List of people legally executed in Australia

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If we envisage modern Australia as having begun with the arrival of the First Fleet, Thomas Barrett was the first person hanged in Australia. His crime was forgery. He turned metal into money. He was 17 years of age. His death was regretted by officials as Thomas's trade was highly regarded as a rare talent, and a useful one. His skills were sought after.

However, it is accepted that Aboriginal societies for millennia had the death penalty as one possible punishment. It could be inflicted directly or through sorcery or incantation.[1]

It is also a fact that some of the mutineers on the Dutch ship Batavia were hanged on Seals Island off what is now the coast of Western Australia, on 2 October 1629.[2] Some also had a hand or both hands cut off prior to their hangings. Those hung were Jeronimus Cornelisz, Lenert Michielsz, Mattys Beer, Jan Hendricx, Allert Jansz, Rutger Fredericxsz, Andries Jonas.[3]

New South Wales[edit]

  • Thomas Barrett - 27 February 1788 - A 17-year-old male. His crime was forgery, converting pewter metal into money, silver dollars. First person hanged in the colony of New South Wales.
  • John Bennett - 2 May 1788 - A 20-year-old convict who was publicly hanged at Sydney Cove for theft.
  • James Baker - 27 March 1789 - One of six Royal Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
  • James Brown - 27 March 1789 - One of six Royal Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
  • Richard Dukes - 27 March 1789 - One of six Royal Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
  • Thomas Jones - 27 March 1789 - One of six Royal Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
  • Luke Haynes - 27 March 1789 - One of six Royal Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
  • Richard Askew - 27 March 1789 - One of six Royal Marines hanged at Sydney Cove for theft of government stores.
  • Ann Davis - 23 November 1789 - A 30-year-old convict was hanged for theft at Sydney Cove she was the first woman hanged in Australia.
  • Francis Morgan - 18 October 1796 - Convict, bashing a man's head executed on Pinchgut, today's Fort Denison and hung in chains (gibbeting)
  • John Albury - 6 July 1799 - Murder of Samuel Clode, executed where the murder took place then hung in chains (gibbeting)
  • Thomas Jones - 6 July 1799 - Soldier and his wife after being executed where the murder took place, she was dissected, he was hung in chains (gibbeting)
  • Simon Taylor - 16 May 1800 - Murdered his wife, hanged at Parramatta
  • Phillip Cunningham - 5 March 1804 - Convict, leader of the Castle Hill Rebellion summary execution by hanging on the steps of the government storehouse at Greenhills (today's Windsor)
  • Charles Hill - 8 March 1804 - Freeman who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion hanged at Parramatta
  • Samuel Hume - 8 March 1804 - Convict, a principle and informant who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion executed at Parramatta, then hung in chains (gibbeting)
  • John Place - 8 March 1804 - Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion hanged at Parramatta
  • William Johnson - 9 March 1804 - Convict, a principle along with Phillip Cunningham participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion executed at Castle Hill, then hung in chains (gibbeting).
  • John Neal - 9 March 1804 - Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion hanged at the Government farm, Castle Hill
  • George Harrington - 9 March 1804 - Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion hanged at the Government farm, Castle Hill
  • John Brannan - 10 March 1804 - Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion hanged at Sydney
  • Timothy Hogan - 10 March 1804 - Convict who participated in the Castle Hill Rebellion hanged at Sydney
  • Styles - 5 July 1815 - for the murder of Thomas Roberts, executed at Sydney.
  • Patrick Sullivan - 18 October 1826 - Publicly hanged on gallows constructed in Bankstown for bushranging.
