List of people who performed on Beatles recordings

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Aside from John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, numerous musicians and other people featured on official recordings by the Beatles. These include friends and family of the group, the band's entourage, and numerous session musicians. Original members Pete Best (drums) and Stuart Sutcliffe (bass guitar) appeared on early recordings; the former on the group's recording of "My Bonnie" with Tony Sheridan, and both on various tracks released on Anthology 1.

The instruments contributed to Beatles recordings range from traditional orchestral instruments—such as violin, viola and cello[1]—to an alarm clock and a pile of gravel.[2][3]

The first half of the Beatles' career—from the early 1960s until 1966—rarely saw the band use any extra musicians, though George Martin (their producer) occasionally added keyboard instruments to augment their sound.[4][5] As their career progressed and their influences widened, the group began to experiment in the studio. Martin started to orchestrate for the band; his first major orchestration for the group was the string quartet on "Yesterday".[6] In 1966 the band stopped touring and concentrated on studio experimentation,[7] creating soundscapes and orchestrations that required numerous musicians (the orchestra on 1967's "A Day in the Life" was accommodated in Abbey Road's large Studio One, rather than the group's usual room in Studio Two[8]). It was also around this time that the Beatles visited India, and—particularly Harrison—became influenced by Indian culture and music,[9] leading to the group's use of traditional Indian instruments in their arrangements. Shortly before the groups demise at the end of the decade, keyboardist Billy Preston was brought in to add to their sound while they tried to return to their rock 'n' roll roots.[10] The group wanted what was to become their final album, Let It Be, to be raw with minimal overdubs.[11][12] After producer Glyn Johns left the project, Phil Spector hired in numerous session musicians to provide orchestral overdubs, in contrast to the group's original back-to-basics ideas.[13]

Omissions[edit]

There are occasions where details of session musicians' names and roles have been lost or were uncredited—this is the case for the recordings of "Good Night"[14] and "Yellow Submarine";[15] Phil Spector's orchestral overdubs for "The Long and Winding Road",[16] "Across the Universe"[17] and "I Me Mine";[18] the string sections on "Something",[19] "Here Comes the Sun",[20] "Carry That Weight",[21] "Golden Slumbers"[21] and "The End";[22] the orchestra on "Hey Jude";[23] the saxophonists on "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da";[24] the trumpeters and trombonists on "Mother Nature's Son";[25] the brass and string players on "Let It Be";[26] the cellist on "Blue Jay Way"[27] and the Indian musicians on "Love You To" (performing on sitar and tambura)[28] and "Within You Without You" (performing on dilruba, swarmandal, tabla and tambura).[29]

In 1978, renowned session drummer Bernard Purdie claimed in an interview with Gig magazine that he had overdubbed drums for 21 Beatles recordings in the summer of 1963. He stated that Brian Epstein paid him five-figure sum to overdub a drum track at Capitol Records' West 46th Street studios in New York City, and that the payment also bought his silence.[11] Purdie has also implied that some guitar parts for early Beatles recordings were also overdubbed, and there are also suggestions that Purdie and Cornell Dupree overdubbed drums and guitar parts for the Tony Sheridan recordings.[11][30] As none of these claims have been substantiated, they are omitted from this list.

Also omitted from this list are the instances where people's voices are captured on the recordings, but do not constitute part of the musical performance, such as Geoff Emerick's announcement of "take two" at the beginning of "Revolution 1",[31] and the various announcers, interviewers and presenters on Live at the BBC.

Jimmie Nicol stood in for Starr during the band's 1964 tour. He did not feature on record, but his performances were captured by audience bootlegs and broadcasts by AVRO in the Netherlands and 5DN in Australia.[32][33]

Indirect performances[edit]

By the mid 1960s, the Beatles became interested in tape loops and found sounds.[34][35] Early examples of them sampling existing recordings include loops on "Revolution 9"[35] (the repetitive "number nine" is from a Royal Academy of Music examination tape, some chatter is from a conversation between George Martin and Apple office manager Alistair Taylor, and a chord from a recording of Sibelius's Symphony No. 7 is also included[36]) and "I Am the Walrus", which contained a radio broadcast of the BBC Third Programme's production of King Lear.[27] The part of the broadcast included on the record features John Hollis as Oswald, John Rye as Edgar, and Brewster Mason as the Earl of Gloucester.[37][38]

For the introduction to "The Continuing Story of Bungalow Bill", a stock Mellotron sample of a Spanish guitar was used. The recording was supervised by Eric Robinson.[39]

A[edit]

B[edit]

Pete Best in 2006

C[edit]

Eric Clapton in 1975

D[edit]

E[edit]

F[edit]

Marianne Faithfull in 2008

G[edit]

H[edit]

J[edit]

K[edit]

L[edit]

M[edit]

George Martin in 2006

N[edit]

O[edit]

P[edit]

Billy Preston in 1974

R[edit]

S[edit]

T[edit]

U[edit]

V[edit]

