List of people from Montana
Montana i// is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name, derived from the Spanish word montaña (mountain). Montana has several nicknames, none official, including: "The Treasure State" and "Big Sky Country", and slogans that include "Land of the Shining Mountains" and more recently, "The Last Best Place". The state ranks fourth in area, but 44th in population, and accordingly has the third-lowest population density in the United States. The economy is primarily based on services, with ranching, wheat farming, oil and coal mining in the east, and lumber, tourism, and hard rock mining in the west. Millions of tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, and three of the five entrances to Yellowstone National Park.
- 1 Academics
- 2 Artists
- 3 Athletes
- 4 Authors
- 5 Business figures
- 6 Clergy
- 7 Entertainment and performing arts
- 8 Journalists
- 9 Military
- 10 Pioneers (pre-1900)
- 11 Politicians
- 12 Recreationalists
- 13 Scientists
- 14 Others
- 15 Infamous Montanans
- 16 Fictional Montanans
- 17 References
- 18 External links
|Ambrose, Stephen E.Stephen E. Ambrose||1936–2002||Lived in Helena during retirement||Professor; Historian; biographer|||
|Bearss, EdEd Bearss||1923–present||Born in Billings||Historian specializing in the American Civil War and World War II; chief historian of the National Park Service (1981–1994); National Park Service Historian Emeritus|||
|Blunt, JudyJudy Blunt||1954–present||Born near Malta; attended college in and resides in Missoula||Memoirist; associate professor at the University of Montana|||
|Flores, DanDan Flores||1948–present||Lives in Missoula||Historian and writer on the Western United States; professor and A.B. Hammond Chair in Western History at the University of Montana|||
|Knowles, MalcolmMalcolm Knowles||1913–1997||Born in Livingston||Educator noted for the adoption of the theory of Andragogy|||
|Maclean, NormanNorman Maclean||1902–1990||Moved to Missoula in 1909||Author; scholar; Dean of Students and William Rainey Harper Professor of English at University of Chicago|||
|Pease, JanineJanine Pease||1949–present||Lives on the Crow Indian Reservation||Founded Little Big Horn College|||
|Renne, RolandRoland Renne||1905–1989||President of Montana State College (1943–1964) in Bozeman||Agricultural Economics professor; active in Washington D.C. and overseas agricultural economics work; Democratic candidate for governor of Montana (1964)|||
|Thurow, LesterLester Thurow||1938–present||Born in Livingston||Rhodes Scholar; Economist; former dean of the MIT Sloan School of Management; author of numerous bestsellers on economics; columnist|||
|Toole, K. RossK. Ross Toole||1920–1981||Born, raised and college student in Missoula; lived in Missoula and Red Lodge||Historian; history writer; A.B. Hammond Professor of Western History at the University of Montana|||
|Welch, JamesJames Welch||1940–2003||Born in Browning; attended college and lived in Missoula||Poet; history writer; taught at University of Washington, Cornell University, and University of Montana; 1997 recipient of Lifetime Achievement Award from the Native Writers' Circle of the Americas|||
|Adkins, BradBrad Adkins||1973–present||Born in Kalispell||Artist and curator|||
|Appleby, AnneAnne Appleby||1954–present||Lives and works part time in Born in Jefferson City||Abstract color field/landscape painter|||
|Autio, RudyRudy Autio||1926–2007||Born in Butte; attended college in Bozeman; lived and taught in Missoula||Sculptor and ceramicist; professor of ceramics|||
|Buck, John E.John E. Buck||1946–present||Lives part-time in Bozeman||Sculptor and printmaker; married to fellow sculptor Deborah Butterfield|||
|Butterfield, DeborahDeborah Butterfield||1949–present||Lives part-time in Bozeman||Sculptor who makes horses out of found objects; married to fellow sculptor John E. Buck|||
|Chatham, RussellRussell Chatham||1939–present||Lives near Livingston||Painter; lithographer; writer; restaurateur|||
|Cory, F. Y.F. Y. Cory||1877–1972||Lived in Helena and on a ranch near Canyon Ferry Lake||Artist and illustrator|||
|Cumming, WilliamWilliam Cumming||1917–2010||Born in Kalispell||Artist; a founder of the Northwest School.|
|Dolack, MonteMonte Dolack||1950–present||Born in Great Falls; lives in Missoula||Lithographer; painter; poster artist; watercolorist; one of Montana's most popular and widely known contemporary graphic artists; known for whimsical images of animals (trout swimming in a bathtub, elk with their antlers on fire, etc.)|||
|Hancock, MalcolmMalcolm Hancock||1936–1993||Lived and died in Great Falls||Satirical Cartoonist who used the pen name "Mal"|||
|Hays, EthelEthel Hays||1892–1989||Born in and raised in Billings||Syndicated cartoonist specializing in flapper-themed comic strips|||
|James, WillWill James||1892–1942||Lived his later adult years at Pryor Creek and in Billings||Western artist; author; won the Newbery Medal in 1927|||
|Linderman, Frank BirdFrank Bird Linderman||1869–1938||Lived in Sheridan, Demersville (now Kalispell), Helena, Butte, and Flathead Lake||Western sculptor and writer; Native American ally; Montana State Representative (1903–1905); Montana Assistant Secretary of State (1905–1907)|||
|Lynde, StanStan Lynde||1931–2013||Born in Billings; raised on sheep ranch near Lodge Grass; attended college in Missoula; lived in last years of his life Helena||Cartoonist who drew the comic strips Rick O'Shay and Latigo; western mystery novelist|||
|Paxson, Edgar SamuelEdgar Samuel Paxson||1852–1919||Moved to Montana at age 20; lived in Deer Lodge, Butte, and Missoula||19th century realist painter|||
|Ralston, J. K.J. K. Ralston||1896–1987||Born in Choteau; lived in Helena, Dawson County, and Billings||Western painter of the American Old West whose primary topics were the American West and images of cowboys and American Indians|||
|Red Star, KevinKevin Red Star||1943–present||Born and raised on the Crow Indian Reservation; attended college in Bozeman and Billings; lives in Lodge Grass||Contemporary Native Artist; some of his work is in the Smithsonian Institution|||
|Reiss, WinoldWinold Reiss||1886–1953||Spent significant time in Montana; ashes spread by the Blackfeet along the eastern edge of Glacier National Park||Painter; made over 250 paintings of Native Americans, especially the Blackfeet|||
|Russell, Charles Marion "C.M."Charles Marion "C.M." Russell||1864–1926||Moved to Montana at age 16; lived in Cascade, and Great Falls||Western painter; storyteller; author; primary topics were the American Old West and images of cowboys and American Indians|||
|Scriver, RobertRobert Scriver||1914–1999||Born on the Blackfeet Reservation; lived near Glacier National Park||Sculptor of western themes|||
|Voulkos, PeterPeter Voulkos||1924–2002||Born, raised, and attended college in Bozeman; lived in Helena||Abstract expressionist ceramicist|||
|Cameron, EvelynEvelyn Cameron||1868–1928||Lived in Terry||Photographer; moved to Terry in the late 19th century with her naturalist husband Ewen; together they took pictures of Montana prairie life|||
|Haynes, Frank JayFrank Jay Haynes||1853–1921||Spent extensive time working in and photographing Montana||Photographer; publisher; entrepreneur; played a major role in documenting the settlement and early history of the Northwest through photographs; official photographer of the Northern Pacific Railway and Yellowstone National Park; operated early transportation concessions in the park from the West Yellowstone area|||
|Jackson, William HenryWilliam Henry Jackson||1843–1942||Spent extensive time photographing Montana, especially the Yellowstone region||Painter; Civil War and geological survey photographer; explorer of the American West; obtained the first photographs of Fort Ellis and settlements and geological features in the Paradise Valley along the Yellowstone River (1871)|||
|Lautman, Robert C.Robert C. Lautman||1923–2009||Born in Butte; attended college in Bozeman||Architectural photographer with extensive portfolio of buildings of national (U.S.) importance|||
|Schlechten, AlbertAlbert Schlechten||1876–1961||Photographer in Bozeman and Anaconda||With his brother Alfred, purchased the Bozeman photography business of Grant and Tippet, which was renamed "Schlechten Brothers"; later went into farming; then owned a photography studio in Anaconda; made large format camera series of photos of Yellowstone National Park|||
