List of people reported to have lived beyond 130
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This is a list of people who have been reported to have lived beyond 130 years. The oldest person whose age was verified by modern standards was Jeanne Calment, who lived to 122. The cases in this list include both semi-legendary personages and people whose existence is not doubted.
- 1 Ancient Sumer
- 2 Hebrew Bible
- 3 Persian empire
- 4 China
- 5 Japan
- 6 Vietnam
- 7 Roman empire
- 8 Christianity
- 9 Islam
- 10 Hinduism
- 11 Falun Gong
- 12 Argentina
- 13 Great Britain
- 14 Hungary
- 15 Pakistan
- 16 Russia (Soviet Union)
- 17 South Africa
- 18 Sweden
- 19 Switzerland
- 20 Turkey
- 21 United States of America
- 22 Uzbekistan
- 23 Yemen
- 24 References
- 25 Further reading
In the only ten-king tablet recension of this list two kings (Alalngar, [...]kidunnu, and En-men-dur-ana) are recorded as having reigned 72,000 years in total. The major recension assigns 43,200 years to the reign of En-men-lu-ana, and 36,000 years each to those of Alalngar and Dumuzid.
- En-men-lu-ana 43,200
- Alalngar 36,000
- Dumuzid the Shepherd 36,000
- Alulim 28,800
- En-men-gal-ana 28,800
- En-sipad-zid-ana 28,800
- En-men-dur-ana 21,000
- Ubara-Tutu 18,600
- Etana 1500
- Jushur 1200
- Barsal-nuna 1200
- Iltasadum 1200
- Lugalbanda 1200
- Kullassina-bel 960
- Kalibum 960
- Zuqaqip 900
- Melem-Kish 900
- Ilku 900
- Enmebaragesi 900
- Puannum 840
- Kalumum 840
- Mashda 840
- Arwium 720
- Nangishlishma 670
- En-me-nuna 660
- Aga of Kish 625
- Atab 600
- Utu-hengal 427
- En-tarah-ana 420
- Enmerkar 420
- Balih 400
- Ur-Zababa 400
- Mamagal 360
- Tuge 360
- Lugalngu 360
- Hadanish 360
- Mesh-ki-ang-gasher 324
- Tizqar 305
- Babum 300
- Enbi-Ishtar 290
- Susuda 201
- Kalbum 195
- Zamug 140
- Awan dynasty 356 (3 kings)
Some literary critics explain these extreme ages as ancient mistranslations that converted the word "month" to "year", mistaking lunar cycles for solar ones: this would turn an age of 969 "years" into a more reasonable 969 lunar months, or 78½ years of the Metonic cycle. However, the text says that Arpachshad (son of Shem) fathered Shelah at 35 years of age. If that is taken to mean 35 months, then Arpachshad was a father before turning three years of age – which is clearly impossible. In addition, the first chapters of Genesis distinguish solar cycles of years from lunar cycles of months. (Genesis 1:14–16; 7:11)
Donald Etz says that the Genesis 5 numbers were multiplied by ten by a later editor. These interpretations introduce an inconsistency as the ages of the first nine patriarchs at fatherhood, ranging from 62 to 230 years in the manuscripts, would then be transformed into an implausible range such as 5 to 18½ years. Others say that the first list, of only 10 names for 1,656 years, may contain generational gaps, which would have been represented by the lengthy lifetimes attributed to the patriarchs. Nineteenth-century critic Vincent Goehlert suggests the lifetimes "represented epochs merely, to which were given the names of the personages especially prominent in such epochs, who, in consequence of their comparatively long lives, were able to acquire an exalted influence."
Those biblical scholars that teach literal interpretation give explanations for the advanced ages of the early patriarchs. In one view man was originally to have everlasting life, but as sin was introduced into the world by Adam, its influence became greater with each generation and God progressively shortened man's life. The biblical upper limit of longevity was categorized by the Bible scholar Witness Lee as having four successive plateaus of 1,000, 500, 250, and finally 120 years, and "four falls of mankind" correspond to these four plateaus. In a second view, before Noah's flood, a "firmament" over the earth (Genesis 1:6–8) contributed to people's advanced ages.
