List of percussion instruments

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Percussion Instruments1.jpg

This is a wide-ranging, inclusive list of percussion instruments.

It includes:

These three groups overlap heavily, but inclusion in any one is sufficient for an instrument to be included in this list. However, when only a specific subtype of the instrument qualifies as a percussion instrument, only that subtype is listed here. For example, a samba whistle (or apito) is an unpitched percussion instrument, but a whistle in general is not.

For brevity, synonyms represented in Wikipedia by redirects to a main article are not listed, but may be mentioned as a note. Only the main article names are listed in these cases. For example apito is listed but samba whistle is merely noted as an alternate name. A distinct instrument or type represented only by a redirect to an article section should however be shown. Instruments represented only by redlinks have no Wikipedia articles as yet but are shown.

See list of percussion instruments by type for some shorter, more focused lists. Use the sorting arrows on the Common usage column to group instruments as pitched, unpitched or both. Use the sorting arrows on the Classification column to group instruments according to their Hornbostel–Sachs classification.

Percussion instruments[edit]

Instrument name Picture Origin Common usage

Pitched /Unpitched /Both

Classification References and notes
Afoxé Abe agbe afoxe.jpg Brazil Unpitched 112.122 Idiophone
Agogô AgogoNoir-2tons2.JPG Nigeria Unpitched 111.242 Idiophone Commonly used in Samba.
Agung Agung 08.jpg Philippines Unpitched 111.241.2 Idiophone
Alfaia Music instrument alfaia.jpg Brazil Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Angklung Eight-pitch Angklung, Mitchell Park, Milwaukee.jpg Indonesia Pitched 111.232 Idiophone [1]
Anvil Anvil by Zureks.jpg Unpitched Idiophone
Apito SambaWhistle.jpg Brazil Unpitched Aerophone Also known as samba whistle. Some apitos produce up to three different tones, but none of these is normally used as a pitched note.
Atabaque Atabaque (confeccionado por Pancho Piñones).JPG Brazil Unpitched 211.221.1 Membranophone
Bak Bak EthnM.jpg Korea Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Balafon Balafoon.jpg Mali Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Bass drum WLA nyhistorical Bass drum 1836.jpg Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Batá drum Bata drums.jpg Nigeria Unpitched 211.262.1 Membranophone
Beatboxing Mike Patton-39.jpg Both Aerophone
Babendil Babendil 01.jpg Philippines Unpitched 111.241.1 Idiophone
Bedug Beduk Keraton Kasepuhan.jpg Indonesia Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Bell Gfp-china-beijing-bell.jpg China Both 111.242.122 Idiophone
Bell tree Belltree.png Unpitched 111.242.221 Idiophone Often confused with mark tree
Berimbau Berimbau 1.jpg Brazil Pitched Chordophone
Bock-a-da-bock Unpitched 111.1 Idiophone
Bodhrán Bodhran.jpg Ireland Unpitched 211.321 Membranophone
Body percussion Haka at Mitai.jpg Unpitched Membranophone
Bonang Indonesia Pitched 111.241.2 Idiophone
Bongo drum Bongo.jpg Cuba Unpitched 211.251.2 Membranophone
Buk Korea-Gyeongbokgung-Guard.ceremony-14.jpg Korea Unpitched 211.222.1 Membrarophone
Cabasa Cabasa.jpg Unpitched 112.122 Idiophone
Calung COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Xylofoon van bamboe met vijftien toetsen onderdeel van tjalung-ensemble TMnr 1029-11a.jpg Indonesia Pitched 111.232 Idiophone
Castanets Castanuelas1.jpg Unpitched 111.141 Idiophone
Cajón Cruz Cajon by Heidi Joubert.png Peru Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone Cuban box drum
Caxixi Caxixi.jpg West Africa Unpitched 112.13 African basket rattle
Celesta Helmes Celesta, RCA Studio B.jpg France Pitched 111.222 Idiophone As a keyboard instrument, not part of the percussion section of the orchestra[2]
Chácaras Chakara.JPG Canary Islands Unpitched 111.141 Idiophone
Chime bar Bar chime.JPG Pitched 111.221 Idiophone
Cimbalom Cimbalom (from Emil Richards Collection).jpg Pitched Chordophone