  • James Moran - 18 October 1826 - Publicly hanged on gallows constructed in Bankstown for bushranging.
  • Black Tommy - 31 December 1827 - Aboriginal person from Bathurst district, for murder, executed in Sydney.
  • John Holmes - 21 August 1829 - for setting fire to a barn belonging to James Bem, executed at Sydney.
  • George Williams - 22 October 1829 - Publicly hanged for the murder and robbery of a Mr Hickey.
  • Entwistle, Dunne, Daley, Driver, Gahan, Gleeson, Kearney, Kenny, Shepherd and Webster (The Ribbon Gang) - 2 November 1830 - Hanged at Bathurst for murder, bush ranging and horse thieving.[4]
  • Lawrence Moore, Thomas Kite, Dennis Kelly, Anthony Connor - 11 July 1831 - hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear, at the farm of Mr Greogy Blaxland at Wollongong.[5]
  • Thomas Woolly and David O'Hara - 11 July 1831 - hanged at Sydney Gaol for burglary and putting in fear at the dwelling-house of Mr Raymond.[6]
  • John Welch - 11 July 1831 - hanged at Sydney Gaol for attempted murder at Norfolk Island.[7]
  • Joseph Crampton - 11 July 1831 - hanged at Sydney Gaol for a highway robbery with violence.[8]
  • Brennan - 6 April 1832 - a soldier of the 39th Regiment, under sentence of a Court-Martial, shot at Dawes Battery, Sydney.
  • Hitchcock, Poole, Riley, Perry, Jones, and Ryan - 12 December 1834 - six assigned servants of Major Mudie, for being concerned in an insurrection at "Castle Forbes" station, executed at Sydney.
  • Kilmartin - 11 May 1834 - for murder, executed at Sydney.
  • John Jenkins - 19 November 1834 - For the murder of Dr Wardell, executed at Sydney.
  • Thomas Tattersdale - 10 November 1834 - For the murder of Dr Wardell, executed at Sydney.
  • William Hawkins - 18 December 1838 - Hanged for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
  • John Johnson - 18 December 1838 - Hanged for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
  • Edward Foley - 18 December 1838 - Hanged for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
  • Jim Oates - 18 December 1838 - Hanged for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
  • James Parry - 18 December 1838 - Hanged for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
  • Charlie Kilmeister - 18 December 1838 - Hanged for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
  • John Russell - 18 December 1838 - Hanged for his part in the Myall Creek Massacre.
  • William Morris - 26 November 1839 - for murder, executed at Sydney.
  • Joseph Scullion - 26 November 1839 - for murder and robbery, executed at Sydney.
  • George Carey - 26 November 1839 - for having stolen property in possession, executed at Sydney.
  • George Gorman - 26 November 1839 - for murder, executed at Sydney.
  • Alexander Telford - 29 November 1839 - for murder and having firearms, etc., executed at Sydney.
  • James Davis - 29 November 1839 - for murder and having firearms, etc., executed at Sydney.
  • Llewellyn Powell - 29 November 1839 - for murder, executed at Sydney.
  • James Lynch - 29 November 1839 - for murder, executed at Sydney.
  • Charles Clipp - 29 November 1839 - for murder, executed at Sydney.
  • Archibald Taylor - 29 November 1839 - for felony, executed at Sydney.
  • John Hunt - 10 March 1840 - for murder, executed at Sydney.
  • Thomas Whitton - 19 March 1840 - for murder and arson, executed at Sydney.
  • William Newman - 8 December 1840 - for murder, executed at Sydney.
  • James Martin - 8 December 1840 - for murder, executed at Sydney.
  • James Mason - 8 December 1840 - for being an accessory to murder, executed at Sydney.
  • Michael Hinnigan - 11 December 1840 - for murder, executed at Sydney.
  • Enoch Bradley - 11 December 1840 - for murder, executed at Sydney.
  • Thomas Legg - 11 December 1840 - for rape, executed at Sydney.
  • Ed Davis, Robert Chitty, James Everett, John Shea, John Marshall, James Bryant and Richard Glanville - 16 March 1841 - part of what were termed the Jew Boy's Gang (Davis being the Jew Boy), who for nearly 12 months had kept the residents of the Hunter River district in terror by numerous daring outrages and murders. They were executed at Sydney.