- Jehoiada is the often overlooked exception to the idea that no one after Moses lived past 120 years.
- Abraham's wife Sarah is the only woman in the Old Testament whose age is given. She was 127. Genesis 23:1
- Zahhak, 1000 years.
- Jamshid, 700 years.
- Fereydun, 500 years.
- Askani, 200 years.
- Kay Kāvus, 150 years.
- In Chinese legend, Peng Zu was believed to have lived for over 800 years during the Yin Dynasty (殷朝, 19th to 11th centuries BC).
- Fu Xi (伏羲) was supposed to have lived for 197 years in the mid 29th century BC.
- A New York Times story announced the death on 5 May 1933 in Kaihsien, Szechwan, of the Republic of China's Li Ching-Yuen (李清雲, Lǐ Qīngyún), who claimed to be born in 1736, age 197. A Time article noted that "respectful Chinese preferred to think" Li was 150 in 1827 (birth 1677), based on a government congratulatory message, and died at age 256. T'ai chi ch'uan master Da Liu stated that Li learned qigong from a hermit over age 500.
- Also according to the Kojiki, Emperor Kōan reigned from 392 to 291 BC, although he is regarded as legendary and may have lived in the early 1st century. His posthumous name was not given until centuries later.
The 18 first Hùng kings of Vietnam were reported to live at least over 200 years each. Their reign lasted from 2879 BC to 258 BC.
- Kinh Dương Vương – 260 years old – Reign: 215 years.
- Lạc Long Quân (Hùng Hiền Vương) – 506 years old – Reign: 400 years.
- Hùng Quốc Vương – 260 years old – Reign: 221 years.
- Hùng Diệp Vương – 646 years old – Reign: 300 years.
- Hùng Hy Vương – 599 years old – Reign: 200 years.
- Hùng Huy Vương – 500 years old – Reign: 87 years.
- Hùng Chiêu Vương – 692 years old -Reign: 200 years.
- Hùng Vi Vương – 642 years old – Reign: 100 năm.
- Hùng Định Vương – 602 years old – Reign: 80 years.
- Hùng Uý Vương – 512 years old – Reign: 90 years.
- Hùng Chinh Vương – 514 years old -Reign:107 years.
- Hùng Vũ Vương – 456 years old – Reign: 96 years.
- Hùng Việt Vương – 502 years old – Reign: 105 years.
- Hùng Ánh Vương – 386 years old – Reign: 99 years.
- Hùng Triều Vương – 286 years old -Reign: 94 years.
- Hùng Tạo Vương – 273 years old – Reign: 92 years.
- Hùng Nghị Vương – 217 years old – Reign: 160 years.
- Hùng Duệ Vương – 221 years old – Reign: 150 years.
In Roman times, Pliny wrote about longevity records from the census carried out in 74 AD under Vespasian. In one region of Italy many people allegedly lived past 100; four were said to be 130, others even older.
- According to one tradition, Epimenides of Crete (7th, 6th centuries BC) lived nearly three hundred years.
A book Macrobii (Long-livers) is a work devoted to longevity. It was attributed to the ancient Greek author Lucian, although it is now accepted that he could not have written it. Most examples given in it are lifespans of 80 to 100 years, but some are much longer:
- Tiresias, the blind seer of Thebes, over 600 years.
- Nestor lived over 300 years.
- Members of the "Seres" (a Chinese people), over 300 years.
Saint Servatius, bishop of Tongeren in continental Europe, died 13 May 384 according to consistent tradition. He was consecrated at the alleged age of 297, and is said to have lived for 375 years (birth 8/9 AD).
- Abdul Azziz al-Hafeed al-Habashi (عبد العزيزالحبشي) lived 581–1276 of the Hijra (11 June 1185 – 19 September 1859, 674 years, 100 days), i.e., 673/674 Gregorian years or 694/695 Islamic years, according to 19th-century scholars.
- Devraha Baba (d. 1990) was rumored to be over 700 or even over 750 years old.