W[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 77)
  2. ^ a b Lewisohn (1988, p. 94)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Lewisohn (1988, p. 93)
  4. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 87)
  5. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 88)
  6. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 157)
  7. ^ Julien (2008, p. 3)
  8. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 231)
  9. ^ Huntley (2004, p. 10)
  10. ^ Womack (2006, p. 91)
  11. ^ a b c Ingham (2003, p. 363)
  12. ^ Matteo (2004, p. 25)
  13. ^ Womack (2009, p. 60)
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lewisohn (1988, p. 144)
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lewisohn (1988, p. 81)
  16. ^ The Beatles Bible (2008a)
  17. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 276)
  18. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 368)
  19. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 348)
  20. ^ a b c MacDonald (2005, p. 356)
  21. ^ a b MacDonald (2005, p. 355)
  22. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 361)
  23. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 302)
  24. ^ a b MacDonald (2005, p. 294)
  25. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 305)
  26. ^ a b c d e f MacDonald (2005, p. 337)
  27. ^ a b MacDonald (2005, p. 269)
  28. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 194)
  29. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 243)
  30. ^ Spizer (2007, p. 90)
  31. ^ Womack (2007, p. 235)
  32. ^ Greenwald (1995, p. 99)
  33. ^ Winn (2008, p. 199)
  34. ^ Everett (1999, p. 37)
  35. ^ a b Everett (1999, p. 175)
  36. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 290)
  37. ^ BUFVC (2013)
  38. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 128)
  39. ^ Reid (2002)
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Lewisohn (1988, p. 159)
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Lewisohn (1988, p. 127)
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Lewisohn (1988, p. 120)
  43. ^ a b The Beatles Online (2007b)
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Lewisohn (1988, p. 96)
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Lewisohn (1988, p. 107)
  46. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 72)
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Lewisohn (1995, p. 7)
  48. ^ Womack (2009, p. 33)
  49. ^ Connolly (2007)
  50. ^ a b c d e Lewisohn (1988, p. 129)
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lewisohn (1988, p. 90)
  52. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Lewisohn (1988, p. 161)
  53. ^ a b c Lewisohn (1988, p. 156)
  54. ^ a b c d e f g Lewisohn (1988, p. 79)
  55. ^ a b c d e Lewisohn (1988, p. 133)
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Lewisohn (1988, p. 103)
  57. ^ a b c d Lewisohn (1988, p. 101)
  58. ^ a b c d e f The Beatles Online (2007a)
  59. ^ a b c d e Lewisohn (1988, p. 102)
  60. ^ a b c d e f g MacDonald (2005, p. 274)
  61. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 153)
  62. ^ a b c d e f Lewisohn (1988, p. 138)
  63. ^ a b c d e Lewisohn (1988, p. 111)
  64. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Lewisohn (1988, p. 59)
  65. ^ Chittenden (2005)
  66. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 99)
  67. ^ a b c Lewisohn (1988, p. 152)
  68. ^ a b Lewisohn (1988, p. 154)
  69. ^ Bosso (2009)
  70. ^ a b The Beatles Bible (2008b)
  71. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 15)
  72. ^ Miles (1998, p. 438)
  73. ^ a b Lewisohn (1988, p. 68)
  74. ^ a b Lewisohn (1988, p. 142)
  75. ^ a b MacDonald (2005, p. 122)
  76. ^ a b c MacDonald (2005, p. 236)
  77. ^ a b c d MacDonald (2005, p. 259)
  78. ^ a b MacDonald (2005, p. 237)
  79. ^ a b MacDonald (2005, p. 162)
  80. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 185)
  81. ^ a b c MacDonald (2005, p. 261)
  82. ^ a b c MacDonald (2005, p. 66)
  83. ^ a b c MacDonald (2005, p. 210)
  84. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 151)
  85. ^ a b MacDonald (2005, p. 127)
  86. ^ a b c MacDonald (2005, p. 309)
  87. ^ a b c d MacDonald (2005, p. 239)
  88. ^ a b MacDonald (2005, p. 376)
  89. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 304)
  90. ^ a b c Lewisohn (1988, p. 146)
  91. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 116)
  92. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 296)
  93. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 264)
  94. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 324)
  95. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 198)
  96. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 270)
  97. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 342)
  98. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 257)
  99. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 246)
  100. ^ a b c d MacDonald (2005, p. 212)
  101. ^ a b c d MacDonald (2005, p. 221)
  102. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 363)
  103. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 207)
  104. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 315)
  105. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 297)
  106. ^ a b MacDonald (2005, p. 271)
  107. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 43)
  108. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 83)
  109. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 65)
  110. ^ a b Lewisohn (1988, p. 41)
  111. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 104)
  112. ^ a b c Lewisohn (1988, p. 28)
  113. ^ a b Lewisohn (1988, p. 34)
  114. ^ a b Lewisohn (1988, p. 49)
  115. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 35)
  116. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 50)
  117. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 149)
  118. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 134)
  119. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 179)
  120. ^ a b Lewisohn (1988, p. 106)
  121. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 143)
  122. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 184)
  123. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 95)
  124. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 167)
  125. ^ a b MacDonald (2005, p. 273)
  126. ^ The Beatles Bible (2008d)
  127. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 119)
  128. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 142)
  129. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 96)
  130. ^ a b MacDonald (2005, p. 149)
  131. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 205)
  132. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 272)
  133. ^ a b MacDonald (2005, p. 107)
  134. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 351)
  135. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 310)
  136. ^ a b c d Lewisohn (1988, p. 160)
  137. ^ NPR (2006)
  138. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 175)
  139. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 168)
  140. ^ a b MacDonald (2005, p. 332)
  141. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 333)
  142. ^ Norman (1981, p. 392)
  143. ^ a b c MacDonald (2005, p. 338)
  144. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 336)
  145. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 191)
  146. ^ The Beatles Bible (2008c)
  147. ^ Lewisohn (1988, p. 55)
  148. ^ a b MacDonald (2005, p. 61)
  149. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 90)
  150. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 112)
  151. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 117)
  152. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 148)
  153. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 160)
  154. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 114)
  155. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 220)
  156. ^ a b MacDonald (2005, p. 286)
  157. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 108)
  158. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 133)
  159. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 128)
  160. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 174)
  161. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 140)
  162. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 169)
  163. ^ Miles (2009)
  164. ^ Huntley (2004, p. 262)
  165. ^ MacDonald (2005, p. 321)
  166. ^ a b Lewisohn (1988, p. 20)