|Schlechten, AlfredAlfred Schlechten||1877–1970||Photographer in Bozeman, Montana||With his brother Albert, purchased the Bozeman photography business of Grant and Tippet, which was renamed "Schlechten Brothers"; operated a solo portrait studio (1900-1940s)|||
|Schlechten, ChrisChris Schlechten||19??-197?||Photographer in Bozeman, Montana||Son of Alfred Schlechten; created a spoof college annual at Montana State College (1933); ran a studio in West Yellowstone, Montana and conducted extensive photography of Yellowstone National Park; took over Schlechten Brothers studio in the 1940s|||
|Donovan, PatPat Donovan||1953–present||Attended high school in Helena||National Football League left tackle (1975–1983); four-time Pro Bowler; played in three Super Bowls, winning one|||
|Jackson, PhilPhil Jackson||1945–present||Born and lived for several years in Deer Lodge||National Basketball Association (NBA) power forward (1968–1980) and head coach (1990–2011); considered one of the Top 10 coaches in NBA history|||
|Leipheimer, LeviLevi Leipheimer||1973–1993 and more||Born and raised in Butte, Montana||American professional road bicycle racer. Won the 2007, 2008 and 2009 editions of the Tour of California, the 2006 Dauphiné Libéré and the 2005 Deutschland Tour.|||
|Linderman, BillBill Linderman||1920–1965||Born in Bridger; raised in Red Lodge||Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association world champion All-Around Cowboy (1950 & 1953); elected to ProRodeo Hall of Fame (1979)|||
|McNally, DaveDave McNally||1942–2002||Born and lived in Billings||Major League Baseball starting pitcher (1962–1975)|||
|Schmidt, ScotScot Schmidt||1961–present||Born in Helena||First ever professional extreme skier|||
|Wigger, LonesLones Wigger||1937–present||Born in Great Falls||Rifle shooter; three-time Olympic medalist—gold and silver in the 1964 Summer Olympics and gold in the 1972 Summer Olympics; once held 80 national championships and 29 world records|||
|Baker, DorothyDorothy Baker||1907–1968||Born in Missoula||Novelist|||
|Bass, RickRick Bass||1958–present||Moved to Yaak Valley, near Troy in 1987; lives in Missoula||Novelist; memoirist; environmental activist|||
|Bower, B. M.B. M. Bower||1871–1940||Lived most of her youth near Big Sandy||Author of novels, short stories; and screenplays about the American Old West|||
|Brautigan, RichardRichard Brautigan||1935–1984||Lived in Paradise Valley during the late 1970s||Novelist; poet; short story writer|||
|Cahill, TimTim Cahill||1944–present||Lives in Livingston||Travel writer; founding editor of Outside magazine|||
|Coates, Grace StoneGrace Stone Coates||1881–1976||Moved to Montana as an adult; lived in Stevensville, Butte, and Martinsdale||Short story writer, novelist; poet; journalist|||
|Craven, MargaretMargaret Craven||1901–1980||Born in Helena||Short story writer; novelist; journalist|||
|Doig, IvanIvan Doig||1939–present||Born in White Sulphur Springs; raised there and in Pondera County; lived near Choteau||Novelist specializing in Montana and western themes|||
|Ehrenreich, BarbaraBarbara Ehrenreich||1941–present||Born and raised in Butte||Columnist; essayist; political activist; feminist|||
|Guthrie, Jr., A. B.A. B. Guthrie, Jr.||1901–1991||Moved to Montana as an infant; raised in Choteau||Novelist; screenwriter; historian; literary historian; won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1950; grandfather of Eden Atwood|||
|Harrison, JimJim Harrison||1937–present||Lives Paradise Valley||Author; poet; essayist; food writer|||
|Hjortsberg, WilliamWilliam Hjortsberg||1941–present||Longtime resident of Park County||Novelist; screenwriter|||
|Howard, Joseph KinseyJoseph Kinsey Howard||1906–1951||Lived in Great Falls||Journalist; historian; author; specialized in the history, culture, and economic circumstances of Montana; Howard's 1943 book, Montana: High, Wide, and Handsome is considered a landmark|||
|Hugo, RichardRichard Hugo||1923–1982||Lived in Missoula||Poet; taught creative writing at the University of Montana|||
|Johnson, Dorothy M.Dorothy M. Johnson||1905–1984||Moved to Whitefish as a child; attended college in, lived in, and taught college in Missoula||Author of American Old West fiction|||
|Kittredge, WilliamWilliam Kittredge||1932–present||Taught college in Missoula; lived in Missoula since 1969||Author; professor|||
|McNickle, D'ArcyD'Arcy McNickle||1904–1977||Born and raised in St. Ignatius||Novelist; Native American activist|||
|McFadden, CyraCyra McFadden||1939–present||Born in Great Falls; lived in Missoula||Novelist; memoirist|||
|McGuane, ThomasThomas McGuane||1939–present||Moved to Montana in 1968; lived in Paradise Valley and McLeod||Novelist; short story writer; essayist; screenplay writer|||
|Meloy, MaileMaile Meloy||1972–present||Born and raised in Helena||Fiction writer; sister of Colin Meloy|||
|Nelson, AndrewAndrew Nelson||1893–1975||Born in Great Falls||Missionary; linguist; lexicographer|||
|Quammen, DavidDavid Quammen||1948–present||Moved to and lives in Bozeman since circa 1973||Fiction, science, and travel writer|||
|Paolini, ChristopherChristopher Paolini||1983–present||Raised and lives in Paradise Valley||Fantasy writer|||
|Schultz, James WillardJames Willard Schultz||1859–1947||Lived in Browning, Carroll, and Bozeman; buried on the Blackfeet Reservation||Also known as Apikuni; author; explorer; Glacier National Park guide; fur trader; historian of the Blackfoot Indians|||
|Stegner, WallaceWallace Stegner||1909–1993||Raised in Great Falls||Historian; novelist; short story writer; environmentalist;, often called "The Dean of Western Writers"; won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction (1972)|||
|Svee, GaryGary Svee||1943–present||Born, raised, and lives in Billings; attended college in Missoula||Journalist; author|||
|Brinkman, FredFred Brinkman||1892–1961||Lived in Kalispell; died in Flathead County||Architect; a dozen of Brinkman's extant works in and around Kalispell have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places|||
|Reamer, RobertRobert Reamer||1873–1938||Designed historic buildings in Billings, Helena, Livingston and Gardiner||Architect; most noted for the Old Faithful Inn in Yellowstone National Park|||
|Willson, Fred FieldingFred Fielding Willson||1877–1956||Born and lived in Bozeman||Architect; designed many buildings that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places|||
|Bair, Charles M.Charles M. Bair||1857–1943||Lived near Billings, Lavina, and Martinsdale||Railroadman; sheep husbandry; philanthropist|||
|Child, Harry W.Harry W. Child||1857–1931||Lived in Helena||Entrepreneur who managed development and ranching companies in Helena; a founder and longtime president of the Yellowstone Park Company|||
|Turner, TedTed Turner||1938–present||Lives on a ranch near Bozeman||Entrepreneur; philanthropist; raises buffalo|||
|Rogers, James D.James D. Rogers||1949?-present||Lives in Billings||President and CEO of Kampgrounds of America (KOA)|||
|Ryan, John D.John D. Ryan||1864–1933||Lived in Butte||Copper magnate; president of Anaconda Copper Mining Company; creator of Montana Power Company|||
|Washington, DennisDennis Washington||1934–present||Lives in Missoula||Entrepreneur; industrialist; philanthropist|||
|Yancey, John F.John F. Yancey||1826–1903||Buried in Gardiner; substantial business connections there and in Crevice Creek, Montana||Yellowstone National Park concessionaire who operated Yancey's Pleasant Valley Hotel near Tower Junction in Yellowstone (1882–1903)|||
|Carroll, John PatrickJohn Patrick Carroll||1864–1925||Lived in Helena||Second Bishop of Helena; Carroll College in Helena is named in his honor|||
|Prophet, Elizabeth ClareElizabeth Clare Prophet||1939–2009||Lived on Royal Teton Ranch near Gardiner, died in Bozeman||New Age religious figure|||
|Sample, Alexander KingAlexander King Sample||1960–present||Born in Kalispell, Montana||American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church; twelfth and current Bishop of Marquette, Michigan|||
|Tuttle, DanielDaniel Tuttle||1837–1923||Spent considerable time in Montana as an Episcopal bishop||Ordained a bishop of the Episcopal Church in 1866; first assignment was first Episcopal Bishop of Montana (1866–1880), a missionary field that included Montana, Utah, and Idaho at the time|||
Entertainment and performing arts
Montanans participate in many aspects of the entertainment and performing arts fields including: acting, animation, directing, and music.
