List of people declared persona non grata

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This is a list of people declared persona non grata. Persona non grata (Latin, plural: personae non gratae), literally meaning "an unwelcome person", is a legal term used in diplomacy that indicates a proscription against a foreign person entering or remaining in the country. It is the most serious form of censure that one country can apply to foreign diplomats, who are otherwise protected by diplomatic immunity from arrest and other normal kinds of prosecution.

  • The Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 included the list of 150 personae non gratae of Turkey, which forbade the entry of mainly a group of former Ottoman Empire officials and about 100 other persons to Turkey, until the lifting of this status in 1938.[citation needed]
  • Chiune Sugihara, who helped several thousand Jews in Lithuania , was declared persona non grata by the Soviet Union in 1937.
  • Queen Victoria Eugenie of Spain was obliged to leave Italy in 1942 having become persona non grata to the Italian government. According to Harold Tittmann, a U.S. representative at the Vatican at the time, for her "ill-disguised leanings to the Allied cause."
  • Kurt Waldheim, former Secretary-General of the United Nations and President of Austria, and his wife were given persona non grata status in the U.S. and other countries when he was accused of having known about Nazi war crimes and not having done anything about them.[1]
  • In September 1952, the American Ambassador to the Soviet Union, George F. Kennan, was declared persona non grata after making a statement which the Soviets believed linked them to Nazi Germany. The Soviets refused to allow Kennan to reenter the Soviet Union.[2]
  • In March 1976, Herbert Spiro, the United States Ambassador to Cameroon, also accredited to Equatorial Guinea, was declared persona non grata by Equatorial Guinea. At the end of a visit to the country which he described as pleasant and uneventful up to that point, Equatoguinean Deputy Protocol Director Santiago Nchama handed him a letter accusing the U.S. government of engaging in subversive activities there, and days later, Equatorial Guinea's foreign ministry sent a telegram to the State Department announcing that Spiro and Consul William C. Mithoefer Jr, who had accompanied him on his visit, were both barred from the country.[3]
  • In the 1990s, Mario Vargas Llosa, who would later receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, was "persona non grata in Peru, discredited and insulted in the official press" of Alberto Fujimori's regime. According to Ilan Stavans, "Peruvians have made it a sport to hate Vargas Llosa."[4]
  • In 1995, Croatia declared Carl Bildt persona non grata announcing that he had "lost the credibility necessary for the role of a peace mediator". Bildt had suggested that the President of Croatia, Franjo Tuđman was as guilty of war crimes as the Krajina Serb leader, Milan Martić.[5]
  • In 2000, Israel declared Austrian politician Jörg Haider persona non grata following the Austrian legislative election of 1999, since his right-wing populist Freedom Party of Austria (German: Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ) was a member of the Austrian coalition government.[6]
  • In 2007, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands House of Representatives voted a Saipan resident and US citizen Ron Hodges persona non grata by resolution.[7] Hodges was castigated for his letter writing campaign critical of CNMI governance and abuses against alien workers, entitled Chamberonomics.[8] His letters supported a US takeover of CNMI labor and immigration. Labor and human abuses in the CNMI garment industry had long been the subject of international criticism. The resolution's validity hinged on the question of CNMI sovereignty, but was never enforced and became moot after President Bush signed PL-2739[9] into law, thus federalizing CNMI labor and immigration.[10]
  • In 2008, President of Bolivia Evo Morales declared U.S. Ambassador Philip Goldberg persona non grata, claiming that the U.S. government conspired against him and supported his opponents.[11]
  • Soon after Bolivia's expulsion of Goldberg, President of Venezuela Hugo Chavez declared U.S. Ambassador Patrick Duddy persona non grata in solidarity with Morales' action. Chavez did not cite any specific alleged infractions by Duddy.
  • In October 2008 Serbia expelled ambassadors of Montenegro and the Republic of Macedonia[12] after these countries recognized the independence of Kosovo. In November 2008 Serbia also expelled the ambassador from Malaysia[13] after Malaysia recognized Kosovo's independence.