References[edit]

  • Bosso, Joe (10 September 2009), "Beatles engineer Geoff Emerick on Abbey Road", Music Radar (Bath), retrieved 21 July 2013 
  • BUFVC (2013), Tragedy of King Lear, The, London: British Universities Film and Video Council, retrieved 27 September 2013 
  • Chittenden, Maurice (20 March 2005), "McCartney wrote Sgt Pepper 'with a little help from his roadie friend'", The Times (London), retrieved 21 July 2013 
  • Connolly, Ray (7 April 2007), "The Happiest Beatle of All", Daily Mail (London), retrieved 21 July 2013 
  • Everett, Walter (1999), The Beatles as Musicians: Revolver Through the Anthology, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195129410 
  • Greenwald, Ted (1995), The Long and Winding Road: An Intimate Guide to The Beatles, New York: Friedman-Fairfax 
  • Huntley, Elliot J. (2004), Mystical One: George Harrison: After the Break-Up of The Beatles (1st ed.), Tonwanda: Guernica Editions, ISBN 1550711970 
  • Ingham, Chris (2003), The Rough Guide to The Beatles (1st ed.), London: Rough Guides, ISBN 1843531402 
  • Julien, Olivier (2008), Sgt. Pepper and The Beatles: It Was Forty Years Ago Today (1st ed.), Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 0754698548 
  • Lewisohn, Mark (1988), The Beatles' Recording Sessions (1st ed.), New York: Harmony Books, ISBN 0517570661 
  • Lewisohn, Mark (1995), Anthology 1 [album liner notes], London: Apple Records 
  • MacDonald, Ian (2005), Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties (2nd ed.), London: Pimlico, ISBN 1844138283 
  • Matteo, Steve (2004), The Beatles' Let It Be, London: Continuum, ISBN 0826416349 
  • Miles, Barry (1998), Paul McCartney: Many Years from Now, London: Vintage, ISBN 9780749386580 
  • Miles, Barry (2009), The Beatles Diary Volume 1: The Beatles Years, London: Music Sales Group, ISBN 085712000X 
  • Norman, Philip (1981), Shout!: The Beatles in Their Generation, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0671432540 
  • NPR (2006), Songwriter, 'Fifth Beatle' Billy Preston Dies, National Public Radio, retrieved 25 September 2013 
  • Reid, Gordon (2002), "Rebirth of the Cool: Mellotron", Sound on Sound (Cambridge), retrieved 25 September 2013 
  • Spizer, Bruce (2007), The Beatles Swan Song: "She Loves You" & Other Records, New Orleans: 498 Productions, ISBN 0966264975 
  • The Beatles Bible (2008a), The Long and Winding Road, The Beatles Bible, retrieved 29 July 2013 
  • The Beatles Bible (2008b), What's the New Mary Jane, The Beatles Bible, retrieved 28 July 2013 
  • The Beatles Bible (2008c), 31 May 1968: Recording: Revolution 1, The Beatles Bible, retrieved 28 July 2013 
  • The Beatles Bible (2008d), Let It Be, The Beatles Bible, retrieved 29 July 2013 
  • The Beatles Online (2007a), Penny Lane, The Beatles Online, retrieved 26 July 2013 
  • The Beatles Online (2007b), Strawberry Fields Forever, The Beatles Online, retrieved 26 July 2013 
  • Winn, John C. (2008), Way Beyond Compare: The Beatles' Recorded Legacy, 1957–1965, New York: Three Rivers Press, ISBN 0307451577 
  • Womack, Kenneth (2006), Reading the Beatles: Cultural Studies, Literary Criticism, and the Fab Four, Cambridge: SUNY Press, ISBN 0791481964 
  • Womack, Kenneth (2007), Long and Winding Roads: The Evolving Artistry of The Beatles, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052186965X 
  • Womack, Kenneth (2009), The Cambridge Companion to The Beatles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052186965X