|Ament, JeffJeff Ament||1963–present||Born in Havre; raised in Big Sandy; attended college and resides in Missoula||Bassist of Pearl Jam|||
|Cooper, GaryGary Cooper||1901–1961||Born and raised on a ranch near Helena||Actor who specialized in westerns; nominated for five Academy Awards and won twice for Sergeant York (1942) and High Noon (1952)|||
|Lynch, DavidDavid Lynch||1946–present||Born in Missoula||Film and television director; nominated for four Academy Awards|||
|Raye, MarthaMartha Raye||1916–1994||Born in Butte||Actress; standards singer; nurse; strong supporter of American military; toured with the United Service Organizations (USO) during World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War; only woman buried in the Special Forces cemetery at Fort Bragg, North Carolina and was buried with full military honors there though never on active duty; known as "Colonel Maggie" to the American military; an honorary Green Beret; awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1993 for her lifetime support to the American military|
|Parker, JeanJean Parker||1915–2005||Born in Deer Lodge||Actress; She appeared in 70 movies from 1932 through 1966. In 1932 Parker posed as a flower girl and living poster in a float in the Tournament of Roses Parade, where she was seen by Ida Koverman, secretary to MGM mogul Louis B. Mayer. The following day the studio called her on the phone and invited her for a screen test. She attended Pasadena schools and graduated from John Muir High School. Her original aspirations were in the fine arts and illustration. She had a successful career at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer MGM Studios.|||
Journalists collect and disseminate information about current events, people, trends, and issues. Their work is acknowledged as journalism. The following individuals are prominent journalists from Montana.
|Huntley, ChetChet Huntley||1911–1974||Born in Cardwell; attended high school in Whitehall; attended college in Bozeman; died in Big Sky||Television newscaster; co-anchored the evening news program The Huntley-Brinkley Report|||
|Musburger, BrentBrent Musburger||1939–present||Raised in Billings; lives part-time in Big Timber||Sportscaster; host of The NFL Today (1975–1989)|||
|Wood, MollyMolly Wood||1975–present||Born in Helena; attended college and graduated from University of Montana||Technology journalist and host of CNET's video series "Always On" with CNET TV.|
Prior to statehood in 1889, the U. S. Army played a key role in facilitating settlement via actions against Native Americans, exploration and surveying. During World War I over 40,000 Montanans served in the armed forces, 25% more than any other state on a per-capita basis. Over 1500 Montanans died in World War I. World War II brought air bases to Montana with the establishment of Malmstrom AFB, Montana in 1941 outside Great Falls, Montana. The Cold War saw the plains of eastern Montana become Minuteman Missile fields. The following individuals were prominent members of the United States armed forces and/or participated in significant military events in Montana.
Medal of Honor recipients
|Galt, William WylieWilliam Wylie Galt||1919–1944||Native of Geyser, in Judith Basin County||Army Captain; Medal of Honor recipient for actions in Italy during World War II; killed in action|||
|McLennon, JohnJohn McLennon||1855–1888||Enlisted at Fort Ellis, near Bozeman; awarded Medal of Honor at Battle of the Big Hole, in southwest Montana||Army Sergeant; Medal of Honor recipient for actions in Montana during the Nez Perce War of 1877|||
|Moran, John E.John E. Moran||1856–1930||Lived and died in Great Falls||Army Captain; Medal of Honor recipient for actions during the Philippine–American War in 1900|||
|Parrish, LaverneLaverne Parrish||1918–1945||Raised in Pablo and Ronan||Army Tech 4 (medic); Medal of Honor recipient for actions in The Philippines during World War II; killed in action|||
|Powers, Leo J.Leo J. Powers||1909–1967||From Madison County||Army Private First Class; Medal of Honor recipient for actions in Italy during the Battle of Monte Cassino|||
|Ruhl, Donald J.Donald J. Ruhl||1923–1945||Raised near Columbus||Marine Private First Class; Medal of Honor recipient for actions during the Battle of Iwo Jima; killed in action|||
|Schauer, HenryHenry Schauer||1918–1997||From Scobey||Army Private First Class; Medal of Honor recipient for actions in Italy during World War II|||
|Smith, Cornelius C.Cornelius C. Smith||1869–1936||Moved to Helena in 1888; joined the Montana National Guard in 1889||Army Corporal; Medal of Honor recipient for actions in South Dakota during the Sioux Wars of 1891|||
Montana territorial period
|Bull, SittingSitting Bull||1831?–1890||Spent significant portions of his life in southeastern Montana||Hunkpapa Lakota Sioux holy man who led his people during years of resistance to United States government policies; vision of soldiers falling into camp was significant to fighters in the Battle of the Little Bighorn.|||
|Doane, Gustavus CheyneyGustavus Cheyney Doane||1840–1892||Stationed at Fort Ellis and buried in Bozeman||U.S. Army Cavalry Captain; explorer; inventor; Civil War soldier who played a prominent role in the exploration of Yellowstone National Park as a member of the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expedition|||
|Glass, LookingLooking Glass||1832?–1877||Princial architect of the military campaign for his people through much of western Montana during the Nez Perce War||War leader of the Nez Perce; initially opposed going to war with the whites|||
|Leg, WoodenWooden Leg||1858–1940||Spent significant portions of his life in southeastern Montana||Northern Cheyenne warrior who fought in the Battle of the Little Bighorn and several other battles in the late 1800s|||
|Raynolds, William F.William F. Raynolds||1820–1894||Led Raynolds Expedition (1859–1860) to the Yellowstone River and Bighorn Canyon; Raynolds Pass named in his honor||U.S. Army Colonel; explorer; engineer; Mexican War and Civil War officer; member of the U.S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers|||
|Reno, MarcusMarcus Reno||1834–1889||Buried in the Custer National Cemetery (1967) with honors, on the Little Bighorn Battlefield||Career military officer in the American Civil War and in the Black Hills War against the Lakota (Sioux) and Northern Cheyenne; had significant role in the Battle of Little Big Horn|||
|Bird, WhiteWhite Bird||18??–1892||Led the military campaign for his people through much of western Montana during the Nez Perce War||War leader of the Lamátta band of the Nez Perce; led his band to and stayed in Pincher Creek, Alberta, Canada|||
|Wolf, LittleLittle Wolf||1820?–1904||Born in and spent most of his life in southeastern Montana||Leader of the Northern Cheyenne; was not present at the Battle of the Little Bighorn but played roles preceding and after it; led his people in many other battles and the Northern Cheyenne Exodus|||
State of Montana
|Chittenden, Hiram M.Hiram M. Chittenden||1858–1917||Built North Entrance Road and Roosevelt Arch in Yellowstone (Gardiner)||Seattle district engineer for the Army Corps of Engineers; in Yellowstone (1891–1892, 1899–1906)|||
|Gerrity, Thomas PatrickThomas Patrick Gerrity||1913–1968||Born in Harlowton||United States Air Force general; commander of the Air Force Logistics Command|||
|Johnson, Jay L.Jay L. Johnson||1946–present||Born in Great Falls||Naval pilot; 26th Chief of Naval Operations (1996–2000)|||
|Running, NelsNels Running||19??–present||Born and raised in Frenchtown||Air Force Major General; Vietnam War veteran; awarded 7 Distinguished Flying Crosses|||
|Sharp, U.S. GrantU.S. Grant Sharp||1906–2001||Born in Chinook; raised in Fort Benton||United States Navy admiral; Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet (CINCPACFLT) (1963–1964); Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Command (CINCPAC) (1964–1968); related to Ulysses S. Grant by marriage|||
|Thatcher, DavidDavid Thatcher||1921–present||Born and raised in Bridger||Army Air Force Staff Sergeant in WWII; crewmember of The Ruptured Duck (B-25) that was part of the Doolittle Raid; awards include the Silver Star, Distinguished Flying Cross, and Air Medal with 4 Oak Leaf Clusters|||
Prior to 1850, Montana was unsettled territory. Much of the state was part of a much larger Dakota Territory in 1863 and the western most portion of the state became part of the Oregon Territory in 1848. The territory was the realm of fur traders and Native Americans. The first European settlements were Christian missions in the western part of the state (1821). A fur trading settlement at Fort Benton on the Missouri River was established in 1847. In the 1850s, pioneers traveling along the Mormon and Oregon Trails started moving north into the Beaverhead River country establishing Montana's first cattle ranches. Gold was first discovered in Montana at Gold Creek near present day Garrison, Montana in 1852. Major gold strikes were made at Alder Gulch, Montana in 1864 spawning present day Virginia City, Montana and Bannack, Montana, the first territorial capital. In 1883 the Northern Pacific Railway completed its transcontinental route across Montana followed by the Great Northern Railway in 1893. From the first gold strikes to the beginning of the 20th century, pioneers flowed into Montana to establish mines, cattle ranches, lumber mills, banks, mercantiles, tourism, Yellowstone National Park and farms across the state. The following individuals played a prominent role in this pioneer period of Montana history.