  • Michael Bradley - 5 April 1841 - for murder, executed at Newcastle.
  • Robert Hudson - 29 October 1841 - Publicly hanged outside Darlinghurst Gaol for murdering a fellow convict. He was executed with George Stroud. Hudson and Stroud were the first men executed at Darlinghurst Gaol.
  • Patrick Curran - 21 October 1841 - a notorious bushranger, for the murder of a convict overseer, executed at Berrima.
  • George Stroud (or Stroode) - 29 October 1841 - Publicly hanged outside Darlinghurst Gaol for murdering his wife. He was executed with Robert Hudson. Stroud and Hudson were the first men executed at Darlinghurst Gaol.
  • Patrick Clearham - 22 April 1842 - executed at Berrima.
  • John Knatchbull - 13 February 1844 - Former Royal Navy captain hanged publicly in front of Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of shopkeeper Ellen Jamieson with a tomahawk in January 1844.
  • William Hayes - 26 April 1851 - Hanged at Maitland Gaol for the murder of Benjamin Cott.
  • Francis Thomas Green - 21 September 1852 - Publicly hanged outside Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of John Jones at Buckley's Creek on 10 March 1852 with a pistol. This was the last public hanging in NSW.
  • Addison Mitchell and Henry Curran - 12 May 1857 - Hanged at Bathurst Gaol, the former for murder and the latter for rape.
  • Thomas Clarke (declared bushranger) and John Clarke - 25 June 1857 - Hanged at Darlinghurst goal - found guilty of wounding Counstable William Walsh with intent to murder. The last bushranger in NSW.
  • Ellen Monks - 8 May 1860 - Hanged at Goulburn Gaol for the hammer murder of her husband Thomas Monks in 1859. She is believed to be the last woman hanged in Goulburn gaol.
  • William Peters - 26 June 1867 - Hanged at Bathurst Gaol for the wounding with intent to kill of a girl, Faith Perkins, at Orange.
  • Henry James O'Farrell - 21 April 1868 - Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the attempted assassination of Prince Alfred Duke of Edinburgh on 12 March 1868 in the Sydney suburb of Clontarf.
  • Albert Barnes and John McEvitt - 26 May 1868 - Hanged at Bathurst Gaol, Barnes for the murder of James Casey at Hassan's Wells, McEvitt for the murder of a boy, Francis Evans, at Clark's Creek.[9]
  • John Conn - 11 June 1872 - Hanged at Bathurst Gaol for the murder of Aveline Littler near Wyndeyer.
  • Thomas Newman - 29 May 1877 - Hanged at Dubbo Gaol (now known as Old Dubbo Gaol) for the murder of a child, Mary Ann McGregor, near Coonabarabran.[10]
  • Albert (an Aboriginal stockman 22 years old) - 26 May 1880 - Hanged at Dubbo Gaol (now known as Old Dubbo Gaol) for shooting murders of Nugle Jack and Sally at an Aboriginal camp at Baradine.[11]
  • Louisa Collins - 22 January 1889 - Executed at Darlinghurst Gaol for the poisoning of her husband.[12] She was the last woman hanged in New South Wales.
  • Lars Peter Hansen - 2 June 1891 - Hanged at Dubbo Gaol (now known as Old Dubbo Gaol) for the murder of Charles Duncker on the Peak Hill road.[13]
  • Harold Dutton Mallalieu - 26 November 1891 - Hanged at Dubbo Gaol (now known as Old Dubbo Gaol) for the murder of Jerome Casey on the Moonagee Road near Nyngan.[14]
  • Edwin Hubert Glasson - 29 November 1893 - Hanged at Bathurst Gaol for the murder of Mr J.W. Phillips and Miss Kavanough at Carcoar. The first prisoner executed at the gaol on its present site (opened 1888).[15]
  • Frederick Paton (aka Frederick Dennis) - 11 December 1894 - Executed at Bathurst Gaol for the murder of John Hall at Fifield on 6 May 1894. He was the second person executed at the prison since it was opened in the 1880s.[16]
  • Charles Hines - 21 May 1897 - Hanged at Maitland Gaol for the rape of his stepdaughter.
  • Thomas Moore - 24 June 1897 - Hanged at Dubbo Gaol (now known as Old Dubbo Gaol) for the murder of Joseph Smith at Brennan's Bend on the Darling River below Bourke, NSW in November, 1896.[17]