  • In 2008 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel declared a UN staffer persona non grata[14] American Princeton University professor emeritus of international law Richard A. Falk when he was the United Nations Human Rights Council's United Nations Special Rapporteur on "the situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied since 1967."[15] Stating this was because Falk previously had compared Israel's treatment of Palestinians to Nazi treatment of Jews,[16][17][18] Israel barred him in May 2008[19][20] and December 2008.[21][22] As of March 2011 Falk was still banned from Israel.[23]
  • On December 23, 2008 Fiji followed through on a threat to expel New Zealand's high commissioner to the island nation. The expulsion came a day after the interim Prime Minister of Fiji announced he would not expel New Zealand's top diplomat because he wanted to improve his relationship with New Zealand. In retaliation to the expulsion, New Zealand declared Fiji's High Commissioner in Wellington persona non grata as Prime Minister of New Zealand John Key had stated the day before that there would be retaliatory action if its commissioner was expelled.[24]
  • In January 2009, following Venezuela expelling Israeli diplomats due to Israel's offensive in the Gaza Strip, Israel ordered Venezuelan diplomats to leave the country, declaring them personae non gratae in Israel".[25]
  • In March 2009, President Evo Morales of Bolivia declared a member of the US embassy (political division) persona non grata.[26]
  • On April 8, 2009, President of Moldova Vladimir Voronin declared Romanian Ambassador Filip Teodorescu and Councilor-Minister, Ioan Gaborean, personae non gratae, claiming that "their activity was inconsistent with their diplomatic status"[27][28] after the Moldovan flag on the Parliament building was torn down and replaced with Romanian and EU flags during post-election riots in Moldova.
  • On June 8, 2009, Russia declared Finnish diplomat Simo Pietiläinen, persona non grata, due to a controversial action by Pietiläinen where he smuggled Anton Salonen out of Russia following a long custody dispute between his Finnish father and Russian born lover.[29]
  • On August 21, 2009 Slovakia declared Hungarian President László Sólyom persona non grata (the Latin term was not used, only "unwelcome person", and he was not allowed to cross the border), on the day when the president had been due to unveil a statue of Saint Stephen of Hungary in Komárno. The date is the next day after the Hungarian national holiday celebrating the saint king. The main reason of the ban was that this date is also the day of the anniversary of the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in which Hungary's armed forces also took part in order to crush the Prague Spring of 1968. Slovak Prime Minister Robert Fico has also expressed his concerns that the president "attempted to stress the Hungarian statehood on sovereign Slovak soil".[30][31]
  • On November 3, 2009, the Prime Minister of Fiji declared Australian and New Zealand diplomats to Fiji personae non gratae. In response, one day later the Australian and New Zealand Governments declared the respective Fijian Representatives personae non gratae and they were given 24 hours to depart the country. The move came as international tension between Fiji and Australia/New Zealand intensified following a decision by Fijian Prime Minister – Commodore Josaia Voreqe Bainimarama's decision to indefinitely delay elections in the country.
  • On January 8, 2010, the Egyptian Foreign Ministry declared Respect MP George Galloway "persona non grata" after he attempted to take 200 aid trucks into the Gaza Strip, along with international activists. He was subsequently deported from Egypt back to the UK.[32]
  • On October, 2010, Italian singer Al Bano included in the list of personas non grata in Azerbaijan for the visiting of Nagorno Karabakh without permission of Azerbaijan.[33]
  • On March 30, 2011, The Kuwaiti Minister of Foreign Affairs, declared three Iranian diplomats, including the Ambassador, persona non grata for allegedly spying. Upon orders from His Highness the Emir of Kuwait, the deputy prime minister, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs, expelled the high ranking Iranian diplomats.[34]
  • On April 5, 2011, the Ecuador Ministry declared U.S. Ambassador Heather Hodges persona non grata after she did not provide sufficient answers about a leaked diplomatic cable related to Ecuador. In retaliation the U.S. declared the Ecuadorean Ambassador Luis Gallegos persona non grata on April 7, 2011.[35]
  • On April 27, 2011, Malawi declared British High Commissioner Fergus Cochrane-Dyet persona non grata a week after a diplomatic cable had been leaked in which Cochrane-Dyet stated that Malawian President Bingu wa Mutharika was "becoming ever more autocratic and intolerant of criticism".[36][37]
  • On May 1, 2011 The Libyan ambassador to the United Kingdom, Omar Jelban, was given 24 hours to leave the country after Foreign Secretary William Hague said he was persona non grata. The expulsion was in response to attacks on British embassy premises in Tripoli following the death of Colonel Gaddafi's son in a NATO air strike.[38]