|Bozeman, JohnJohn Bozeman||1835–1867||Lived in Bozeman and Deer Lodge||Entrepreneur; established the Bozeman Trail (1863), a cutoff route from the Oregon Trail in Wyoming to Bannack, Montana; guided miners to Virginia City through the Gallatin Valley; established town of Bozeman in Gallatin Valley|||
|Clark, William A.William A. Clark||1839–1925||Lived in Bannack, Deer Lodge, and Butte||Entrepreneur; Copper King; banker; railroader; United States Senator (1899–1900, 1901–1907)|||
|Daly, MarcusMarcus Daly||1841–1900||Lived in Butte||Entrepreneur; Copper King; horse breeder|||
|De Smet, Pierre-JeanPierre-Jean De Smet||1801–1873||Established Christian missions in Flathead Valley and Bitterroot Valley of Montana||Belgian Roman Catholic priest and member of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits); missionary work among the Native Americans of the Western United States in the mid-19th century|||
|Earp, MorganMorgan Earp||1851–1882||Lived in Butte (1877–1880); law officer there (1879–1880)||Brother of Deputy U.S. Marshals Virgil and Wyatt Earp; participated in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral|||
|Everts, Truman C.Truman C. Everts||1816–1901||Lived in Helena||Member of the 1870 Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition exploring the area which later became Yellowstone National Park; became lost for 37 days during the 1870 expedition and later wrote about his experiences for Scribner's Monthly; appointed Assessor of Internal Revenue for the Montana Territory by President Abraham Lincoln (1864–1870)|||
|Heinze, F. AugustusF. Augustus Heinze||1869–1914||Lived in Butte||Entrepreneur; Copper King|||
|Jane, CalamityCalamity Jane||1852–1903||Lived in Miles City, Livingston and Paradise Valley||Also known as Martha Jane Cannary Burke; frontierswoman; professional scout; acquaintance of Wild Bill Hickok; fighter of Native American Indians|||
|Johnson, Liver-EatingLiver-Eating Johnson||1824?–1900||Lived near Alder Gulch and Red Lodge||Mountain man of the American Old West; inspiration for the film Jeremiah Johnson (1972)|||
|Kohrs, ConradConrad Kohrs||1869–1914||Lived near Deer Lodge||Cattle baron; the home ranch near Deer Lodge, Montana is now the Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site|||
|Langford, Nathaniel P.Nathaniel P. Langford||1832–1911||Lived in Helena||Explorer; businessman; bureaucrat; vigilante; historian; played an important role in the early years of the Montana gold fields, territorial government and the creation of Yellowstone National Park; appointed Collector of Internal Revenue and National Bank Examiner for the Montana Territorial government (1864–1869)|||
|Story, NelsonNelson Story||1838–1926||Lived near and in Bozeman||Cattle rancher and "Cattle King"; gold miner; vigilante; led first major cattle drive from Texas into Montana (1866) along the Bozeman Trail, which inspired Lonesome Dove|||
|Washburn, Henry D.Henry D. Washburn||1832–1871||Lived in Helena||Led the 1870 Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition to explore what would become Yellowstone National Park; Mount Washburn, located within the park, is named for him; surveyor general of Montana in 1869 and served until his death (1869–1871) U.S. Representative from Indiana; general in the Union Army during the American Civil War|||
|Willson, Lester S.Lester S. Willson||1839–1919||Lived in and buried in Bozeman||U.S. Civil War officer in the Union Army; Assistant Quartermaster General of New York; Montana merchant and politician in Bozeman, Montana|||
Montana became a territory on May 26, 1864. The territorial government was first formed at the first territorial capital Bannack. Later the territorial capital was moved to Virginia City (1865), and Helena (1875). On November 8, 1889, Montana became a state and Helena remained the capital. During the territorial period, most senior government positions were appointed by the U.S. President. Once Montana became a state, elections were held for state and federal offices. The U.S. President still appointed judges to the federal courts in Montana. Prominent Montana politicians include the longest serving Senate Majority Leader, Senator Mike Mansfield and first woman Congresswoman, Jeannette Rankin.
|Battin, James FranklinJames Franklin Battin||1925–1996||Raised, attended college, and died in Billings||United States Representative from Montana (1961–1969); judge for United States District Court for the District of Montana (1969–1990, chief judge from 1978)|||
|Browning, James R.James R. Browning||1918–present||Born in Great Falls; raised in Belt; attended college in Bozeman and law school in Missoula||Judge on United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit|||
|Gray, Karla M.Karla M. Gray||1947–present||Lived in Butte and Helena||Second female justice and first female chief justice of the Montana Supreme Court (1991–2008, chief justice 2000–2008)|||
|Thomas, Sidney RunyanSidney Runyan Thomas||1953–present||Born, raised and attended college in Bozeman; attended law school in Missoula||Judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit; professor|||
Political leaders and activists
|Cobell, Elouise P.Elouise P. Cobell||1946–present||Born and lives on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation||Accountant; banker; rancher; lead plaintiff in Cobell v. Salazar, a successful $3.4 billion class action settlement on behalf of Native Americans against the federal government|||
|Coups, PlentyPlenty Coups||1848–1932||Born in Montana, possibly near Billings; lived in south-central Montana most of his life; spent later years near Pryor||Chief of the Mountain Crows, or Apsáalooke, band of the Crow Nation|||
|Haskell, Ella J. KnowlesElla J. Knowles Haskell||1860–1911||Moved to Montana from New Hampshire after finishing college; lived and worked in Helena, Butte, and then Glendive||Pioneer of women's rights in Montana; teacher; first woman to practice law in Montana and the first woman ever to plead a case before the U.S. Circuit Court; first woman to run for state Attorney General|||
|Horse-Capture, GeorgeGeorge Horse-Capture||1937–present||Graduated from high school in Butte; taught college in Great Falls||Anthropologist; writer; political activist; participated in the Native American occupation of Alcatraz Island|||
|Joseph, ChiefChief Joseph||1840–1904||Led his people through much of western Montana during the Nez Perce War, eventually surrendering in the Bear Paw Mountains, close to the Canadian border||Chief of the Wallowa band of the Nez Perce; humanitarian; peacemaker|||
|Juneau, DeniseDenise Juneau||1967–present||Lived in Billings, Browning, Bozeman, Missoula, and Helena||Teacher; Montana State Superintendent of Public Instruction; head of Montana Office of Public Instruction; first American Indian woman to be elected to statewide executive office in Montana; member of Mandan and Hidatsa tribes|||
|Kemmis, DanielDaniel Kemmis||1946–present||Born and raised in eastern Montana; attended law school in Missoula||Author; lawyer; speaker and minority leader of the Montana House of Representatives (1983–1985); mayor of Missoula (1990–1996)|||
|Leforge, ThomasThomas Leforge||1850–1931||Moved to Virginia City as a teen||Montana militiaman; scout; camp follower; often lived with the Crow Nation; author of historical account Memoirs of a White Crow Indian|||
|Mansfield, MikeMike Mansfield||1903–2001||Moved to Great Falls as at a very young age; attended college in Butte and Missoula||Served in the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps; miner; professor; Senator (1953–1977); longest serving Senate Majority Leader (1961–1977); ambassador to Japan (1977–1988)|||
|Old Person, EarlEarl Old Person||1929–present||Born and lives on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation||Chief of the Blackfoot Confederacy|||
|Racicot, MarcMarc Racicot||1948–present||Born in Thompson Falls; raised in Miles City and Libby||Governor of Montana (1993–2001); chairman of the Republican National Committee (2002–2003); lawyer|||
|Rankin, JeannetteJeannette Rankin||1880–1973||Born near and attended college in Missoula||First female member of the United States Congress (1917–1919, 1941–1943); only member of Congress to vote against United States entry into World War II; sister of Wellington D. Rankin|||
|Rankin, Wellington D.Wellington D. Rankin||1884–1966||Born near and attended college in Missoula||Attorney; Montana Attorney General (1920–26); landowner; brother of Jeannette Rankin|||
|Roth, Jr., William V.William V. Roth, Jr.||1921–2003||Born in Great Falls; raised in Helena||US Senator from Delaware (1971–2001); namesake of Roth IRA|||
|Thorkelson, JacobJacob Thorkelson||1876–1945||Moved to Montana as an adult in 1913; lived in Dillon||Navigator, medical doctor, reserve naval officer, United States Representative from Montana (1939–1941)|||
|Venne, CarlCarl Venne||1946–2009||Born in Helena; raised and lived on the Crow Indian Reservation||Chairman of the Crow Nation (2002–2009)|||
|Wheeler, Burton K.Burton K. Wheeler||1876–1945||Settled in Butte after losing his belongings in a poker game during a train stop in Butte while on the way to Seattle, Washington||Lawyer and United States Senator from Montana (1923–1947)|||
|Yellowtail, BillBill Yellowtail||1948–present||Born in Wyola; lived in Helena and Bozeman||Administrator; member of Montana Senate (1985–1993); member of the Crow Nation|||
|Yellowtail, RobertRobert Yellowtail||1889?–1988||Born and raised in Lodge Grass||Lawyer; Indian leader; member of the Crow Nation|||
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" is an essential element of human biology and psychology. Recreational activities are often done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be "fun". Since the late 1800s, Montana has been a mecca for fly fishing, hunting, hiking, climbing and other recreations. The following individuals are prominent in the recreational history of Montana.