  • Wong Min - 13 December 1898 - Hanged at Dubbo Gaol (now known as Old Dubbo Gaol) for the murder of Joe Mong Jong at Warren, NSW on 16 August 1898. Also stabbed Alice Spong during same incident.[18]
  • Jackie Underwood - 14 January 1901 - Hanged at Dubbo Gaol (now known as Old Dubbo Gaol), convicted of the murder of Percival Mawbey at Breelong, NSW, on 20 July 1900. He and Jimmy Governor also killed Helen Josephine Kerz, Mrs Grace Mawbey, Miss Grace Mawbey and Hilda Mawbey in the same incident.[19]
  • Jimmy Governor - 18 January 1901 - Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol, convicted of the murder of Helen Josephine Kerz at Breelong NSW, on 20 July 1900. In the same incident he and Jackie Underwood also killed Mrs. Grace Mawbey, Miss Grace Mawbey, Percival Mawbey and Hilda Mawbey. Jimmy and his brother Joe also killed Alexander McKay near Ulan on 23 July, Elizabeth O'Brien and her baby son at Poggie, near Merriwa, on 24 July, and Keiran Fitzpatrick near Wollar, on 26 July.[20]
  • Joseph Campbell - 20 December 1901 - Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the rape of 9-year-old Violet Oldfield at Queanbeyan, NSW.
  • Thomas Moore - 14 April 1903 - Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the rape and murder of 10-year-old Janet Irene Smith at Leichhardt, NSW.
  • Digby Grand - 7 July 1903 - Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Police Constable Samuel Long at Auburn, NSW.
  • Henry Jones - 7 July 1903 - Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Police Constable Samuel Long at Auburn, NSW.
  • Ah Check - 28 June 1904 - Hanged at Dubbo Gaol (now known as Old Dubbo Gaol) for the murder of William Tregaskis at Peak Hill, NSW.[21] He was the last person executed at Dubbo Gaol.[22]
  • John Raymond Brown - 11 December 1906 - Hanged at Grafton Gaol for the murders of Daniel O'Keefe, Margaret O'Keefe and Patrick Gillick at Ballina, NSW.
  • Peter Sadeek - 11 June 1907 - Hanged at Broken Hill Gaol for the murder of May Cooney at White Cliffs, NSW.
  • Nicholas Baxter - 29 October 1907 - Hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol for the murder of Mary MacNamara at Enmore, NSW.
  • George Toffts - 26 November 1907 - Hanged at Tamworth Gaol for the murder of Eliza Maud Fletcher at Quirindi, NSW.
  • William Frederick Ball - 17 June 1912 - Hanged at Armidale Gaol for the murder of Louisa Ball at Bingara, NSW.
  • Frank Franz - 20 December 1916 - Hanged at Bathurst Gaol for the murder of Police Constable George Joss Duncan at Tottenham, NSW.
  • Roland Nicholas Kennedy - 20 December 1916 - Hanged at Bathurst Gaol for the murder of Police Constable George Joss Duncan at Tottenham, NSW.
  • James Wilson - 31 May 1917 - Hanged at Long Bay Gaol for the murder of George Pappageorgi at Haymarket, NSW.
  • Christian William Benzing - 16 June 1917 - Hanged at Long Bay Gaol for the rape and murder of 11-year-old Dorothy Myra Small at Rockdale, NSW.
  • Edward Williams - 29 April 1924 - Hanged at Long Bay Gaol for the murder of his three children, 5-year-old Rosalie Williams, 3-year-old Mary Williams and 2-year-old Cecillia Williams at Paddington, NSW.
  • William George Gordon Simpson - 10 December 1924 - Hanged at Long Bay Gaol for the murders of Guy Chalmers Clift and Police Constable James Flynn at Appin, NSW.
  • William Cyril Moxley - 17 August 1932 - Hanged at Long Bay Gaol for the murders of Dorothy Ruth Denzel and Frank Barnby Wilkinson at Moorebank, NSW.
  • Edwin John Hickey - 14 May 1936 - Hanged at Long Bay Gaol for the murder of Montague Henwood at Linden, NSW.
  • James Leighton Massey - 15 June 1936 - Hanged at Long Bay Gaol for the murder of Norman Samuel McLaren Stead at Darlinghurst, NSW.
  • Alfred Spicer - 26 May 1938 - Hanged at Long Bay Gaol for the rape and murder of 6-year-old Marcia Hayes at Windsor, NSW.
  • John Trevor Kelly - 24 August 1939 - Hanged at Long Bay Gaol for the murder of Marjorie Constance Sommerlad at Tenterfield, NSW. He was the last person to be judicially executed in the state of New South Wales.[23]