  • On May 6, 2011 France declared fourteen former Libyan diplomats in Paris to be personae non gratae because of "conduct and activities that are not compatible with the UN resolutions, particularly resolution 1973" and "going against the protection of Libyan civilians".[39]
  • On May 19, 2011 the Russian Foreign Ministry said Israel's military attaché to Moscow Col. Vadim Leiderman was declared persona non grata after being caught receiving secret information from a Russian citizen.[40]
  • On January 6, 2012 the United States notified the Venezuelan government of the declaration of Venezuelan diplomat Livia Acosta Noguera as a persona non grata and demanded that she leave the United States by January 10, 2012. The declaration was announced by the United States on January 8, and came after an FBI investigation into allegations reported in a Univision documentary. The documentary purported that several diplomats from various countries, including Iran and Cuba had been in contact with a group of Mexican hackers connected with the National Autonomous University of Mexico.[41]
  • On April 8, 2012 Israel declared German poet Günter Grass, recipient of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature, persona non grata[42] because of his poem What Must Be Said which warned that Israel threatened an "already fragile world peace".[43]
  • On May 29, 2012, in response to the May 25, 2012 Houla massacre in Syria, the French government declared Syrian Ambassador Lamia Shakkour, and two other embassy officials, personae non gratae. The Syrian ambassador to the Netherlands was also declared persona non grata by Dutch Foreign Minister Uri Rosenthal.[44]
  • On September 7, 2012, the Canadian government declared all Iranian diplomats in Canada personae non gratae. The Canadian embassy in Tehran also was closed.[45]

  • On May 14, 2013, Russia's Foreign Ministry declared Ryan Fogle, third secretary of the Political Department of the U.S. Embassy in Moscow persona non grata. He was caught allegedly trying to recruit a Russian special services staff member and accused of being a CIA agent.[46] On May 17, FSB revealed the identity of the CIA Station Chief as Steven Hall in further retaliation.[47][48]
  • On June, 2013, Spanish opera singer Montserrat Caballé included in the list of personas non grata in Azerbaijan for the visiting of Nagorno Karabakh without permission of Azerbaijan[33][49]
  • On July 6, 2013, the Philippine Bureau of Immigration, prevented Dutch activist Thomas van Beersum from leaving the Philippines at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport in Manila. Thomas van Beersum participated in a political rally against the Philippine government during President Benigno Aquino III's State of the Nation Address. Van Beersum gained the attention of the media when a photo of him berating a police officer into tears went viral in the internet which sparked outrage of Filipino netizens. Van Beersum went to the Philippines using a tourist visa. The Dutch activist was deported on August 7 due to “overstaying” and “for engaging in partisan political activity.” and was blacklisted as persona non grata.[50][51]
  • On November 23, 2013, Egypt declared the Turkish ambassador Huseyin Avni Botsali persona non grata, due to criticisms made by Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan on the overthrowing of Mohamed Morsi as President of Egypt.[52]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schmemann, Serge (Date unknown). "Kurt Waldheim". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  2. ^ Kennan, George F. (1967), Memoirs: 1925–1950, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, OCLC 484922. 152
  3. ^ "Snub snaps U.S. ties with Equatorial Guinea". Lawrence Journal-World. 1976-03-15. Retrieved 2014-06-09. 
  4. ^ Jaggi, Maya (16 March 2002). "Fiction and hyper-reality". The Guardian. "During Fujimori's first two years I was very discreet," he says. "But I've been against dictatorships all my life. My situation became very difficult: I was persona non grata in Peru, discredited and insulted in the official press - Fujimori controlled everything. It was difficult because I couldn't respond." 
  5. ^ Emma Daly (August 8, 1995). "Flight from Croatia: Refugee column hit from the air". BNET. Retrieved 2009-01-09. [dead link]
  6. ^ Akiva Eldar (October 30, 2006). "Let's hear it for the Haiders". Haaretz. Retrieved 2012-04-09. 
  7. ^ Saipantribune.com
  8. ^ Blogspot.com
  9. ^ Saipantribune.com
  10. ^ Ron Hodges (December 6, 2007). "Chamberonomics "spit in the soup"". Marianas Variety News. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  11. ^ "Biography of Philip S. Goldberg". United States Department of State. Retrieved 2009-01-09. [dead link]
  12. ^ "Serbia Expels Macedonian, Montenegrin Envoys Over Kosovo". Deutsche Welle Online. 2008-10-10. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  13. ^ "Serbia expels Malaysia's ambassador, EU". London: Guardian News. 2008-11-01. Retrieved 2009-04-09. [dead link]
  14. ^ Foreign Ministry of Israel declares UN expert persona non grata, Trend News Agency, December 15, 2008.
  15. ^ "Human Rights Council elects Advisory Committee Members and approves a number of Special Procedures mandate holders". United Nations. March 26, 2008. Archived from the original on January 1, 2009. Retrieved January 1, 2009. 
  16. ^ "U.N. Taps American Jewish Critic of Israel as Rights Expert", The Forward, April 4, 2008.