Clapping Hands-Clapping.jpg Unpitched Idiophone
Clap stick Clapsticks.JPG Australia Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Claves Claves.jpg Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Conga Pair of congas.jpg Cuba Unpitched 211.221.1 Membranophone
Cowbell Koebel.jpg Both 111.242 Idiophone Tuned cowbells are known as almglocken or alpine bells[3]
Crotale Cymbal NAM Athens 7959.jpg Both 111.24 Idiophone
Cuíca Cuica ArM.jpg Disputed Unpitched 231.11 Friction Membranophone
Cup chime Bell splash cymbal.JPG Pitched 111.24 Idiophone The only pitched cymbal, it is identical to a bell cymbal in all but usage
Cymbal Chinese New Year Seattle 2007 - 25.jpg Unpitched 111 Idiophone
Dabakan Dabakan 05.jpg Philippines Unpitched 211 Membranophone, although shape is variously described as goblet, hourglass, conical, or tubular.
Daf Daf-isfahan.jpg Iran Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone Also known as Dafli, Dap, Def, Tef, Defi, Gaval, Duf, and larger ones defi or daire
Damaru Damaru.jpg South Asia Unpitched 212 Membranophone Type of Pellet drum.
Đàn tam thập lục Vietnam Pitched Chordophone Type of hammered dulcimer.
Dayereh Daf-Khalaj.jpg Iran Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone Also known as doyra, dojra, dajre, doira, dajreja
Den-den daiko Dendendaiko.jpg Japan Unpitched 212 Membranophone Type of Pellet drum.
Djembe Djembé's.jpg Mandinka Unpitched 211.261.1 Membranophone
Dholak Dholak.jpg South Asia Both 211.222.1 Membranophone Also known as dholki, similar to dohl
Dohl Both 211.212.1 Membranophone The bass head is pitched, the treble often unpitched, see pitched percussion instruments easily mistaken for unpitched
Dohol Middle East Both 211.212.1 Membranophone Persian dohl
Dunun Doundoun.jpg Mandé Both 211.212.1 Membranophone In ballet style playing, a repeating melody is played on three pitched drums
Electronic drum Simmons SDS5 Electric Drum.jpg England Both 53 Electrophone
Flexatone Flexatone Apr2005.jpg Unpitched 112.12 Idiophone
Frame drum Drums for sale at the National Museum of the American Indian.jpg Unpitched 211.3 Membranophone
Galgo Korea Unpitched 211.242.1 Membranophone
Gandingan Gandingan 04.jpg Philippines Unpitched 111.241.2 Idiophone
Ganzá Ganzá.jpg Brazil Unpitched 112.13
Gendèr Traditional indonesian instrument being played at the indonesian embassy.jpg Indonesia Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Glass harmonica ThomasBlochHandsGlassharmonica low notes on left and high notes on right.jpg USA Pitched 133.2 Idiophone Specifically a friction Idiophone
Glass harp Glasharfenspielerin.jpg Ireland Pitched 133.2 Idiophone Specifically a friction Idiophone
Glockenspiel Glockenspiel-malletech.jpg Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Goblet drum Goblet drum 01.jpg Unpitched 211.261 Membranophone Generic type by construction, see also individual instrument names
Gong Miniature orchestral gong.jpg China Pitched 111.241.1 Idiophone
Gong bass drum Gong Drum (from Emil Richards Collection).jpg Japan Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone
Gonguê Gonguê.jpg Brazil Unpitched 111.242 Idiophone
Gubguba India Chordophone
Güiro 180 Museu de la Música, el Bosc.jpg Unpitched 112.23 Idiophone Also known as scraper
Hammered dulcimer Hammered dulcimer.JPG Pitched Chordophone Listed as a stringed instrument in some classifications
Hand bell CAMPA1965.JPG England Both 111.242 Idiophone
Hand-repique Hand-repique.jpg Brazil Unpitched 211.211.1 Membranophone
Hang Panart hang.jpg Switzerland Pitched 111.24 Idiophone
Hi-hat Hihat123.jpg Unpitched 111.142 Idiophone
Hyoshigi Hyoshigi01.jpg Japan Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Jam block Jam Block on white background.jpg Unpitched 111.2 Idiophone
Janggu / Janggo / Changgo Janggu.jpg Korea Pitched 211.242.1 Membranophone
Jawbone Quijada.jpg Peru Unpitched 112.211 Idiophone
Jew's harp JewsHarpCivilWar.jpg China? Pitched 121.2 Lamellophone
Jhallari Jhallari.JPG India Pitched Chordophone
