  23. ^ Reisz, R. R. (1986). "Pelycosauria". In Sues, H. D. Handbuch der Paläoherpetologie Part 17-A. Pfeil-Verlag. pp. 1–102. ISBN 978-3-89937-032-4. 
  24. ^ a b Dilkes, D. W. & Reisz, R. R. (1996). "First record of a basal synapsid ('Mammal-like Reptile') in Gondwana". Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences 263 (1374): 1165–1170. doi:10.1098/rspb.1996.0170. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f Modesto, S. P. & Rybcynski, N. (2001). "The amniote faunas of the Russian Permian: implications for Late Permian terrestrial vertebrate biogeography". In Benton, M. J.; Shishkin, M. A.; Unwin, D. M.; Kurochkin, E. N. The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 17–34. ISBN 0-521-54582-X. 
  26. ^ a b c d Reisz, R.R.; Maddin, H.C.; Fröbisch, J.; Falconnet, J. (2011). "A new large caseid (Synapsida, Caseasauria) from the Permian of Rodez (France), including a reappraisal of "Casea" rutena Sigogneau-Russell & Russell, 1974". Geodiversitas 33 (2): 227–246. doi:10.5252/g2011n2a2. 
  27. ^ a b Modesto, S. P. (1994). "The Lower Permian synapsid Glaucosaurus from Texas". Palaeontology 37 (1): 51–60. 
  28. ^ a b Kemp, T. S. (2005). The Origin & Evolution of Mammals. Oxford University Press. p. 342. ISBN 0-19-850761-5. 
  29. ^ a b Reisz, R. R. & Modesto, S. P. (2007). "Heleosaurus scholtzi from the Permian of South Africa: a varanopid synapsid, not a diapsid reptile". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27 (3): 734–739. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2007)27[734:HSFTPO]2.0.CO;2. 
  30. ^ a b Kissel, R. A. & Reisz, R. R. (2004). "Synapsid fauna of the Upper Pennsylvanian Rock Lake Shale near Garnett, Kansas and the diversity pattern of early amniotes". In Arratia, G.; Wilson, M. V. H. & Cloutier, R. Recent Advances in the Origin and Early Radiation of Vertebrates. Pfeil-Verlag. p. 703. ISBN 978-3-89937-052-2. 
  31. ^ a b c d e f Paton, R. L. (1974). "Lower Permian pelycosaurs from the english midlands". Palaeontology 17 (3): 541–552. 
  32. ^ a b Reisz, R. R. (2005). "Oromycter, a New Caseid from the Lower Permian of Oklahoma". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25 (4): 905–910. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0905:OANCFT]2.0.CO;2. 
  33. ^ a b Credner, C.F.H. (1888). "Die Stegocephalen und Saurier aus dem Rothliegenden des Plauen’schen Grundes bei Dresden. VII Theil: Palaeohatteria longicaudata Cred". Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 40: 490–558. 
  34. ^ a b von Huene, F. (1925). "Ein neuer Pelycosaurier aus der unteren Permformaiton Sachens". Geologische und Palaeontologische Abhandlungen 18: 215–264. 
  35. ^ Sumida, S. S. (1989). "Reinterpretation of vertebral structure in the Early Permian pelycosaur Varanosaurus acutirostris (Amniota, Synapsida)". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 9 (4): 451–158. doi:10.1080/02724634.1989.10011777. 
  36. ^ a b Anderson, J. S. & Reisz, R. R. (2004). "Pyozia mesenensis, a new small varanopid (Synapsida, Eupelycosauria) from Russia: "Pelycosaur" diversity in the middle permian". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24 (1): 173–179. doi:10.1671/1940-13. 
  37. ^ a b Eberth, D. A. & Brinkman, D. (1983). "Ruthiromia elcobriensis, a new pelycosaur from El Cobre Canyon, New Mexico". Breviora 474: 1–27. 
  38. ^ a b c Reisz, R. R. & Berman, D. S. (1985). "Scoliomus puercensis Williston and Case, 1913, identified as a junior synonym of Sphenacodon ferox Marsh (Reptilia, Pelycosauria)". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 22 (8): 1236–1239. doi:10.1139/e85-126. 
  39. ^ a b Reisz, R. R. & Laurin, M. (2004). "A reevaluation of the enigmatic Permian synapsid Watongia and of its stratigraphic significance". Canadian Journal of Earth Science 41 (4): 377–386. doi:10.1139/e04-016. 

External links[edit]