List of people convicted of treason
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This is a list of people convicted of treason.
- 1 Armenia
- 2 Austria
- 3 Austria-Hungary
- 4 Canada
- 5 China
- 6 Republic of Congo
- 7 Czechoslovakia
- 8 Denmark (under the Nazi occupation government)
- 9 East Germany
- 10 England
- 11 Estonia
- 12 Fiji
- 13 France
- 14 Germany
- 15 Great Britain
- 16 Greece
- 17 Hawaii
- 18 Hungary
- 19 India
- 20 Israel
- 21 Japan
- 22 Kenya
- 23 Kuwait
- 24 Mexico
- 25 Netherlands
- 26 New Zealand
- 27 Norway
- 28 Pakistan
- 29 Poland
- 30 Russia
- 31 Scotland
- 32 Soviet Union
- 33 Spain
- 34 Sweden
- 35 Switzerland
- 36 Sri Lanka
- 37 Turkey
- 38 United Kingdom
- 39 United States
- 40 Zimbabwe
- 41 Footnotes
- Meruzhan Artzruni, Lord Prince of Vaspurakan (? - 369), for conspiring with one of the Great Persian Kings, Shapur II against his liege-lord, Armenian King Arsaces II (Arshak II), whom he betrayed to Persia. He was captured by Arsaces II's son King Papas (Pap) and executed.
- Count Lajos Batthyány de Németújvár, for involvement in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. Executed by firing squad on the same day as the 13 Martyrs of Arad.
- Nedeljko Čabrinović, for conspiring to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand
- Vaso Čubrilović, for conspiring to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand
- Veljko Čubrilović, for conspiring to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand
- Trifko Grabez, for conspiring to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand
- Danilo Ilić, for conspiring to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand
- Muhamed Mehmedbašić, for conspiring to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand
- Cvjetko Popović, for conspiring to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand
- Gavrilo Princip, for assassinating Archduke Franz Ferdinand
- Nazario Sauro, for fighting for Italy in the First World War
- Louis Riel, executed for leading the Métis in the North-West Rebellion against Canada's expansion into the west.
- Kanao Inouye, Kamloops-born sergeant in the Imperial Japanese army in World War II, executed for killing eight Canadian prisoners of war captured at the Battle of Hong Kong.
Republic of Congo
Denmark (under the Nazi occupation government)
- François Achille Bazaine
- Robert Brasillach
- Marcel Bucard
- Louis-Ferdinand Céline
- Joseph Darnand, for leading the Vichy French Milice.
- Émile Dewoitine, aviation industrialist sentenced to 20 years forced labour sentence for collaboration.
- Charles François Dumouriez
- Isabeau of Bavaria
- John the Fearless 
- Pierre Laval, for being Prime Minister of Vichy France.
- Jean Victor Marie Moreau
- Michel Ney
- Philippe Pétain
- Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
- Marie Antoinette
- Louis XVI
- Adolf Hitler, for his role in the Beer Hall Putsch in 1923
- Marinus van der Lubbe, for high treason and arson in the Reichstag fire case, in 1933
- Sophie Scholl, Hans Scholl and Christoph Probst in 1943 for their involvement in the anti Nazi White Rose movement.
- Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg, for the attempted assassination of Hitler in the July 20 plot in 1944
- Günter Guillaume, Private Secretary to then chancellor Willy Brandt, and his wife Christel Guillaume, both officers of East German Staatssicherheit, in 1975
- Clyde Lee Conrad, former US Army NCO, the only person to have been handed down a lifetime sentence for treason by a court of the Federal Republic of Germany, in 1990
- Klaus Kuron, counter-intelligence officer with the Bundesverfassungsschutz who had spied for East German Staatssicherheit, in 1992
- For those before 1 May 1707, see England and Scotland. For those convicted on or after 1 January 1801, see United Kingdom
- Archibald Cameron of Locheil, for his part in the 1745 Jacobite rising
- Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat, for his part in the 1745 Jacobite rising
- William Maxwell, 5th Earl of Nithsdale, for supporting the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715
- Thomas Paine, for publishing anti-British revolutionary literature
- Charles Radclyffe, for supporting the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715
- Dimitrios Gounaris, Prime Minister of Greece (1921–1922), convicted of treason in 1922 for the Asia Minor catastrophe. Executed 15 November 1922.
- Petros Protopapadakis, Minister of Economy in Dimitrios Gounaris' government and later Prime Minister of Greece (1922), convicted of treason for the Asia Minor catastrophe. Executed 15 November 1922.
- Nikolaos Stratos, Minister of Internal Affairs in Gounaris' government, convicted of treason for the Asia Minor catastrophe. Executed 15 November 1922.
- Georgios Baltatzis, Minister of Foreign Affairs in Gounaris' government, convicted of treason for the Asia Minor catastrophe. Executed 15 November 1922.
- Nikolaos Theotokis, Minister of Military Affairs in Gounaris' government, convicted of trason for the Asia Minor catastrophe. Executed 15 November 1922.
