List of people excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church

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This is a list of some of the more notable people excommunicated by the Catholic Church. It includes only excommunications acknowledged or imposed by a decree of the Pope or a bishop in communion with him. Latae sententiae excommunications, those that automatically affect classes of people (members of certain associations or those who perform actions such as directly violating the seal of confession[1] or carrying out an abortion),[2] are not listed unless confirmed by a bishop or ecclesiastical tribunal with respect to certain individuals.

In Roman Catholic canon law, excommunication is a censure and thus a "medicinal penalty" intended to invite the person to change behavior or attitude that incurred the penalty, repent, and return to full communion.[3] Excommunication does not expel a Catholic from membership in the church; excommunicated Catholics are still considered to be members of the church, and thus considered bound by their obligations of membership such as attending Mass or fasting seasonally. Excommunicated Catholics, however, are barred from receiving the Eucharist or from taking an active part in the liturgy (reading, bringing the offerings, etc.) while under censure.[4]

1st century[edit]

2nd century[edit]

3rd century[edit]

4th century[edit]

5th century[edit]

8th Century[edit]

The heretic preachers Adalbert and Clement by a council headed by St Boniface in 745. Adelbert's excommunication was not upheld by Rome, however, although Clement's was.

10th century[edit]

In 998, Robert II of France, who had been insisting on his right to appoint bishops, was ultimately forced to back down, and ultimately also to put aside his wife Bertha of Burgundy who had also been excommunicated. The stated reason was the degree of consanguinity between the two. By Pope Gregory V.[10] They had the marriage annulled by Pope Sylvester II in 1000 and were reinstated.

11th century[edit]

The legal validity of this excommunication has been questioned as it was issued by legates of Pope Leo IX after the Pope's death. It was declared lifted on December 7, 1965.[11]

12th century[edit]

13th century[edit]

14th century[edit]

15th century[edit]

16th century[edit]

17th century[edit]

18th century[edit]

19th century[edit]

20th century[edit]

21st century[edit]