|Anker, ConradConrad Anker||1962–present||Lives in Bozeman||Rock climber, mountaineer, and author famous for his challenging ascents in the high Himalaya and Antarctica.|||
|Bailey, DanDan Bailey||1904–1982||Lived in Livingston||fly-shop owner; innovative fly developer; staunch Western conservationist|||
|Grant, George F.George F. Grant||1906–2008||Born and lived in Butte||Angler; innovative fly developer; author; conservationist; active for many years on the Big Hole River|||
|Lowe, AlexAlex Lowe||1958–1999||Lived in Bozeman||Mountain climber; American Alpine Club's Underhill Award (1995); The North Face climbing team; mountain peak near Bozeman named in his honor|||
|Marshall, BobBob Marshall||1901–1939||Worked near Missoula; Bob Marshall Wilderness in Montana named in his honor||Forester; wilderness advocate; co-founder of The Wilderness Society|||
|Wynn, Frank B.Frank B. Wynn||?–1922||Died in Glacier National Park; spent considerable time climbing in Montana||Psychologist; environmental conservationist and alpinist; credited with many first ascents in Glacier National Park|||
|Acton, LorenLoren Acton||1936–present||Born in Lewistown; attended college in Bozeman||Physicist and astronaut who flew on Space Shuttle mission STS-51-F as a payload specialist; unsuccessful candidate for the Montana legislature in 2006; physics professor at Montana State University|||
|Burgdorfer, WillyWilly Burgdorfer||192?–present||Lived in Hamilton||Medical entomologist; discovered the bacterial pathogen that causes Lyme disease, a spirochete which was named Borrelia burgdorferi in his honor; worked for many years at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML) in Hamilton, a U.S. National Institutes of Health research facility|||
|Despain, Don G.Don G. Despain||1940–present||Lives in Bozeman||Botanist; plant ecologist; fire behavior specialist; specializes in the flora of Yellowstone National Park|||
|Grinnell, George BirdGeorge Bird Grinnell||1849–1938||Signficant contributions to the preservation of Glacier National Park and bison in Montana; Grinnell Glacier named in his honor||Anthropologist; historian; naturalist; writer; associate of James Willard Schultz|||
|Hayden, ToreyTorey Hayden||1951–present||Born in Livingston; attended high school in Billings||Child psychologist; non-fiction author; special education teacher|||
|Hilleman, MauriceMaurice Hilleman||1919–2005||Born and raised near Miles City; attended college in Bozeman||Microbiologist who developed over three dozen vacciness; credited with saving more lives than any other scientist of the 20th century; Robert Gallo described him as "the most successful vaccinologist in history"|||
|Hogan, LesterLester Hogan||1920–2008||Born and raised in Great Falls; attended college in Bozeman||Physicist and a pioneer in microwave and semiconductor technology|||
|Holter, Norman Jefferis "Jeff"Norman Jefferis "Jeff" Holter||1914–1983||Born attended college, and died in Helena||Biophysicist; invented the Holter monitor; awarded the Laufman-Greatbatch Prize for his contributions to medical technology by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation in 1979|||
|Hood, LeroyLeroy Hood||1938–present||Born in Missoula||Biologist; physician; biochemist; Lemelson–MIT Prize recipient; member of National Inventors Hall of Fame|||
|Horner, JackJack Horner||1946–present||Born in Shelby; attended college in and resides in Bozeman||Paleontologist; discovered and named Maiasaura, providing the first clear evidence that some dinosaurs cared for their young; technical advisor for all of the Jurassic Park films, including being partial inspiration for the characters Dr. Alan Grant|||
|Ricketts, Howard TaylorHoward Taylor Ricketts||1871–1910||Worked in the Bitterroot Valley on Rocky Mountain spotted fever||Bacteriologist; pathogen causing Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Rickettsia rickettsii was named after him|||
|Urey, HaroldHarold Urey||1893–1981||Studied zoology in Missoula||Won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1934|||
|Weissman, IrvingIrving Weissman||1939–present||Born and studied science in Great Falls||Professor at Stanford University; director of the Stanford Institute of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine|||
|Breuning, WalterWalter Breuning||1896–2011||Moved to Montana at age 18; lived and died in Great Falls||Supercentenarian; lived to age 114; at one time the world's oldest living man|||
|Jacobs, Alma SmithAlma Smith Jacobs||1916–1997||Born in Lewistown; grew up in Great Falls; lived in Helena; died in Bozeman||Librarian; head of Great Falls Public Library (1954–1973); first African American Montana State Librarian (1973–1981)|||
|Mortenson, GregGreg Mortenson||1957–present||Lives in Bozeman||Mountain climber; philanthropist|||
|Seed, HuckHuck Seed||1969–present||Grew up in Corvallis||Professional poker player|||
|Wicklund, SusanSusan Wicklund||1954–present||Lives in Livingston||Physician; operated women's clinics in Bozeman and Livingston|||
|Boyle, W. A.W. A. Boyle||1904–1985||Born and raised in Bald Butte, Montana; later lived in other parts of Montana||President of United Mine Workers of America union (1963–1972); later convicted in a murder case that also involved embezzlement|||
|Boyle, Kyle AaronKyle Aaron Boyle||1977–2006||Born and raised in Whitefish||Mass murderer responsible for Seattle's Capitol Hill massacre|||
|Kaczynski, TedTed Kaczynski||1942–present||Lived near Lincoln at the time of his capture||Domestic American terrorist known as the Unabomber|||
|Logan, Harvey "Kid Curry"Harvey "Kid Curry" Logan||1867–1904||Spent several years in various parts of Montana, especially in what is now Chouteau County and Phillips County||Outlaw; circumstances of death disputed|||
|Plummer, HenryHenry Plummer||1832–1864||lived in Bannack, then part of Idaho Territory||Sheriff/outlaw of Bannack; hanged by vigilantes|||
|Weston, Russell EugeneRussell Eugene Weston||1956–present||Lived in Rimini most of his adult life prior to his arrest||Committed to a mental institution after the 1998 United States Capitol shootings|||
|Beauregarde, VioletViolet Beauregarde||Not stated||Born and raised in Miles City per the 1971 film but in other adaptations is stated as being from two different cities in Georgia||Fictional character in the Roald Dahl children's books Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator, and the former's Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory (1971) and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (2005) film adaptations|||
|Hill, PeggyPeggy Hill||1965–present||Born on a cattle ranch in Montana||Fictional character in the animated series King of the Hill|||
|Monroe, LindsayLindsay Monroe||Not stated||Born and raised in Bozeman||Fictional character from the CBS crime drama CSI: NY|||
|Willows, CatherineCatherine Willows||1963–present||CBS biography originally stated she was from Bozeman; later it was changed to Las Vegas, Nevada||Fictional character on the CBS crime drama CSI: Crime Scene Investigation|||
- "Montana Code Annotated 2009 – Title 1, chapter 1, Part 5 "State Symbols – Official Designations"". State of Montana. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- "Montana's Population Projections: 1995–2025". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- "Montana". United States Department of Labor – Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- Thackeray, Lorna (October 17, 2009). "National-park visitors boost Montana's tourism stats". Billings Gazette. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- "Stephen E. Ambrose, PhD". Academy of Achievement. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- "Chief Historians fo (sic) the National Park Service". National Park Service. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- "Judy Blunt – Associate Professor". University of Montana. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
- "Dan Flores". University of Montana. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- Smith, Mark K. "Malcolm Knowles, Informal Adult Education, Self-direction and Andragogy". Encyclopedia of Informal Education. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
- Fraser, C. Gerald (August 3, 1990). "Norman Maclean, 87, a Professor Who Wrote About Fly-Fishing". New York Times. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Norman F. Maclean". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Janine Pease". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Rydell, Robert (1992). In The People's Interest: A Centennial History of Montana State University. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. pp. 59–71. ISBN 978-0-9635114-0-9.