- Georgios Hatzanestis, commanding officer of the Asia Minor and Eastern Thrace Greek army, convicted of treason for the Asia Minor catastrophe. Executed 15 November 1922.
- Michail Goudas, rear admiral and minister in Gounaris' government, convicted of treason for the Asia Minor catastrophe. Sentenced to life imprisonment.
- Xenophon Stratigos, major general and minister in Gounaris' government, convicted of treason for the Asia Minor catastrophe. Sentenced to life imprisonment.
- George Papadopoulos, Greek colonel, leader of a military junta (1967-1973), convicted of treason and jailed for life, dying in Korydallos prison.
- Charles T. Gulick (1841–1897), former cabinet minister
- Robert William Wilcox (1855–1903), military leader, later delegate to US Congress
- Imre Nagy, Prime Minister of Hungary, for leading the 1956 Hungarian Revolution.
- Count Fidel Palffy
- László Rajk
- Sándor Szűcs, international footballer, for defecting.
- Muhammad Ayub Thakur
- Mordechai Vanunu, for revealing details of Israel's nuclear weapons program to the British press in 1986.
- Meir Tobianski, falsely accused of treason during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. Executed by firing squad but pardoned after his death.
- Kotoku Shusui, Japanese anarchist
- Daisuke Namba, Japanese left-wing activist
- Ozaki Hotsumi, journalist and Soviet agent (nominally convicted under Peace Preservation Law)
- Hezekiah Ochuka, Kenya airforce soldier, for conspiring to overthrow the government of Daniel Moi in 1982
- Hamiora Pere, for fighting against the British government in Te Kooti's War.
- Vidkun Quisling, for being Minister President of Nazi-occupied Norway during World War II. The word 'quisling' now means 'traitor'.
- Albert Viljam Hagelin, member of Quisling's government.
- Ragnar Skancke, Quisling's minister of Church and Educational Affairs.
- Arne Treholt Norwegian diplomat, turned by the KGB
- Shakil Afridi, for spying for the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States
- Hussain Haqqani, for involvement with a secret memo to Admiral Michael Mullen asking for US intervention in changing Pakistan's military and intelligence agencies.
- Eugeniusz Swierczewski (“Genes”), executed 1944
- Ludwik Kalkstein ("Hanka"), protected by Gestapo during the war, emigrated to France in 1982
- Blanka Kaczorowska (“Sroka”), as above, emigrated to France in 1971
- Mikhail Shein
- Igor Sutyagin (2004) - 15 years for espionage for USA. Exchanged for Russian spies in 2010.
- Valentin Danilov - 14 years for espionage for China
- Aleksandar Georgijevic October, 2009 - FSB claims Aleksandar gathered sensitive information for USA agents. Light sentence due to confession.
- Dzhemal Nakaidze October, 2009 - Russian soldier, convicted of spying for Georgia. Light sentence due to confession (9 years of imprisonment instead of 12 to 20 years listed in the Criminal Code of Russia).
- Robert Baillie, for involvement in the Rye House Plot
- William Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie, for leading the Raid of Ruthven on King James VI
- Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany
- Patrick Stewart, Earl of Orkney, for usurping King James VI on the Orkney Islands
- Leonid Eitingon circa 1953
- Oleg Penkovsky
- Adolf Tolkachev, worked with CIA, executed 1986
- Gennady Varenik KGB, worked for CIA
- Andrey Vlasov
- Genrikh Yagoda
- Camilo Torres Tenorio, for leading the independence movement in Colombia
- Francisco Xavier Mina, for fighting against the Spanish government in the Mexican War of Independence.
- Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt, attempted to overthrow the guardian-government of king Gustav IV Adolf with Russian military assistance.
- Johann Patkul, protested the land-recovery project of Charles XI of Sweden and, when unsuccessful, sided with Augustus the Strong and tried to wrest Livonia from Sweden.
- Magdalena Rudenschöld, for taking part in the Armfelt-conspiracy.
- Brita Tott, for exposing military movements to Denmark
- Jean-Louis Jeanmaire, sentenced to 18 years of prison (released after 12 for good behavior) for leaking information to the Soviet KGB.
- Velupillai Prabhakaran, the Tamil rebel leader who fought with the government for 30 years. Prabhakaran was convicted in absentia by a sensation-seeking Colombo High Court judge Sarath Ambepitiya (a Sinhalese ethnic) based on dubious evidence. The crime was the Central Bank bomb blast in Colombo that happened on January 31, 1996, in which 96 died. Prabhakaran was not convicted for treason, but given a 200 years imprisonment. Sarath Ambepitiya was later assassinated on November 19, 2004, in a plot masterminded by a drug kingpin Mohamed Niyas Naufer.
- Abdullah Öcalan, life sentence (originally death penalty) for trying to establish a Kurdish State
- Adnan Menderes, treason against the Kemalist State and Constitution; for his rôle in the 1955 Septemvriana
- James Wilson (revolutionary) convicted and executed for High Treason, following his part in the Scottish Insurrection of 1820.