  • Members of multiple organizations in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lincoln, Nebraska were excommunicated by Bishop Fabian Bruskewitz in March 1996 for promoting positions he deemed "totally incompatible with the Catholic faith".[46] The organizations include Call to Action, Catholics for a Free Choice, Planned Parenthood, the Hemlock Society, the Freemasons, and the Society of St. Pius X. The Vatican later confirmed the excommunication of Call to Action members in November 2006.[46]
  • Emmanual Milingo, former archbishop of Lusaka, for consecrating four bishops without the papal mandate. Also excommunicated were those receiving consecration.[47]
  • The Community of the Lady of All Nations for heretical teachings and beliefs after a six-year investigation. The declaration was announced by the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops on September 12, 2007.[48]
  • Fr. Dale Fushek (also laicized by Pope Benedict XVI 02/2010) and Fr. Mark Dippre. Former Priests were issued a Decree of Excommunication by Bishop Thomas J. Olmsted for operating "an opposing ecclesial community" in direct disobedience to orders to refrain from public ministry.[49]
  • Fr. Marek Bozek (since laicized by Pope Benedict XVI), and the lay parish board members of St. Stanislaus Kostka Church in St. Louis, Missouri in December 2005 were declared guilty of the ecclesiastical crime of schism by then-Archbishop Raymond Leo Burke.[50] Their excommunication was ratified by the Vatican in May 2008. Four of the parish board members have since reconciled with the Church.
  • Both the doctors and the mother of the nine-year-old victim in the 2009 Brazilian girl abortion case were said by Archbishop Jose Cardoso Sobrinho of Olinda and Recife to have incurred an automatic excommunication. The victim had an abortion after being raped and impregnated by her stepfather.[51][52] The National Conference of Bishops of Brazil contradicted Sobrinho's statement: it declared that, in accordance with canon law, the girl's mother was not in fact excommunicated and that there were no grounds for stating that any of the doctors involved were in fact excommunicated.[53] Disagreement with the Archbishop's view of the supposed excommunication was expressed also by other bishops.[54][55]
  • Sr. Margaret McBride, a nun, for allowing an abortion.[56] McBride later reconciled with the Church and is no longer living in a state of excommunication.
  • In October 2012, the newspapers El Observador and El País reported that all the Catholics who promoted the abortion law in Uruguay were excommunicated.[57][58] The newspaper Urgente24, in spite of a headline stating that what it called the "abortionist lawmakers" were excommunicated, explained in the body of the article that automatic excommunication applied only to someone who directly carried out an abortion.[59] The bishops website also explained that excommunication would automatically apply, under Canon Law 1398, only to anyone carrying out an abortion, and not to lawmakers.[60]
  • Fr. Roy Bourgeois (also laicized and dismissed from the Maryknoll Fathers) for participating in the ordination of a woman.[61]
  • Fr. Robert Marrone, by Bishop Richard Gerard Lennon of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cleveland in Cleveland, Ohio for violating the terms of his leave of absence. Marrone set up a worshipping community (the Community of St. Peter's) in a vacant warehouse and outside of a Catholic building or church after St. Peter's Parish in Cleveland was closed (it has since been reopened), in defiance of the bishop .[62]
  • Fr. Simon Lokodo, The Minister for Ethics and Integrity in Uganda, was excommunicated from the Catholic Church by Pope Benedict XVI[63] when he entered politics in violation of Canon Law 285.3[64][65]
  • Fr. Roberto Francisco Daniel, known by local community as "Father Beto", by Bishop Caetano Ferrari, from Bauru, Brazil. Daniel was excommunicated because he refused a direct order from his bishop to apologize for or retract his statement that love was possible between people of the same sex. The priest also said a married person who chose to have an affair, heterosexual or otherwise, would not be unfaithful as long as that person's spouse allowed it.[66][67][68]
  • Fr Greg Reynolds of Melbourne, Australia was excommunicated in 2013 for continuing to celebrate Mass when not permitted, advocating the ordination of women, and promoting same-sex marriage.[69]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 1388
  2. ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 1398
  3. ^ "Code of Canon Law, canon 1312". Vatican.va. Retrieved 2012-04-03. 
  4. ^ "Even those who have joined another religion, have become atheists or agnostics, or have been excommunicated remain Catholics. Excommunicates lose rights, such as the right to the sacraments, but they are still bound to the obligations of the law; their rights are restored when they are reconciled through the remission of the penalty." New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law, ed. by John P. Beal, James A. Coriden, Thomas J. Green, Paulist Press, 2000, p. 63 (commentary on canon 11).
  5. ^ 1 Corinthians 5:1-8
  6. ^ 1 Corinthians 5: Church Discipline
  7. ^ 1 Timothy 1:20
  8. ^ Attwater, Donald and Catherine Rachel John. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. 3rd edition. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-14-051312-4.
  9. ^ http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/theodoret-ambrose1.asp.
  10. ^ Eleanor Shipley Duckett, Death and Life in the Tenth Century, (University of Michigan Press, 1988), 130.