Kakko Instrumentos de musica japonesa. El Hing-Ku (1882).jpg Japan Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Kalimba Kalimba - Royal Museum for Central Africa - DSC07085.JPG Africa Pitched 122.1 Idiophone African musical instrument, a type of plucked idiophone (lamellophone)
Kecer Kecer.jpg Indonesia Unpitched 111.142 Idiophone
Kemanak COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Bekken van messing TMnr 2711-1a.jpg Indonesia Pitched 111.24 Idiophone
Kempyang and ketuk Ketuk.jpg Indonesia 111.241.1 Idiophone
Kendang Maen kendang.jpg Southeast Asia Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Kenong COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Model van een gong van koper hangend in een frame onderdeel van een gamelan-orkest TMnr A-4394d.jpg Indonesia Pitched 111.241.2 Idiophone
Kepyak Indonesia Unpitched 111 Idiophone
Keyboard glockenspiel Pitched 111.222 Idiophone A keyboard instrument, not normally part of a percussion section
Khim Chiangmai-market3.jpg South Asia Pitched Chordophone Type of hammered dulcimer
Kulintang Kulintang 03.jpg Southeast Asia Pitched 111.241.2 Idiophone
Kundu PNG Kundu Drum QM r.jpg Papua Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone Papuan musical instrument
Lion's roar Unpitched 232.11 Membranophone Has also been referred to as a Chordophone or a Friction drum
Lithophone Organ and Chimes - Caverns of Luray Va 1906 postcard.png Global Pitched Idiophone Either natural or placed rock formations which produce differing tones when struck.
Lummi stick Native American Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Maraca Mar-3-flaschenkürbis-gourd-maraca-shaker-rassel-rattle-natural-percussion - Maultrommel, Jew's Harp.jpg Latin America Unpitched 112.13 Idiophone
Marching machine Unpitched 111.212 Idiophone [4]
Marimba Esmeraldian (Afro-Ecuadorian) marimba.jpg Guatemala Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Mark tree Windchimes 02.jpg USA Unpitched 111.232 Idiophone Also known as a chime tree or bar chimes
Metallophone Metalófono.JPG Asia Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Monkey stick Photo of a group of Mendoza's or Monkey Sticks.jpg England Unpitched 112.112 Idiophone Also known as mendoza or lagerphone
Mridangam Wiki-mridangam.jpg India Pitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Muyu Guanghuasi muyu.JPG Japan Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Octoban Octobans.jpg Japan Both 211.211.1 Membranophone
Onavillu Onavillu.jpg India Pitched Chordophone
Ōtsuzumi Japanese small hand drum,kotsudumi,katori-city,japan.JPG Japan Pitched 211.242.1 Membranophone
Pahū pounamu Richard Nunns 17.jpg New Zealand Unpitched Idiophone Traditional Maori gong.
Pandeiro Pandeiro.JPG Brazil Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone
Pantalon Pantaleon-Clavier (Nachbau).jpg Europe Pitched Chordophone A type of hammered dulcimer.
Piano Steinway grand piano - brown.jpg Italy Pitched Chordophone A keyboard instrument, not normally part of a percussion section but listed as percussion in some older classifications, and stringed in others
Quadrangularis Reversum Quadrangularis Reversum.jpg USA Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Rainstick Rainstick 01.png Mexico Unpitched 112.13 Idiophone Subclassed as a combination Shaken Idiophone and Individual friction vessel
Ratchet Purim gragger.jpg Unpitched 112.24 Idiophone
Rattle Calabash rattle, Nigeria, 1851-1920 Wellcome L0057071.jpg Unpitched 112.13 Idiophone
Repique Repinique.JPG Brazil Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Ring-repique Brazil Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Rototom Rototom 1.jpg USA Both 211.311 Membranophone classified it as no handle although it is usually mounted
Salterio Salterio.jpg Europe Pitched Chordophone
Sand blocks Sanding blocks.jpg Unpitched 13 Idiophone
Santoor Indian santoor musician.jpg South Asia Pitched Chordophone
Santur Hasht-Behesht Palace santur.jpg Middle East Pitched Chordophone Type of hammered dulcimer.
Saron Demung Saron Peking, STSI Surakarta.jpg Indonesia Pitched 111.222 Idiophone Size from smallest to largest is Saron panerus, Saron barung,