  17. ^ "UNHRC appointment infuriates Israel", The Jerusalem Post, March 26, 2008.
  18. ^ "Israel to bar UN official for comparing Israelis to Nazis", Haaretz, April 8, 2008.
  19. ^ Press Release: National Lawyers Guild Urges Israel to Permit Richard Falk to Enter Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Common Dreams, April 23, 2008.
  20. ^ Linda Mamoun, "Israel Bars UN Human Rights Watchdog From Occupied Territories", Alternet reprint of The Nation article, posted on July 11, 2008.
  21. ^ "Israel denies entry to UN rights investigator", Reuters, reproduced at YNET, December 15, 2008.
  22. ^ Richard A.Falk, "My Expulsion from Israel", 22 December 2008
  23. ^ UN official: Israel engaging in ethnic cleansing, Reuters, March 21, 2011.
  24. ^ "NZ and Fiji expel high commissioners". New Zealand Herald. 2008-12-23. Retrieved 2009-07-28. 
  25. ^ "Israel expels Venezuela envoy". BBC News Online. 2009-01-28. Retrieved 2009-02-01. 
  26. ^ "Bolivia orders US diplomat to go". BBC News Online. 2009-03-09. Retrieved 2009-02-01. 
  27. ^ "Moldovan president accuses Romania of being behind protests". Deutsche Welle Online. 2009-04-08. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  28. ^ "Moldova declares 2 Romanian diplomats persona non grata". ITAR-TASS News Agency. 2009-04-08. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  29. ^ "Russia Declares Finnish Diplomat in Anton Case Persona Non Grata". YLE, AP, AFP. 2009-06-08. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  30. ^ "Fico: Slovakia denying entry to Hungarian President László Sólyom". The Rock, s.r.o. 2009-08-22. Retrieved 2009-08-23. 
  31. ^ "Fico: Prezidenta Maďarska na Slovensko nevpustíme". Novinky – centrumholdings.cz (Czech). 2009-08-21. Retrieved 2009-08-23. 
  32. ^ "Egypt declares UK politician persona non grata". Ynetnews. 8 January 2010. Retrieved 9 January 2010. 
  33. ^ a b "Arzuolunmaz Şəxslərin Siyahısı [List of Undesirable People]". Azerbaijani Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  34. ^ http://www.sunni-news.net/en/articles.aspx?selected_article_no=14601/
  35. ^ "Ecuador Minister: Government Hopes To Maintain Cordial Relations With US". WSJ. 7 April 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  36. ^ "Malawi threatens to expel British high commissioner over leaked remarks", The Guardian, 2011-04-19.
  37. ^ "Malawi expels British ambassador", The Guardian, 2011-04-27.
  38. ^ "Britain to expel the Libyan ambassador to the UK". BBC. 1 May 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 
  39. ^ "Libya: France, 14 Former Diplomats 'Persona Non Grata'". ANSAmed
    • On July 11, Mike Rose, aka YLB, aka Purpl was declared persona non grata by pretty much everyone at his current place of employment. 2011-05-06. Retrieved 2013-04-08. 
  40. ^ Russia confirms IDF attaché caught receiving secret intel, Jerusalem Post, 19 May 2011
  41. ^ US Expels Venezuelan Diplomat, ABC News, 9 January 2012
  42. ^ "Interior Minister declares Gunter Grass persona non grata in Israel". Haaretz. 8 April 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  43. ^ Sherwood, Harriet (8 April 2012). "Günter Grass barred from Israel over poem: Nobel laureate, who says he had not meant to criticise Israel but Netanyahu government, declared persona non grata". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  44. ^ "Syrian diplomats around the world expelled". Associated Press. 29 May 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  45. ^ Canada closes embassy in Iran, expels Iranian diplomats, CBC News, September 7, 2012.
  46. ^ Russia orders expulsion of U.S. diplomat accused of being CIA agent, CNN, May 14, 2013.
  47. ^ "Fogle's detention became public because CIA 'crossed the line' - FSB". Voice of Russia, Interfax. 17 May 2013. 
  48. ^ Vladimir Radyuhin (19 May 2013). "Russia reveals CIA head identity". The Hindu. 
  49. ^ Монсеррат Кабалье объявлена персоной нон грата в Азербайджане
  50. ^ http://globalnation.inquirer.net/82693/dutch-activist-in-sona-protest-leaves-philippines
  51. ^ http://www.rappler.com/nation/35734-dutch-activist-visa-violations
  52. ^ "Egypt expels Turkey's ambassador". Al Jazeera. 23 November 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.