  11. ^ "Catholic-Orthodox Declaration". Vatican.va. 1965-12-07. Retrieved 2014-06-28. 
  12. ^ Johnny H (2010-09-24). "1066: The Pope in 1066: William or Harold?". Santlache.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2014-06-28. 
  13. ^ catholic encyclopedia. Entry: Honorius II
  14. ^ catholic encyclopedia, entry Innocent II
  15. ^ "Sir Gilbert De Clare (1243 - 1295) - Find A Grave Memorial". Findagrave.com. Retrieved 2014-06-28. 
  16. ^ a b catholic encyclopedia, entry Boniface VIII
  17. ^ a b catholic encyclopedia, entry Urban VI
  18. ^ BRITANNIA.COM
  19. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia
  20. ^ Richard P. Hardy. The Life of St John of the Cross. London, 1982. p79
  21. ^ Journey to Carith: The Sources and Story of the Discalced Carmelites - Peter-Thomas Rohrbach - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-06-28. 
  22. ^ Richard P. Hardy. The Life of St John of the Cross. London, 1982. p61
  23. ^ "Outline of the Life of St Teresa of Avila". Ourgardenofcarmel.org. Retrieved 2014-06-28. 
  24. ^ [1]
  25. ^ Joaquín Lorenzo Villanueva, Misapprehension of Patrick Curties and James Doyle concerning the oath which the bishops of Ireland take to the Roman Pontiff, (1825) page 64
  26. ^ E. Hales, "Napoleon and the Pope", (London:1962) pg 114
  27. ^ Apostolic Letters, in the form of a Brief, by which Bonaparte, and all the authors, perpetrators, and abettors of the usurpation of the Kingdom of Rome, and of the other dominions belonging to the Holy See, are declared to be excommunicated. PIUS VII. POPE. Ad perpetuam rei Memoriam
  28. ^ "A BISHOP EXCOMMUNICATED.; Decree Against the Rev. S. Kaminski, Independent Polish Church, Buffalo" (PDF). The New York Times. October 18, 1898. 
  29. ^ [2][dead link]
  30. ^ "Nun becomes first Australian saint". Al Jazeera. 17 October 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  31. ^ Press, Margaret M. (1986). From Our Broken Toil — South Australian Catholics 1836 - 1906. The Catholic Archdiocese of Adelaide. pp. 181–193. ISBN 0 949807 35 4. 
  32. ^ Villari, Luigi (1911). "Victor Emmanuel II". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 
  33. ^ Augé, Claude, ed. (1898). "Loyson, Charles". Nouveau Larousse illustré (in French) 5. Paris: Éditions Larousse. p. 777. 
  34. ^ "De Vargas Vila, ni paz en su tumba". El Colombiano. Retrieved 2014-06-28. 
  35. ^ "La excomunión de Fidel Castro cumple cincuenta años". ABC.es. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
  36. ^ Andrea Tornielli, "The mystery of Fidel Castro’s excommunication" in Vatican Insider, 2 March 2012
  37. ^ The American Catholic, "01/03/1962: Pope John XXIII excommunicated Fidel Castro"
  38. ^ "PRIEST EXCOMMUNICATED.; Father Murri, Leader of Italian Catholic Democrats, Cut Off by Church". The New York Times. March 23, 1909. Retrieved May 8, 2010. 
  39. ^ Juan Peron - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. 
  40. ^ Juan Domingo Perón – Encyclopedia.com
  41. ^ POPE ORDERS SHARP ACTION.; Archbishop of Manila Instructed to Excommunicate Philippine National Church Promoters. New York Times. New York, N.Y.: Dec 29, 1902. pg. 7, 1 pgs.
  42. ^ Reid, George. "Higher Biblical Criticism," The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 4 (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908).
  43. ^ Mitja Velikonja. Religious Separation and Political Intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Texas A&M University Press, 2003. (p. 198)
  44. ^ [3]
  45. ^ "The Role of Archbishop Joseph F". Loyno.edu. Retrieved 2014-06-28. 
  46. ^ a b "Vatican confirms excommunication for US dissident group" Catholic World News (07 December 2006).
  47. ^ "CNN.com - Renegade archbishop excommunicated - Sep 26, 2006". CNN. Retrieved May 8, 2010. 
  48. ^ Army of Mary excommunicated by the Vatican
  49. ^ [4]
  50. ^ "Archdiocese of St. Louis - Marek Bozek Dismissed from the Clerical State". Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  51. ^ Duffy, Gary (March 5, 2009). "Rape row sparks excommunications". BBC News. 
  52. ^ "Vatican backs abortion row bishop". BBC News. March 7, 2009. Retrieved May 8, 2010. 
  53. ^ Nunes Leal, Luciana (13 March 2009). "CNBB desautoriza iniciativa de bispo". O Estadão de S.Paulo. 
  54. ^ L'Osservatore Romano: "Dalla parte della bambina brasiliana"
  55. ^ Mgr di FALCO, évêque de Gap, sur l'excommunication au Brésil
  56. ^ Clancy, Michael (May 19, 2010). "Nun at St. Joseph's Hospital rebuked over abortion to save woman". Arizona Republic. 
  57. ^ "Iglesia dice que legisladores que votaron despenalización quedan excomulgados". El Observador. 2012-10-18. 
  58. ^ "Iglesia Católica excomulgó a quienes incentivaron la despenalización del aborto". El País. 2012-10-18. 
  59. ^ "1er medida de la Iglesia tras la despenalización del aborto" (in Spanish). Urgente24. 2012-10-18. 
  60. ^ "Uruguay bishops clarify statement on excommunication of lawmakers favoring abortion :: Catholic News Agency (CNA)". Catholic News Agency. 2012-10-24. Retrieved 2014-06-28. 
  61. ^ Goodstein, Laurie (20 November 2012). "Religion: Priest Excommunicated for Ordaining a Woman". The New York Times. 
  62. ^ Bishop Richard Lennon excommunicates the Rev. Robert Marrone
  63. ^ "Clerical Whispers: Pope fires Fr. Lokodo from priesthood". Clericalwhispers.blogspot.se. 2011-08-31. Retrieved 2014-06-28. 
  64. ^ Canon 285.3
  65. ^ "Catholic Church leadership on trial". Independent.co.ug. 2013-03-28. Retrieved 2014-06-28. 
  66. ^ "Priest who stands for homosexuals says he's honored for being excommunicated" in Portuguese
  67. ^ English translation of the reference named "Folha"
  68. ^ Fidelidade, Bissexualidade e a Igreja
  69. ^ telegraph.co.uk