- Trailanga Swami reportedly lived in Kashi since 1737; the journal Prabuddha Bharata puts his birth around 1607 and his age 279 (almost 280), upon his death in 1887 on 26 December. His birth is also given as 1529 (age 357/358).[need quotation to verify]
- The sadhaka Loknath Brahmacari reportedly lived 1730–1890 (age 159/160).
- Shivapuri Baba
- Chapter 2 of Falun Gong by Li Hongzhi (2001) states, "A person in Japan named Mitsu Taira lived to be 242 years old. During the Tang Dynasty in our country, there was a monk called Hui Zhao [慧昭, 526–815] who lived to be 290 [288/289] years old. According to the county annals of Yong Tai in Fujian Province, Chen Jun [陈俊] was born in the first year of Zhong He time (881 AD) under the reign of Emperor Xi Zong during the Tang Dynasty. He died in the Tai Ding time of the Yuan Dynasty (1325 AD), after living for 444 years."
Cases of extreme longevity were listed by James Easton in 1799; his list was reprinted by James Cowles Prichard in 1813. Kirby's wonderful and eccentric museum, of 1820, reports many of the same cases, some referenced to the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Charles Hulbert edited a book containing a list of cases in 1825. Sharon Turner in The Sacred History of The World, Vol. III, 1839, included many cases cited to Easton, to Haller, or to a "Mr Whitehurst".
- A tombstone in Brislington, Bristol, reads, "1542 THOMAS NEWMAN AGED 153 This Stone was new faced in the Year 1771 to Perpetuate the Great Age of the Deceased."
- Margaret Patten reportedly died in 1739 age 137.
A brief biography of Henry Jenkins, of Ellerton-on-Swale, Yorkshire, was written by Anne Saville in 1663 based on Jenkins's description, stating birth in 1501; he also claimed to recall the 1513 Battle of Flodden Field. However, Jenkins also testified in 1667, in favor of Charles Anthony in a court case against Calvert Smythson, that he was then only 157 or thereabouts. He was born in Bolton-on-Swale, and the date given, 17 May 1500, results in only a 1 year discrepancy with the age of 169 on his monument (he died 8 December 1670).
Thomas Parr is recorded by Easton as having died in 1635 at 152, the case having been recorded in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. William Harvey carried out a postmortem on him, according to Easton.
- The Shoreditch burial register for 28 January 1588 reads "Aged 207 years. Holywell Street. Thomas Cam" or "Carn", which supplied a traditional birth year of 1381. According to Old and New London, "the 2 should probably be 1".
- A tombstone in Cachen churchyard near Cardiff, Glamorganshire, read, "Heare lieth the body of WILLIAM EDWARDS, of the Cairey, who departed this life the 24th of February, Anno Domini 1668, anno aetatis suae one hundred and sixty-eight".
- Joseph Surrington was reported as 160 (1637–1797).
- The parish registers of Church Minshull, in the county of Chester, state, "1649 Thomas Damme of Leighton. Buried the 20th of February, being of the age of Seven-score and fourteen" (154 years), signed by vicar T. Holford and wardens T. Kennerly and John Warburton.
Hulbert also includes the cases of Lywerch Hen and Thomas Parr.
- Netherlands envoy Hamelbraning reported in 1724 of the death in Rofrosh, Hungary, on January 5 of Peter Czartan, reportedly born 1539 and age 184. Charles Hulbert, who reported Czartan's case in an 1825 collection, added that John (172) and his wife Sara (164) both died in Hungary in 1741 after 148 years of marriage. The Book Validation of Exceptional Longevity has the old couples last name as Rowin, while The Virgin Birth And The Incarnation puts John and Sara's married name as Rovin. Easton in 1799 described the case as "Peter Torton, of Temeswar in Hungary, a peasant", with the date of death in 1724.
Russia (Soviet Union)
Deaths officially reported in Russia in 1815 listed 1068 centenarians, including 246 supercentenarians (50 at age 120–155 and one even older). Time magazine considered that, by the Soviet Union, longevity had elevated to a state-supported "Methuselah cult". The USSR insisted on its citizens' unrivaled longevity by claiming 592 people (224 male, 368 female) over age 120 in a 15 January 1959 census and 100 citizens of Russia alone ages 120 to 156 in March 1960. Such later claims were fostered by Georgian-born Joseph Stalin's apparent hope that he would live long past 70. Zhores Medvedev, who demonstrated that all 500-plus claims failed birth-record validation and other tests, said Stalin "liked the idea that [other] Georgians lived to be 100".