Saron demung.

Shime-daiko Shime Daiko drum - Shime Taiko Trommel.jpg Japan Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Singing bowl Nepalese singing bowl.JPG Himalayas Pitched 111.242.11 Idiophone
Siren Hudsons The ACME City Patent Whistle (13187381764).jpg England Unpitched Aerophone
Shekere Shekere.jpg West Africa Unpitched 112.122 Idiophone
Skrabalai Skrabalai.gif Lithuania Pitched 111.242.222 Idiophone
Sleigh bells 3 sleigh bells.jpg Unpitched 112.112 Idiophone Jingle bells
Slenthem COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Metallofoon met veertien toetsen onderdeel van gamelan Slendro TMnr 500-4.jpg Indonesia Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Slide whistle Flauta d'èmbol.jpg Both Aerophone
Slit drum Pate Drum.JPG Both 111.24 Idiophone
Snare drum Pearl MCX snare drum.JPG Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Steel pan Pan player.jpg Trinidad & Tobago Pitched 111.241 Idiophone Also known as steel drum
Stomp box MDMII.jpg Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Surdo Surdo22animal.JPG Brazil Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Suspended cymbal 2006-07-06 splash 10.jpg Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Tabla Tabla-Paar (Cweiss).jpg India Pitched 211.221.2 Membranophone See pitched percussion instruments easily mistaken for unpitched
Taiko Kodo mt.jpg Japan Unpitched 211 Membranophone Refers to traditional Japanese drums in general.
Tambora Tambora dominicana.jpg Dominican Republic Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Tamborim Tamborim.JPG Brazil Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone
Tambourine Meinl CTA2B-BK Tambourine.jpg Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone But the headless tambourine is an idiophone
Tambour Unpitched Membranophone
Tan-tan Tamtam2.JPG Brazil Unpitched 211.211.1 Membranophone
Tap shoe Tapshoes.jpg Unpitched 111.222 Idiophone
Taxi horn Both Aerophone
Temple block Modern Templeblocks.jpg East Asia Both 111.24 Idiophone [3][5]
Timbal Timbal.JPG Brazil Unpitched 211.251.1 Membranophone
Timbales Timbalesy HLTBR-1011 firmy Hayman cropped.jpg Cuba Unpitched 211.212.2 Membranophone
Tonbak TOM.BAK.jpg Iran Unpitched 211.261.1 Membranophone Persian, also known as tombak, donbak and dombak, and as Tombakh Naar in Kashmir
Thunder machine Unpitched
Thundersheet Unpitched 111.221 Idiophone
Tingsha Tingsha.jpg Tibet Unpitched 111.142 Idiophone
Tom-tom drum Tom-tom 12x8.jpg Unpitched 211.211.1 Membranophone
Triangle Triangel1.jpg Both 111 Idiophone
Tsuzumi Japanese small hand drum,kotsudumi,katori-city,japan.JPG Japan Pitched 211.242.1 Membranophone
Tsymbaly UI-Tsymbaly-player.jpg Ukraine Pitched Chordophone Type of hammer dulcimer.
Tubular bells Chimes at XULA.jpg Pitched 111.232 Idiophone
Turntable IIDX - Turntable.jpg Both 53 Electrophone
Timpani Parkside Concert Series - Timpani.jpg Pitched 211.12 Membranophone Also called kettle drums.
Vibraphone Vibraphone.jpg USA Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Vibraslap Vibraslap2.jpg USA Unpitched 112 Idiophone
Washboard Vaskebrett.JPG USA Unpitched 132.1 Idiophone
Whip Ludwig Slapstick.JPG Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone Also known as slapstick
Whistle Pea Whistle.jpg Unpitched Aerophone
Wind chime Chime closeup.jpg Unpitched 111.232 Idiophone Borderline as pitched or unpitched, as a melody can sometimes be perceived
Wind machine Ravensburg Konzerthaus Historische Klangerzeuger Windmaschine.jpg Unpitched 13 Idiophone
Wood block TublarWoodBlock.jpg Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Xylophone (Xylophone) Centro Histórico Quito.JPG Disputed Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Xylorimba Xylorimba (from Emil Richards Collection).jpg Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Yanggeum Korea Pitched Chordophone Type of hammered dulcimer.
Yangqin Yangqin1.jpg China Pitched Chordophone Type of hammered dulcimer.
Zabumba Alfaias, zabumbas e surdo.JPG Brazil Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Zill Finger cymbals.jpg Unpitched 111.142 Idiophone Also known as finger cymbal

See also[edit]

Top level articles[edit]

Subgroups of percussion instruments[edit]


Only the more significant subcategories are shown.


  1. ^ retrieved March 13, 2012: The tubes are carefully whittled and cut by a master craftsperson to produce certain notes when the bamboo frame is shaken or tapped.
  2. ^ retrieved March 13, 2012: Although treated as a member of the percussion section in orchestral terms, the celesta is played by a pianist, the part being normally written on two bracketed staves.
  3. ^ a b retrieved 13 March 2012 There are lots of tuned percussion instruments. Among the most common are the xylophone, marimba, the glockenspiel, the cowbells and the temple blocks. Other suthorities cited here however say that temple blocks are not considered pitched nstruments.
  4. ^ retrieved 16 March 2012
  5. ^ retrieved 13 March 2012: Although temple blocks are not considered pitched nstruments, they can produce discernable pitches, and some temple blocks are actually tuned to the pentatonic scale. Other authorities cited here however say that temple blocks are tuned percussion.