Norfolk Island[edit]

  • Jackey Jackey, John Davis, Samuel Kenyon, Dennis Pendergast, Owen Commuskie, Henry White, William Pearson, James Cairnes, William Pickthorne, Lawrence Kavenagh, William Scrimshaw, and Edward McGinniss - 13 October 1846 - for the murder of John Morris[24] on 1 July in the 'Cooking Pot Uprising'.[25]

Northern Territory[edit]

  • Charles Flannagan - 15 July 1893 - Hanged at Fannie Bay Gaol for the murder of Samuel Croker at Auvergne Station, NT.
  • Wandy Wandy - 25 July 1893 - Hanged on gallows constructed at the scene of the crime at Malay Bay, NT for his part in the murder of six unnamed Malays.
  • Moolooloorun (Aboriginal male, no given surname) - 17 January 1895 - Hanged on gallows constructed at Crescent Lagoon, NT in the presence of other members of his aboriginal community for the murder of an unnamed Chinese man near the Roper River.
  • Chung Yeung - 10 August 1899 - Hanged at Fannie Bay Gaol for the murder of Chee Hang at Yam Creek, NT.
  • Lem Kai - 10 August 1899 - Hanged at Fannie Bay Gaol for the murder of Chee Hang at Yam Creek, NT.
  • Jimmie (Aboriginal male, no given surname) - 8 April 1901 - Hanged on gallows constructed at Shaw's Creek, Victoria River, NT for the murder of John Larsen at Daly River.
  • Tommy (Aboriginal male, no given surname) - 21 December 1905 - Hanged at Fannie Bay Gaol for the murders of Henry Edwards, Richard Frost and Nowra at Victoria River district, NT.
  • Koppio (Aboriginal male, no given surname) - 15 July 1913 - Hanged at Fannie Bay Gaol for the Murders of Ching Loy and Lo Sin at the old Howley Mine, NT.
  • Jaroslav Koci - 8 August 1952 - Hanged at Fannie Bay Gaol for the murder of George Thomas Grantham in Darwin, NT.
  • Jan Novotny - 8 August 1952 - Hanged at Fannie Bay Gaol for the murder of George Thomas Grantham in Darwin, NT.