- Arthur Thistlewood, John Brunt, William Davidson, James Ings, Richard Tidd, Charles Cooper, Richard Bradburn, John Harrison, James Wilson and John Shaw Strange participants of the 1820 Cato Street Conspiracy
- William Comstive, Charles Stanfield, Richard Addy, Benjamin Hanson and eighteen others were tried and convicted for High Treason for revolt in the West Riding of Yorkshire in 1820.
- John Mitchell, Maurice Leyne, Pat Donahue, Thomas McGee, Charles Duffy, Thomas Francis Meagher, Richard O'Gorman, Terrance McManus and Michael Ireland convicted of treason after Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848 under Queen Victoria
- John Amery, for trying to recruit soldiers and broadcasting propaganda for Nazi Germany
- Members of the British Free Corps: Thomas Haller Cooper and Walter Purdy (death sentences commuted)
- Roger Casement, for negotiating with Germany to provide arms to Irish revolutionaries during the First World War for use in the Irish Easter 1916 rising; hanged in August 1916.
- Participants in the 1916 Easter Rising in Ireland: Patrick Pearse, Thomas J. Clarke, Thomas MacDonagh, Joseph Mary Plunkett, Edward (Ned) Daly, William Pearse, Michael O'Hanrahan, John MacBride, Éamonn Ceannt, Michael Mallin, Cornelius Colbert, Seán Heuston, Seán Mac Diarmada, James Connolly, and Thomas Kent were shot by firing squad in May 1916.
- William Joyce, alias 'Lord Haw-Haw', for broadcasting Nazi propaganda to the United Kingdom during World War II
- Peter Suman, Casper Fritchie, Henry Schell, Adam Graves, Yost Plecker, John George Graves, Nicholas Andrews, 1781, convicted of High Treason July 25, 1781 in Frederick, MD; Suman, Fritche and Plecker were executed on 17 August
- Philip Vigol and John Mitchell, convicted of treason and sentenced to hanging; pardoned by George Washington; see Whiskey Rebellion.
- Governor Thomas Dorr 1844, convicted of treason against the state of Rhode Island; see Dorr Rebellion; released in 1845; civil rights restored in 1851; verdict annulled in 1854.
- John Brown, convicted of treason against the Commonwealth of Virginia in 1859 and executed for attempting to organize armed resistance to slavery.
- Aaron Dwight Stevens, took part in John Brown's raid and was executed in 1860 for treason against Virginia.
- William Bruce Mumford, convicted of treason and hanged in 1862 for tearing down a United States flag during the American Civil War.
- Mary Surratt, Lewis Powell, David Herold, and George Atzerodt, all convicted by military tribunal and hanged on July 7, 1865 for treason and conspiracy related to the Lincoln assassination.
- Iva Toguri D'Aquino, who is frequently identified with "Tokyo Rose" convicted 1949. Subsequently pardoned by President Gerald Ford.
- Herbert Hans Haupt, German-born naturalized U.S. citizen, was convicted of treason in 1942 and executed after being named as a German spy by fellow German spies defecting to the United States.
- Martin James Monti, United States Army Air Forces pilot, convicted of treason for defecting to the Waffen SS in 1944. He was paroled in 1960.
- Robert Henry Best, convicted of treason on April 16, 1948 and served a life sentence.
- Mildred Gillars, also known as "Axis Sally", convicted of treason on March 8, 1949; served 12 years of a 10- to 30-year prison sentence.
- Tomoya Kawakita, sentenced to death for treason in 1952, but eventually released by President John F. Kennedy to be deported to Japan.
- "Guy Fawkes: A Biography"- http://www.britannia.com/history/g-fawkes.html
- Valode, Philippe (2007). Les Grands traitres de l'histoire. Paris, France: First Edition. p. 233.
- Valode, Philippe (2007). Les Grands traitres de l'histoire. Paris, France: First Edition. p. 155.
- Valode, Philippe (2007). Les Grands traitres de l'histoire. Paris, France: First Edition. p. 175.
- Valode, Philippe (2007). Les Grands traitres de l'histoire. Paris, France: First Edition. p. 112.
- Valode, Philippe (2007). Les Grands traitres de l'histoire. Paris, France: First Edition. p. 95.
- Valode, Philippe (2007). Les Grands traitres de l'histoire. Paris, France: First Edition. p. 214.
- Valode, Philippe (2007). Les Grands traitres de l'histoire. Paris, France: First Edition. p. 229.
- Valode, Philippe (2007). Les Grands traitres de l'histoire. Paris, France: First Edition. p. 203.
- Conway, Moncure Daniel (1893) . The Life of Thomas Paine. New York: Knickerbocker Press. p. 375. Retrieved 2006-07-06.
- "Prisoners Pardoned". Hawaiian gazette (Honolulu). January 3, 1896. Retrieved June 20, 2010.