- "Lester Thurow". MIT Sloan School of Management. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- "Not here, surely?". Economist. December 8, 2005. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: K. Ross Toole". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- Lundquist, Suzanne Evertsen (2004). Native American Literatures: an introduction. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 80. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/0-8246-1599-7|0-8246-1599-7 [[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]] Check
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: James Welch". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Bowie, Chas (June 24, 2010). "Installation view of Brad Adkins' show at PDX Contemporary Art". Oregonian. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- "Anne Appleby – Paintings". Greg Kucera Studios. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- "Rudy Autio". Montana Artists. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- "John Buck and Deborah Butterfield" (PDF). Montana Arts Council. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- "Butterfield's horses ride into MAC opening". East Valley Tribune. September 14, 2005. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- Wilkinson, Todd (July 25, 2006). "The Renaissance of Russell Chatham". New West. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- Wilkinson, Todd. "To Find Russell Chatham, Look Homeward". Wildlife Art Journal. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Fanny Cory Cooney". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- Peterson, Eric (2010). Frommer's Montana & Wyoming. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-470-59150-5.
- Downey, Mark (October 29, 2000). "Decades of Dolack". Great Falls Tribune.
- "Deaths Elsewhere – Malcolm Hancock". Baltimore Sun. February 19, 1993. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- Harvey, Robert C. (1998). Children of the Yellow Kid: The Evolution of the American Comic Strip. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-295-97778-7.
- "Will James: Nevada Writers Hall of Fame 1991". Nevada Writers Hall of Fame. University of Nevada, Reno. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- "Guide to the Frank Bird Linderman Memorial Collection 1885–2005". Northwestern Digital Archives – University of Montana. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Frank Linderman". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- Reese (July 30, 2010). "Stan Lynde: Montana's Cartoon Character". Montana Living. Retrieved July 25, 2011. Unknown parameter
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Stan Lynde". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Paxson, Edgar William (1984). E.S Paxson, Frontier Artist. Boulder, CO: Pruett Publishing Company. pp. 1–126. ISBN 978-0-87108-663-1.
- Mentzer, Elizabeth (Autumn 2003). "Made in Montana Montana's Post Office Murals" (PDF). Montana The Magazine of Western History (Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society) 53 (3): 44–53. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- "Kevin Red Star". Autry National Center. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: F. Winold Reiss". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 25, 2011.
- Taliaferro, John (2003). Charles M. Russell: The Life and Legend of America's Cowboy Artist. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 1–10. ISBN 978-0-8061-3495-6. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Charles Marion Russell". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Lambert, Kirby. "Seeing Bob Scriver's Artwork: An Intermountain Tour". Montana Traveler. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Robert Macfie Scriver". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- "Peter Voulkos (1924–2002)". Dartmouth University. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- Lucey, Donna M. (2000). Photographing Montana, 1894–1928: The Life and Work of Evelyn Cameron. Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press. ISBN 0-87842-425-3.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Evelyn Cameron". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- Tilden, Freeman (1964). Following the Frontier with F. Jay Haynes-Pioneer Photographer of the Old West. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
- Selmeier, Lewis W. (July 1972). "William Henry Jackson-First Camera on the Yellowstone". Montana Magazine of Western History (Helena, MT: Historical Society of Montana) XXII (3): 42–53.
- Sullivan, Patricia (October 31, 2009). "Obituary-Robert C. Lautman, 85; architectural photographer". Washington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- "The Schlechten Collection". Museum of the Rockies. Montana State University. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- Smith, Phyllis (2002). Bozeman and the Gallatin Valley: A History. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot Press. p. 253. ISBN 1-56044-540-8.
- "Phil Jackson (player)". Basketball-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
- "Phil Jackson (coach)". Basketball-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
- McMenamin, Dave. "Phil Jackson still plans to retire". ESPN. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
- Benson, Daniel (September 21, 2011). "Lefevere confirms that Leipheimer will ride for Omega Pharma-Quickstep". Cycling News (Future Publishing Limited). Retrieved January 4, 2012.
- "Omega Pharma Pro Cycling Team".
- "Three Riding Linderman Brothers Keep Name at Top of Rodeo Game". Ellensburg Daily Record. September 4, 1948. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- "Bill Linderman". ProRodeo Hall of Fame. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- "Sport: Champion Cowboy". Time. March 8, 1954. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- "Dave McNally". Baseball-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Dave McNally". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 24, 2011.
- Masia, Seth (February 1993). "Over the Edge". Boys' Life: 26–29. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
- "Scott Schmidt". Ski Channel. Retrieved August 22, 2011.
- "Lones Wigger, Sr. Passed Away". Montana Rifle and Pistol Association. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Lones Wigger Jr.". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 24, 2011.
- "Dorothy Dodds Baker". New York Review Books. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
- "A Guide to the Rick Bass Papers, 1982–1994". Southwest Writer's Collection. University of Texas. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: B. M. Bower". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- Barber, John F. (2007). Richard Brautigan: Essays on the Writings and Life. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. pp. 25, 99, 225, 253. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/0978786425259|0978786425259 [[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]] Check
- "100 Countries and Counting". San Francisco State University. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
- "Collection 34 – Grace Stone Coates Papers, 1933–1960". Montana State University Library. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
- Foote, Timothy (January 28, 1974). "A Swimmer's Tale (review of I Heard the Owl Call My Name)". TIME. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
- "Ivan Doig, Montana's Novelist". Montana State University Library. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
- "Barbara Ehrenreich". New York Times. July 1, 2004. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
- "A. B. Guthrie Jr., 90; Pulitzer Winner Wrote of Old West". The Los Angeles Times. April 27, 1991. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: A. B. Guthrie Jr.". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Alter, Alexandra (July 10, 2009). "Indoors With a Poet of the Outdoors". Wallstreet Journal Online. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
- York, Mark A. "Author Details Livingston's Literary Legacy". The Bloomsbury of the Rockies. Travel. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
- Richard B. Roeder (March 1980). "Joseph Kinsey Howard and his Vision of the West". Montana: The Magazine of Western History (Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society Press) 30 (1): 2–11.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Joseph Kinsey Howard". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 253, 2011.
- "Richard Hugo". Poets.org. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
- "Guide to the Dorothy M. Johnson Papers 1844–1984" (PDF). Northwest Digital Archives – University of Montana. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Dorothy Johnson". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- "Columbia Gorge Writers Conference: Faculty". Mountain Writers Series. Mountain Writers. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
- Parker, Dorothy R. (1992). Singing an Indian Song: A Biography of D’Arcy McNickle. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 22–27, 68. ISBN 978-0-8032-8730-3.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: D'Arcy McNickle". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- Dalle-Molle, Kathy (May 1997). "Hanging Out in the `Nabe' with Writer Cyra McFadden". Noe Valley Voice. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
- Hemingway, Valerie (Spring 2006). "Tom McGuane: Master of Fiction, Fishing and Horses". Distinctly Montana. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
- Meloy, Maile (December 22, 2003). "Hot or Cold". New Yorker. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
- Sittenfeld, Curtis (July 8, 2009). "Irrational Behavior". New York Times. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
- Nelson, Andrew N.; John H. Haig (1997). The New Nelson Japanese-English Character Dictionary. Boston: Tuttle Publishing. p. 7601. ISBN 0-8048-2036-8.
