List of phytochemicals in food
While there is ample evidence to indicate the health benefits of diets rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts, no specific food has been acknowledged by scientists and government regulatory authorities as providing a health benefit. Current medical research is focused on whether health effects could be due to specific essential nutrients or phytochemicals.
- 1 Phenolic compounds
- 2 Terpenes (isoprenoids)
- 3 Betalains
- 4 Organosulfides
- 5 Indoles, glucosinolates/ sulfur compounds
- 6 Protein inhibitors
- 7 Other organic acids
- 8 References
- Apiole – parsley, celery leaf.
- Carnosol – rosemary, sage
- Carvacrol – oregano, thyme, pepperwort, wild bergamot.
- Dillapiole – dill, fennel root.
- Rosemarinol – rosemary.
- Quercetin – red and yellow onions, tea, wine, apples, cranberries, buckwheat, beans.
- Gingerol – ginger.
- Kaempferol – tea, strawberries, gooseberries, cranberries, grapefruit, apples, peas, brassicates (broccoli, kale, brussels sprouts, cabbage), chives, spinach, endive, leek, tomatoes.
- Myricetin – grapes, red wine, berries, walnuts.
- Rutin – citrus fruits, oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruit, berries, peaches, apples, pagoda tree fruits, asparagus, buckwheat, parsley, tomatoes, apricots, rhubarb, tea.
- Isorhamnetin – red turnip, goldenrod, mustard leaf, ginkgo biloba.
- Acacetin – Robinia pseudoacacia, Turnera diffusa.
- Apigenin – chamomile, celery, parsley.
- Chrysin – Passiflora caerulea, Pleurotus ostreatus, Oroxylum indicum.
- Diosmetin – Vicia.
- Tangeritin – tangerine and other citrus peels.
- Luteolin – beets, artichokes, celery, carrots, celeriac, rutabaga, parsley, mint, chamomile, lemongrass, chrysanthemum
- Flavan-3-ols (flavanols)
- Catechins – white tea, green tea, black tea, grapes, wine, apple juice, cocoa, lentils, black-eyed peas.
- Theaflavin – black tea;
- Anthocyanidins (flavonals) or Anthocyanins – red wine, many red, purple or blue fruits and vegetables.
- Pelargonidin – bilberry, raspberry, strawberry.
- Peonidin – bilberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach.
- Cyanidin – red apple & pear, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach, plum, hawthorn, loganberry, cocoa.
- Delphinidin – bilberry, blueberry, eggplant.
- Malvidin – bilberry, blueberry.
- Isoflavones (phytoestrogens) use the 3-phenylchromen-4-one skeleton (with no hydroxyl group substitution on carbon at position 2).
- Pterocarpans or Coumestans (phytoestrogens)
- Coumestrol – red clover, alfalfa sprouts, soy, peas, brussels sprouts.
- Matairesinol – flax seed, sesame seed, rye bran and meal, oat bran, poppy seed, strawberries, blackcurrants, broccoli.
- Secoisolariciresinol – flax seeds, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, pumpkin, strawberries, blueberries, cranberries, zucchini, blackcurrant, carrots.
- Pinoresinol and lariciresinol – sesame seed, Brassica vegetables
- Resveratrol – grape skins and seeds, wine, nuts, peanuts, Japanese Knotweed root
- Pterostilbene – grapes, blueberries
- Piceatannol – grapes
- Salicylic acid – peppermint, licorice, peanut, wheat.
- Vanillin – vanilla beans, cloves.
- Gallic acid – tea, mango, strawberries, rhubarb, soy.
- Ellagic acid – walnuts, strawberries, cranberries, blackberries, guava, grapes.
- Tannic acid – nettles, tea, berries.
- Caffeic acid – burdock, hawthorn, artichoke, pear, basil, thyme, oregano, apple, olive oil.
- Chlorogenic acid – echinacea, strawberries, pineapple, coffee, sunflower, blueberries.
- Cinnamic acid – cinnamon, aloe.
- Ferulic acid – oats, rice, artichoke, orange, pineapple, apple, peanut.
- Coumarin – citrus fruits, maize.
- α-Carotene – to vitamin A, in carrots, pumpkins, maize, tangerine, orange.
- β-Carotene – to vitamin A, in dark, leafy greens and red, orange and yellow fruits and vegetables.
- γ-Carotene - to vitamin A,
- Lycopene – Vietnam Gac, tomatoes, grapefruit, watermelon, guava, apricots, carrots, autumn olive.
- Phytofluene – star fruit, sweet potato, orange.
- Phytoene – sweet potato, orange.
- Canthaxanthin – paprika.
- Cryptoxanthin to vitamin A, in – mango, tangerine, orange, papaya, peaches, avocado, pea, grapefruit, kiwi.
- Zeaxanthin – wolfberry, spinach, kale, turnip greens, maize, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, oranges.
- Astaxanthin – microalge, yeast, krill, shrimp, salmon, lobsters, and some crabs
- Lutein – spinach, turnip greens, romaine lettuce, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, mango, papaya, oranges, kiwi, peaches, squash, brassicates, prunes, sweet potatoes, honeydew melon, rhubarb, plum, avocado, pear, cilantro.
- Rubixanthin – rose hips.
- Limonene – oils of citrus, cherries, spearmint, dill, garlic, celery, maize, rosemary, ginger, basil.
- Perillyl alcohol – citrus oils, caraway, mints.
soybeans, beans, other legumes, maize, alfalfa.
- Phytosterols – almonds, cashews, peanuts, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, whole wheat, maize, soybeans, many vegetable oils.
- Tocopherols (vitamin E)
- omega-3, 6,9 fatty acids – dark-green leafy vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts.
- Oleanolic acid - American pokeweed, honey mesquite, garlic, java apple, cloves, and many other Syzygium species.
- Ursolic acid - apples, basil, bilberries, cranberries, elder flower, peppermint, lavender, oregano, thyme, hawthorn, prunes.
- Betulinic acid - Ber tree, white birch, tropical carnivorous plants Triphyophyllum peltatum and Ancistrocladus heyneanus, Diospyros leucomelas a member of the persimmon family, Tetracera boiviniana, the jambul (Syzygium formosanum), chaga, and many other Syzygium species.
- Moronic acid - Rhus javanica (a sumac), mistletoe
- Betaxanthins (non glycosidic versions)
- Dithiolthiones (isothiocyanates)
- Polysulfides (allium compounds)
- Diallyl disulfide – garlic, onions, leeks, chives, shallots.
Indoles, glucosinolates/ sulfur compounds
- Indole-3-carbinol – cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts, rutabaga, mustard greens, broccoli.
- Sulforaphane - broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, cabbages
- 3,3'-Diindolylmethane or DIM - broccoli family, brussels sprouts, cabbage, kale
- Sinigrin - broccoli family, brussels sprouts, black mustard
- Allicin - garlic
- Alliin - garlic
- Allyl isothiocyanate - horseradish, mustard, wasabi
- Piperine - black pepper
- Syn-propanethial-S-oxide - cut onions.
Other organic acids
- Oxalic acid – orange, spinach, rhubarb, tea and coffee, banana, ginger, almond, sweet potato, bell pepper.
- Phytic acid – (inositol hexaphosphate) – cereals, nuts, sesame seeds, soybeans, wheat, pumpkin, beans, almonds.
- Tartaric acid – apricots, apples, sunflower, avocado, grapes, tamarind.
- Anacardic acid – cashews, mangoes.
- Malic acid – apples
- Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University
- Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University
- Lignan contents of Dutch plant foods: a database i...[Br J Nutr. 2005] - PubMed Result