Queensland[edit]

  • Ernest Austin - last person executed in Queensland - 22 September 1913
  • George David Silva - 10 June 1912
  • Ellen Thompson - The last woman to be hanged in Queensland - 13 June 1887 [26]

South Australia[edit]

Pencil on paper sketch of the execution of Michael Magee. He was the first man executed in South Australia, for shooting Sheriff Smart.Artwork is inscribed, "Sketched on the ground by J. M. Skipper" which suggests the artist witnessed the execution. Artwork is inscribed with pencil on verso, with two figures of women. The costume worn by each figure has been carefully studied Held at the State Library of South Australia, call no. B 7797.
  • Michael Magee - 1838 - The first public hanging in South Australia, for the shooting of Sheriff Smart[27]
  • Joseph Stagg - 1840 - The first public hanging to be conducted at Adelaide Gaol with a crowd of onlookers numbering approximately 700.
  • William Bell - 1854 - The last public hanging at Adelaide Gaol with a crowd of onlookers numbering about 3000.
  • Malachi Martin - convicted of murdering a servant - 24 December 1862
  • Elizabeth Woolcock - the only woman hanged in South Australia - 30 December 1873
  • Robert Johnson - murdered a trooper - 18 November 1881 [28]
  • Thomas Blythe - murdered his wife - 9 January 1930 [29]
  • Harold James Box - 26 April 1944 - hanged at Adelaide Gaol for the murder of Albert Edmund Brown.[30]
  • Raymond John Bailey - convicted of the Sundown Murders - 24 June 1958
  • Glen Sabre Valance - last man to be hanged in South Australia - 24 November 1964
  • Many other executions are listed on the official site of Adelaide Gaol.[31]

Tasmania[edit]

  • Alexander Pearce - Murderer and Cannable. Executed in Hobart 19 July 1824.
  • Frederick Thompson - The last person hanged in Tasmania - 14 February 1946 [32]

Victoria[edit]

William Harrison - 19 March 1889

Western Australia[edit]

Perth[edit]

Fremantle[edit]

The following people were hanged at Fremantle Prison:[35]

  • Long Jimmy - 2 March 1889 - alias Jimmy Long, Malayan national, for murder of Mr Claude Kerr on board a pearling lugger 'Dawn' in Roebuck bay, Broome on 7 Sept 1888
  • Arle Pres - 8 November 1889 - alias Harry Pres, Malayan national, for murder of Louis, a Philippine national, near Halls Creek. WA, on 9 June 1889
  • Ah Chi - 16 April 1891 - alias Li Ki Hong, Chinese national, murdered Ah Gin, Chinese national, at Daliak, York on 3 March 1891.
  • Chew Fang - 29 April 1892 - alias Chew Fong, a Chinese national with two others, murdered Ah Pang, a Chinese national, at Meka Station, on 23 Dec 1891.
  • Lyee Nyee - 29 April 1892 - alias Lee Nyee, a Chinese national, with two others, murdered Ah Pang, a Chinese national, at Meka Station, on 23 Dec 1891.
  • Quong Young - 29 April 1892 - alias Yung Quonk, a Chinese national,with two others, murdered Ah Pang, a Chinese national, at Meka Station, on 23 Dec 1891.
  • Sin Cho Chi - 29 April 1892 - a Chinese national, murdered Mr George E.B Fairhead, at 'Mill Stream Station' Branson creek, Roebourne.
  • Mahomet Goulam - 2 May 1896
  • Khan Jumna - 31 March 1897
  • Pedro De La Cruz - 19 July 1900
  • Peter Perez - 19 July 1900
  • Samuel Peters - 9 September 1902 - murdered his wife, Mrs Trevenna Peters, at Leederville, Perth
  • Stelios Psichitas - 15 April 1903 - Greek national, murdered his sister-in-law and nephew at Lawlers, 20 December 1902.
  • Fredrick Mailliat - 21 April 1903 - French national, murdered Mr Charles Lauffer, at Smiths Mill, Glen Forest, on 4 February 1903.
  • Rocca(Rokka) Sebaro - 7 July 1903
  • Ah Hook - 11 January 1904
  • Mohomet Mianoor - 4 May 1904
  • Lawrence Cook - 2 March 1904
  • Simeon Espada - 14 December 1905
  • Charles Hagen - 14 December 1905
  • Pablo Marquez - 14 December 1905
  • Antonio Sala - 19 November 1906
  • Augustin DeKitchilan - 23 October 1907
  • Harry G. Smith - 23 March 1908
  • Iwakichi Oki - 22 October 1908
  • Martha Rendell -6 October 1909
  • Peter Robustelli - 9 February 1910
  • Alexander Smart - 7 March 1911
  • David H Smithson - 25 July 1911
  • Charles Spargo - 1 July 1913
  • Charles H. Odgers - 14 January 1914
  • Andrea Sacheri - 12 April 1915
  • Frank Rosland - 12 March 1923
  • Roystan Rennie - 2 August 1926
  • William Coulter - 25 October 1926
  • Phillip J. Trefene - 25 October 1926
  • John Sumpter Milner - 21 May 1928
  • Clifford Hulme - 3 September 1928
  • Antonio Fanto - 18 May 1931
  • John T Smith - 13 June 1932
  • Karol Tapci - 23 June 1952
  • Robert J.Thomas - 18 June 1960
  • Mervyn Fallows - 6 June 1961
  • Brian W Robinson - 20 January 1964
  • Eric Edgar Cooke - 26 October 1964