- Long, Karen (August 25, 2008). "Ten Minutes With . . . David Quammen, author of 'The Reluctant Mr. Darwin'". Plain Dealer. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
- Brown, Matthew (September 22, 2008). "Christopher Paolini: Family, Montana landscape shape author". Seattle Times via Associated Press. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
- Hanna, Warren L. (1988). "James Willard Schultz-The Pikuni Storyteller". Stars over Montana-Men Who Made Glacier National Park History. West Glacier, MT: Glacier Natural History Association. pp. 95–111. ISBN 091679064 Check
- Evelyn Boswell (October 5, 2006). "New Stegner Professor to Hit the Ground Running". Montana State University News Service. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- Pickett, Mary (May 2, 2010). "Newspaper Active in Many Community Causes". Billings Gazette. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
- "Entry-Frederick Brinkman" (PDF). American Architects Directory (American Institute of Architects) B: 63. 1956. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
- Quinn, Ruth. (2004). Weaver of Dreams: The Life and Architecture of Robert C. Reamer. Gardiner, Montana:: Leslie & Ruth Quinn. ISBN 0-9760945-1-7.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13.
- "Collection 2143 – Fred F. Willson Papers, 1889–1956". Merrill G. Burlingame Special Collections Library, Montana State University. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
- Person, Daniel (April 25, 2011). "More Sheep Dogs Than Most Men Had Sheep". Bozeman Daily Chronicle. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Charles and Alberta Bair". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- "The History Behind the Theater". Alberta Bair Theater. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- "Geyser Bob's Yellowstone Historical Service=Biographies-C". Robert V. Goss. 2009. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
- Tribune staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Ted Turner". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- "Jim Rogers". National Eagle Scout Association. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: John Dennis Ryan". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- "Dennis Washington". Forbes (online). Retrieved July 31, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Dennis Washington". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Haines, Aubrey L. (1996). Yellowstone Place Names-Mirrors of History. Niwot, Colorado: University of Colorado Press. p. 148. ISBN 0-87081-383-8.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Bishop John Patrick Carroll". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- Grimes, William (October 16, 2009). "Elizabeth Prophet, 70, Church Founder, Is Dead". New York Times. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Elizabeth Clare Prophet". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- "Bishop Alexander King Sample". Catholic-hierarchy.org. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
- Tuttle, Daniel Sylvester (1906). "VI-Montana". Reminiscences of a missionary bishop. New York: Thomas Whittaker. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
- "Jeff Ament". Montana Kids. Montana Office of Tourism. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Jeff Ament". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- "Gary Cooper Profile". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved August 6, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Gary Cooper". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- "David Lynch". Montana Kids. Montana Office of Tourism. Retrieved August 6, 2011.
- "Jean Parker - The Private Life and Times of Jean Parker.". Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- Van Neste, Dan. ""Bonny Jean": Remembering Jean Parker (1915–2005)". Classic Images (Muscatine, IA). Retrieved August 7, 2011.
- "Martha Raye". Montana Kids. Montana Office of Tourism. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
- Tribune staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Martha Raye Ament". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Burns, Lynette Sheridan (2002). Understanding Journalism. London: Sage Publications. pp. 16–17. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/0-7169-7025-8|0-7169-7025-8 [[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]] Check
- Oyan, Katie (December 19, 1999). "Chester R. 'Chet' Huntley". Great Falls Tribune.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Chester R. "Chet" Huntley". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- "Not Just A Pretty Face". Sports Illustrated (Turner Sports & Entertainment Digital Network). January 16, 1984. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
- "Brent Musburger (1939 – )". Montana Broadcasters Association. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- Howard, Joseph Kinsey (1983). Montana-High, Wide and Handsome. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 202–203. ISBN 0-8032-7339-8.
- Malone, Michael P.; Roeder, Richard B; Lang, William L. (1976). A History of Two Centuries. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. pp. 308–309. ISBN 0-295-97129-0.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Medal of Honor Winners (1st page)". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- "Medal of Honor Recipients World War II (G-L)". US Army Center of Military History. June 27, 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- "Medal of Honor Recipients Indian War Campaigns". US Army Center of Military History. December 3, 2010. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- "Medal of Honor Recipients Philippine Insurrection". US Army Center of Military History. June 27, 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- "Medal of Honor Recipients World War II (M-S)". US Army Center of Military History. June 27, 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Medal of Honor Winners (2nd page)". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Thrapp, Dan L. (1991). Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography: P-Z III. Norman, OK: University of Nebraska Press. p. 1324. ISBN 0-8032-9420-4.
- Utley, Robert M. (1993). The Lance and the Shield: The Life and Times of Sitting Bull. New York: Henry Holt and Company. pp. 66–82, 263–264.
- Bonney, Orrin H.; Bonney, Lorraine (1970). Battle Drums and Geysers-The Life And Journals of Lt. Gustavus Cheyney Doane, Soldier And Explorer of the Yellowstone And Snake River Regions. Chicago: Swallow Press. pp. 3–158.
- "Looking Glass". PBS. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- Perrottet, Tony (April 2005). "Little Bighorn Reborn". Smithsonian Magazine (Washington DC): 2.
- "Raynolds Expedition 1859–60 and Bighorn Canyon". National Park Service. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- Connell, Evan S. (1984). Son of the Morning Star. San Francisco, California: North Point Press. pp. 47–48. ISBN 0-86547-160-6.
- "Chief Joseph Biography". Oregon Historical Society. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- Killsback, Leo (April 2005). "The Legacy of Little Wolf: Rewriting and Rerighting Our Leaders Back into History". Wicazo Sa Review (University of Minnesota Press) 26 (1): 85–111.
- Lee H. Whittlesey and Paul Schullery (Summer 2003). "Celebrating the Roosevelt Arch-A Centennial History of an American Icon". Yellowstone Science (Yellowstone Association for Natural Science, History & Education) 11 (3). Retrieved August 13, 2011.
- "General Thomas Patrick Gerrity". United States Air Force. Archived from the original on 2012-12-12. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
- "Admiral Jay L. Johnson". United States Navy. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- "Major General Nels Running". United States Air Force. Archived from the original on 2012-12-12. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "The Imperturbable Admiral". TIME. August 14, 1964. Retrieved August 9, 2011.
- "David J. Thatcher, 19019573, Staff Sergeant Engineer-Gunner Crew 7". Doolittle Raider. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- Hebard, Grace Raymond; Brininstool, E.A. (1922). The Bozeman Trail-Historical Accounts of the Blazing of the Overland Routes into the Northwest, and the Fights with Red Cloud's Warriors – Volume II. Cleveland, OH: Arthur H. Clark Company.
- "Copper King William A. Clark". Copper King Mansion. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: The Copper Kings". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- "Marcus Daly". Daly Mansion. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
- Killoren, John J. (2003). Come, Blackrobe: De Smet and the Indian Tragedy. St. Louis, MO: The Institute of Jesuit Sources. ISBN 1-880810-50-6.
- Thorne, Tracy (January 9, 2010). "Butte Events Offer Many historical gems". Montana Standard. Retrieved 2011-08-11.
- "National Parks: America's Best Idea". Public Broadcasting System. 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
- "Yellowstone National Park: Its Exploration and Establishment Biographical Appendix". National Park Service. July 4, 2000. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
- Fettig, David (August 1989). "F. Augustus Heinze of Montana and the Panic of 1907". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
- Griske, Michael (2005). The Diaries of John Hunton. Westminster, MD: Heritage Books. pp. 83, 88. ISBN 0-7884-3804-2.
- "Crow Killer". Indiana University Press. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- "Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site". National Park Service. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
- Wheeler, Olin D. (1915). Nathaniel Pitt Langford, The Vigilante, the Explorer, the Expounder and First Superintendent of Yellowstone Park (PDF) 15. Minnesota Historical Society. pp. 630–668.
- Schontzler, Gail (January 23, 2011). "Nelson Story – Hero, Scoundrel Legend". Bozeman Daily Chronicle. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
- Langford, Nathaniel Pitt (1905). The Discovery of Yellowstone Park; Diary of the Washburn Expedition to the Yellowstone and Firehole Rivers in the Year 1870. St. Paul, MN: Frank Jay Haynes. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
- Scott, Kim Allen (Spring 1999). "Montana Episodes-The Willson Brothers Come To Montana". Montana, The Magazine of Western History 49 (1): 58–70.