- An early 1812 Russian Petersburgh Gazette reports a man between ages 200 and 225 in the diocese of Ekaterinoslaw.
- Shirali Muslimov (26 March 1805? – 4 September 1973), of Barzavu, Azerbaijan, in the Caucasus mountains, was allegedly age 168 years, 162 days, based solely on a passport. National Geographic carried the claim. Sarhat Rashidova claimed to be 131.
- Emily Muntengwa (26 September 1874)- aged 139
- Moloko Temo claimed to be almost 135 at her death.
Anna Persdotter died in 1689 in Leksand at a reported 1024 years.
United States of America
A periodical The Aesculapian Register, written by physicians and published in Philadelphia in 1824, listed a number of cases, including several purported to have lived over 130. The authors said the list was taken from the Dublin Magazine.
Charlie Smith, who died October 5, 1979, claimed to have been born in 1842, which would have made him the oldest person in the United States. Prior to Smith's death, the Guinness Book of World Records had called his claim into question, noting that Smith's marriage certificate from 1910 stated that he was 35 years old at the time.
Tuti Yusupova is alleged to have been born on July 1, 1880 and claims to be the world's oldest living person at the age of 133 years, 255 days.
Abdel Wali Numan is said to have lived 142 years (1865-2007).
- Jacobson, Thorkild (1939). The Sumerian King List. University of Chicago Press. pp. 69–77.
- Hasel, Gerhard F. (1978). "The Genealogies of Gen. 5 and 11 and Their Alleged Babylonian Background". Andrews University Seminary Studies (Andrews University Press) 16: 366–7. Citing Finkelstein, J. J. (1963). "The Antediluvian Kings: A University of California Tablet". Journal of Cuneiform Studies 17 (2): 39–51. doi:10.2307/1359063. JSTOR 1359063.
- "Notes on Genesis 5:5". Zondervan NIV Study Bible. 2002. pp. 12–13. "Three kings in a Sumerian list (which also contains exactly ten names) are said to have reigned 72,000 years each."
- Hill, Carol A. (2003-12-04). "Making Sense of the Numbers of Genesis". Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 55: 239.
- Etz, Donald V. (1994). "The Numbers of Genesis V 3–31: A Suggested Conversion and Its Implications". Vetus Testamentum 43 (2): 171–87. doi:10.1163/156853393X00034.
- Morris, Henry M. (1976). The Genesis Record: A Scientific and Devotional Commentary on the Book of Beginnings. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House. p. 159. "Such an interpretation would have made Enoch only five years old when his son was born!"
- Goehlert, Vincent (November 1887). "Statistical Observations upon Biblical Data". The Old Testament Student (in English) (Chicago: University of Chicago Press) 7 (3): 76–83. doi:10.1086/469948.
- Romans 5:12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:
- Lee, Witness (1987). Life-Study of Genesis II. pp. 227, 287, 361, 481.
- Pilch, John J. (1999). The Cultural Dictionary of the Bible. Liturgical Press. pp. 144–146.
- Vail, Isaac Newton (1902). The Waters Above the Firmament: Or The Earth's Annular System. Ferris and Leach. p. 97.
- 70+140=210 Based on an inference that the 140 years Job lived after his trial was twice as long as before. Job 42:16
- 2Chronicles 24:15
- Li, Mengyu (2008). "The Unique Values of Chinese Traditional Cultural Time Orientation: In Comparison with Western Cultural Time Orientation". The University of Rhode Island. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
- "Li Ching-Yun Dead; Gave His Age As 197". The New York Times. 6 May 1933.
- "Tortoise-Pigeon-Dog". Time Magazine. 1933-05-15. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
- "The amazing story of master Li Ching-Yuen".
- "Epimenides". Encyclopaedia Britannica 8. Henry G. Allen. 1890. p. 482.