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.alrc.gov.au/publications/21.%20Aboriginal%20Customary%20Laws%20and%20Sentencing/aboriginal-customary-laws-and-notion-%E2%80%98puni
  2. ^ http://museum.wa.gov.au/research/research-areas/maritime-archaeology/batavia-cape-inscription/batavia
  3. ^ http://members.iinet.net.au/~bill/batavia.html
  4. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2003/hc26.htm>
  5. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/32075798
  6. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/32075798
  7. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/32075798
  8. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/32075798
  9. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/36698307?searchTerm=bathurst gaol&searchLimits=l-decade=186
  10. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/70601596
  11. ^ http://www.dailyliberal.com.au/story/2882294/gaol-has-lengthy-history-of-dead-inside-its-walls-photos/
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ http://www.dailyliberal.com.au/story/2882294/gaol-has-lengthy-history-of-dead-inside-its-walls-photos/
  14. ^ http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/aus1900.html
  15. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/158531361?searchTerm=edwin hubert glasson&searchLimits=
  16. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/156322269?searchTerm=frederick paton&searchLimits=
  17. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/35082850
  18. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/14190108
  19. ^ http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/aus1900.html
  20. ^ http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/aus1900.html
  21. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/71511246?searchTerm=hanging ah check&searchLimits=l-state=New+South+Wales
  22. ^ http://www.dailyliberal.com.au/story/2882294/gaol-has-lengthy-history-of-dead-inside-its-walls-photos/
  23. ^ Murderer Hanged
  24. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/37127088?searchTerm=norfolk island executions&searchLimits=#pstart4262262
  25. ^ http://www.convictrecords.com.au/convicts/saxton/thomas/59579
  26. ^ The double execution
  27. ^ "State Library of South Australia Catalogue". State Library of South Australia. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  28. ^ "NLA Australian Newspapers - article display". Ndpbeta.nla.gov.au. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  29. ^ "NLA Australian Newspapers - article display". Newspapers.nla.gov.au. 1930-01-10. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  30. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/48794112?searchTerm=harold james box&searchLimits=
  31. ^ Executions at the Adelaide Gaol at Adelaide Gaol official website
  32. ^ "Executions at Campbell Street Gaol". Penitentiarychapel.com. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  33. ^ "NLA Australian Newspapers - article display". Newspapers.nla.gov.au. 1941-12-23. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  34. ^ Western Australia Report at The Argus, Melbourne, 27 June 1876
  35. ^ Capital Punishment
  • Purdue, Brian Legal Executions in Western Australia, Foundation Press, Victoria Park, WA, 1993. ISBN 978-1-875778-00-3
  • J H Heaton, Australian Dictionary of Dates and Men of the Time (George Robertson, Sydney, 1879) Part 2, pages 90–94.