- William H. Powell, Lt Col, U.S. Army, ed. (1893). Officers of the Army and Navy (Volunteer) Who Served in the Civil War. Philadelphia, PA: L.R. Hamersly and Co. p. 50.
- "Collection 1407 – Lester S. Willson Family Papers, 1861–1922". Montana State University Libraries. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: James Battin". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- "Battin, James". Biographical Directory of Federal Judges. Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- "Browning, James Robert". Biographical Directory of Federal Judges. Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Karla Gray". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- McKee, Jennifer (December 31, 2008). "First Female Chief Justice of Montana Supreme Court Retires". Montana Standard. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Thackeray, Lorna (December 23, 2010). "U.S. District Judge Molloy to Step Aside". Helena Independent Record. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Thackeray, Lorna (April 16, 2010). "Thomas’ Colleagues Hail Judge's Credentials". Billings Gazette. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Elouise Cobell". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Coleman, Travis (July 8, 2011). "Cobell Settlement Notifications Begin; Hundred of Thousands Expected to Benefit". RezNet News. University of Montana School of Journalism. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Coups, Plenty; Frank Linderman (1930, 2002). Plenty-Coups, Chief of the Crows. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 19–37. ISBN 0-8032-8018-1.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Chief Plenty Coups". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- "Ella Louise Knowles Haskell (1860–1911)". Seacoast NH. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: George Horse Capture Sr.". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Leckie, Robert (1998). The Wars of America. Castle Books. p. 537. ISBN 0-7858-0914-7.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Denise Juneau". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- "Daniel Kemmis". Utne Reader (online). January–February 1995. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
- "Mitch Boyer". Custer Lives. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "Mike Mansfield Quiet Leadership in Troubled Times". United States Senate. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Mike Mansfield". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Earl Old Person". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Lewis, Charles (December 20, 2001). "The GOP's New Lobbyist in Chief". Washington Post. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Marc Racicot". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- "Women in Congress". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Jeannette Rankin". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Wellington Rankin". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- "Guide to the Wellington D. Rankin papers 1904–1969". Northwest Digital Archives. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- "Roth, William Victor, Jr., (1921–2003)". United States Congress. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "Thorkelson, Jacob, (1876–1945)". United States Congress. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- "Carl E. Venne". Big Horn County News. February 2009. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- "Crow Tribal Chairman Carl Venne Dies at Age 62". USA Today. February 16, 2009. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- "Wheeler, Burton Kendall, (1882–1975)". United States Congress. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Burton K. Wheeler". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Schmidt, Carol (October 10, 2006). "Yellowtail tabbed as MSU endowed chair in Native American Studies". Montana State University. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- "Robert Yellowtail". Little Big Horn College. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- "Montana State Legislature". Retrieved 2011-08-16.
- Thomas S. Yukic. Fundamentals of Recreation, 2nd edition. Harpers & Row, 1970, Library of Congress 70-88646. p. 1f.
- Bruce C. Daniels (1995). Puritans at Play. Leisure and Recreation in Colonial New England. St. Martin's Press, New York. p. xi. ISBN 0-312-12500-3.
- "Conrad Anker: Sustainability a Driving Force in Today's Business World". Bozeman Daily Chronicle. March 14, 2011. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- Berryman, Jack W. (2006). "Dan Bailey (1904–1982)". Fly-Fishing Pioneers and Legends of the Northwest. Seattle, WA: Northwest Fly Fishing LLC. pp. 101–107. ISBN 978-0-9779454-0-5.
- Bitton, Dennis. "George F. Grant". Outdoors Network. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
- ""Alex Lowe Peak": A Mountain Honoring Mountaineer". Everest News. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
- Tribune staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Bob Marshall". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Nash, Roderick (1987). Wilderness and the American Mind. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 204–205. ISBN 978-0-300-02910-9.
- Edwards, J. Gordon (1995). Climber's Guide to Glacier National Park. Helena, MT: Glacier Natural History Association-Falcon Press. pp. 178–79. ISBN 0-87842-177-7.
- "Loren W. Acton (PhD) Payload Specialist". NASA. August 1985. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- Turkington, Carol; Bonnie Ashby (2007). The Encyclopedia of Infectious Diseases. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-8160-6397-0.
- "USGS Biography, Don G. Despain". Retrieved August 8, 2011. Unknown parameter
- Hanna, Warren L. (1988). "James Willard Schultz-The Pikuni Storyteller". Stars over Montana-Men Who Made Glacier National Park History. West Glacier, MT: Glacier Natural History Association. ISBN 091679064 Check
- "Hall of Fame 2007 Torey Hayden Author". National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- Maugh, Thomas H. II (April 13, 2005). "Maurice R. Hilleman, 85; Scientist Developed Many Vaccines That Saved Millions of Lives". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Sullivan, P (April 13, 2005). "Maurice R. Hilleman dies; created vaccines". Washington Post. Retrieved November 13, 2009.
- Johnson, LA (April 13, 2005). "Maurice Hilleman, at 85; was pioneer in vaccine research". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. Retrieved November 13, 2009.
- Martin, Douglas (August 15, 2008). "C. Lester Hogan, Physicist Who Fought Motorola, Dies at 88". New York Times. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- Gawłowska, Joanna; Jerzy Krzysztof Wranicz (2009). "Norman J. "Jeff" Holter (1914–1983)" (PDF). Cardiology Journal 16 (4): 1–2. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- "Leroy Hood". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- Wilfor, John Noble (April 12, 2007). "Scientists Retrieve Proteins From Dinosaur Bone". New York Times. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Jack Horner". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Enersen, Ole Daniel (2011). "Who Named It? A dictionary of medical eponyms". University of Chicago. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- "3 Nobel Winners for Town". New York Times. November 4, 1960. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Jeff Ament". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- "Faculty & Researcher Profiles – Irving Weissman". Stanford University Medical Center. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Walter Breuning". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Tribune Staff (April 15, 2011). "Rest in Peace, Walter Breuning, World's Oldest Living Man". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Alma Jacobs". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- "Jacobs, Alma S. (1916–1997)". Black Past. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- "Planned lawsuit targets charity, author of 'Three Cups of Tea'". CNN. May 7, 2011. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Greg Mortenson". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Lucchesi, Ryan (March 8, 2009). "Huck Seed Wins the 2009 NBC National Heads-Up Poker Championship". Card Player. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- Schontzler, Gail (March 18, 2008). "Doctor plans to reopen abortion clinic in Bozeman". Bozeman Daily Chronicle. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- Pollitt, Katha (February 4, 2009). "From My Inbox: Pledge-a-Picket for New Clinic in Montana". The Nation. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- "The Yablonski Legacy". Harvard Crimson. March 20, 1976. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Tony Boyle". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- Sullivan, Jennifer; Bernton, Hal (July 17, 2006). "Mass killer Huff stalked rave community, panel reports". Seattle Times. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- Pond, Lauren (October 31, 2005). "NU rejects Unabomber's offer of rare African books". Daily Northwestern. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Ted Kaczynski". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Kid Curry". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 25, 2011.
- Koschmann, A.H.; M.H. Bergendahl (1968). "Principle Gold Producing Districts of the United States, Phillips County Montana Gold Production". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved August 25, 2011.
- "Butch Cassidy and Sundance Kid". Wyoming Tales and Trails. Retrieved August 25, 2011.
- Genge, Will (2009). "The Legend of Henry Plummer-Outlaw Sheriff of Bannack, MT". Montana Historian 1 (1): 52–61.
- "Capitol Shooter's Mind-Set Detailed". Washington Post. April 23, 1999. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- Villano. "In The Saddle". Montana Living. Retrieved August 4, 2011. Unknown parameter
- "Peggy Hill". WVAH Fox 11. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- "A Rover Runs Through It". TV.com. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
- "Lindsay Monroe". Channel 5 Broadcasting. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
- Marrinan, Corinne; Parker, Steve (2006). Ultimate CSI: Crime Scene Investigation. New York City: DK Publishing. p. 34. ISBN 0-7566-2353-7.
- Montana's Tourism's List of Famous Montanans
- Sports Illustrated's 1999 list of The 50 Greatest Montana Sports Figures of the 20th century
- Montana Historical Society's list of famous Montanans
- e-Referencedesk list of famous Montanans
- ThingsToDo list of famous Montanans