- Lichtenberger, Frédéric, ed. (1881). Encyclopédie des sciences religieuses 11. Sandoz et Fischbacher. p. 570.
- al-Kittani, Abdul Hayye (1888–1962). Fahres-ul-Faharis wal Athbat 2. p. 928. In "Chains of Narration" (PDF). Minhaj-al-Quran International (UK). 2006.
- Daczynski, Vincent J. (2004). "Amazing Longevity: Devraha Baba – 250+ Years Old". Paranormal Phenomenon: Amazing Human Abilities.
- McDermott, Rachel Fell (2001). Mother of My Heart, Daughter of My Dreams. Oxford University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-19-513435-3.
- Varishthananda, Swami (November 2007). "Varanasi: The City of Saints, Sages, and Savants" (PDF). Prabuddha Bharata (Awakened India) 112 (11): 632–3.
- Medhasananda, Swami (2003). Varanasi At the Crossroads. Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. p. 1042. ISBN 81-87332-18-2.
- "慧昭 (526–815)".
- Li Hongzhi (April 2001). "Falun Gong". Falun Gong (4th trans. ed.).
- The European magazine, and London review, Vol. 25, p. 266, Philological Society (Great Britain)
- Easton, James, Human longevity: recording the name, age, place of residence, and year of the decease of 1712 persons who attained a century and upwards, from A.D.66 to 1799, comprising a period of 1733 years. With anecdotes of the most remarkable. Salisbury: James Easton, 1799.
- Wright, Geoffrey N. (1996). Discovering Epitaphs. Osprey Publishing. pp. 25–6.
- Wiseman, Nicholas Patrick (February–May 1862). "The Old Countess of Desmond". The Dublin Review (London: Thomas Richardson and Son) 51: 78.
- Prichard, James C. (1836). Researches into the Physical History of Mankind 1. London: Houlston and Stoneman. pp. 11–5 ff.
- Hulbert, Charles (1825). "Instances of Human Longevity in Europe". Museum Europæum; or, Select antiquities ... of nature and art, in Europe. pp. 451–7.
- "Age Validation of Centenarians in the Luxdorph Gallery". Validation of Exceptional Longevity. Odense Monographs on Population Aging 6. Jeune, Bernard, and Vaupel, James W., eds., Petersen, L.-L. B., and Jeune, Bernard, contribs. Odense University Press. 1999.
- Thoms, William J. (1979) . Human Longevity: Its Facts and Its Fictions (reprint ed.). London; New York City: John Murray; Arno Press. p. 287.
- Marden, Orison Swett (2003) . The Secret of Achievement. Kessinger Publishing. p. 228.
- Krünitz, Johann Georg (1806). Oekonomisch-technologische Encyklopädie oder allgemeines System der Stats-, Stadt-, Haus- und Landwirthschaft und der Kunst-Geschichte 66. Pauli. p. 764.
- Thornbury, Walter (1878). "Shoreditch". Old and New London 2. Centre for Metropolitan History. pp. 194–195.
- Leaf, Alexander (January 1973). "Search for the Oldest People". National Geographic. pp. 93–118.
- "No Methuselahs". Time Magazine. 1974-08-12. Retrieved 2009-05-13.
- Vestnik Statistiki. Statistical Herald. April 1961.
- Guinness Book of World Records. 1983. pp. 16–19.
- Leksand F:1 1668–1691 p. 77
- Dunglison, Robley (1851). Medical Lexicon: A Dictionary of Medical Science. Blanchard & Lea. p. 525.
- The aesculapian register: 1824. Vol. 1, nos. 1-26, June 17-Dec. 9, 1824. P.155
- "Oldest citizen Charlie Smith dies at 137". Beaver County Times (Beaver, Pa.). UPI. 1979-10-07. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "'Oldest' Living American Bounced from Record Book". Schenectady Gazette. AP. 1979-03-21. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- (Spanish) "Un anciano yemení muere a los 140 años" [An elderly Yemeni dies at 140 years]. 20 Minutos.es. July 23, 2007.
- Robert D. Young, Bertrand Desjardins, Kirsten McLaughlin, Michel Poulain, and Thomas T. Perls. "Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths". Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research Volume 2010 (2010).