List of placoderm genera

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Various placoderm species, including the famous Dunkleosteus

This list of placoderms is an attempt to create a comprehensive listing of all genera from the fossil record that have ever been considered to be members of the class Placodermi. This list excludes purely vernacular terms. It includes all commonly accepted genera, but also genera that are now considered invalid, doubtful (nomina dubia), or were not formally published (nomina nuda), as well as junior synonyms of more established names, and genera that are no longer considered placoderms.

This list includes 333 generic names.

Naming conventions and terminology[edit]

Naming conventions and terminology follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Technical terms used include:

  • Junior synonym: A name which describes the same taxon as a previously published name. If two or more genera are formally designated and the type specimens are later assigned to the same genus, the first to be published (in chronological order) is the senior synonym, and all other instances are junior synonyms. Senior synonyms are generally used, except by special decision of the ICZN, but junior synonyms cannot be used again, even if deprecated. Junior synonymy is often subjective, unless the genera described were both based on the same type specimen.
  • Nomen nudum (Latin for "naked name"): A name that has appeared in print but has not yet been formally published by the standards of the ICZN. Nomina nuda (the plural form) are invalid, and are therefore not italicized as a proper generic name would be. If the name is later formally published, that name is no longer a nomen nudum and will be italicized on this list. Often, the formally published name will differ from any nomina nuda that describe the same specimen.
  • Nomen oblitum (Latin for "forgotten name"): A name that has not been used in the scientific community for more than fifty years after its original proposal.
  • Preoccupied name: A name that is formally published, but which has already been used for another taxon. This second use is invalid (as are all subsequent uses) and the name must be replaced. As preoccupied names are not valid generic names, they will also go unitalicized on this list.
  • Nomen dubium (Latin for "dubious name"): A name describing a fossil with no unique diagnostic features. As this can be an extremely subjective and controversial designation, this term is not used on this list.

List of Genera[edit]

Genus Authors Year Status Age Location Notes

Acanthaspis[1]

Newberry

1875

Preocc.

Preoccupied by hemiptere genus Acanthaspis Amyot & Serville, 1843, valid species synonymized with Kujdanowiaspis

Acantholepis[1]

Krøyer

1846

Valid.

Acantholepis

Newberry

1875

Preocc.

Preoccupied by Acantholepis Krøyer, 1846

Actinolepis[1]

Agassiz

1845

Valid.

Aethaspis[1]

Denison

1958

Valid.

Africanaspis

Long
Anderson
Gess
Hiller

1997

Valid.

Aggeraspis[1]

Gross

1962

Valid.

Ailuracantha[1]

White

1969

Valid.

Aleosteus[1]

Johnson
Elliott
Wittke

2000

Valid.

Anarthraspis[1]

Bryant

1934

Valid.

Angarichthys[1]

Obruchev

1927

Valid.

Antarctaspis[1]

White

1968

Valid.

Antarctolepis

White

1968

Valid.

Antineosteus

Lelièvre

1984

Valid.

Arctaspis[1]

Heintz

1929

Valid.

Arctolepis[1]

Eastman

1908

Valid.

Arctonema

Orvig

1969

Valid.

Arenipiscis

Young

1981

Valid.

Asiacanthus[1]

Liu

1948

Valid.

Placodermi incertae sedis

Aspidichthys

Newberry

1873

Valid.

Arthrodire incertae sedis

Asterolepis

Eichwald

1840

Valid.

Asterosteus

Newberry

1875

Valid.

Atlantidosteus

Lelièvre

1984

Valid.

Australoptyctodus[1]

Lelièvre

1984

Valid.

Austrophyllolepis[1]

Long

1984

Valid.

Baringaspis[1]

Miles

1973

Valid.

Batteraspis[1]

Pageau

1969

Valid.

Belemnacanthus

Eastman

1898

Valid.

Belgiosteus[1]

Lehman

1973

Valid.

Belosteus

Jaekel

1927

Valid.

Bimbianga[2]

Young

2005

Valid.

Bolivosteus

Goujet
Janvier
Suarez-Riglos

1985

Valid.

Bollandaspis[1]

Schultze

1976

Valid.

Boomeraspis[1]

Long

1995

Valid.

Bothriolepis[3]

Eichwald

1840

Valid.

Brachydeirus

Koenen

1880

Valid.

Brachygnathus[1]

Agassiz

1844

Valid.

Brachygnathus

Hussakof

1909

Preocc.

Preoccupied by placoderm genus Brachygnathus Agassiz, 1844

Brachyosteus

Jaekel

1927

Valid.

Braunosteus

Stensiö

1959

Valid.

Breizosteus

Goujet

1980

Valid.

Brindabellaspis

Young

1980

Valid.

Brontichthys[1]

Claypole

1894

Invalid.

Junior synonym of Titanichthys

Bruntonichthys

Dennis
Miles

1980

Valid.

Bryantaspis[1]

White
Moy-Thomas

1940

Valid.

Replacement name for Cryptaspis Bryant, 1934

Bryantolepis[1]

Denison

1958

Valid.

Buchanosteus

Stensiö

1945

Valid.

Bullerichthys

Dennis
Miles

1980

Valid.

Bungartius

Dunkle

1947

Valid.

Burrinjucosteus

Valid.

Callognathus

Newberry

1890

Valid.

Campbellodus

Miles
Young

1977

Valid.

Camuropiscis

Dennis
Miles

1979

Valid.

Carolowilhelmina

Mark-Kurik
Carls

2002

Valid.

Cartieraspis[1]

Pageau

1969

Valid.

Cathlesichthys[1]

Young

2004

Valid.

Ceraspis

Schultze

1887

Preocc.

Preoccupied by coleoptere genus Ceraspis Lepeletier & Serville, 1825

Ceratolepichthys

Whitley

1940

Valid.

Replacement name for Ceratolepis Gross, 1933

Ceratolepis

Gross

1933

Preocc.

Preoccupied by coleoptere genus Ceratolepis Chapuis, 1873

Changyonophyton[1]

Valid.

Cheliophorus[1]

Lapsus calami.

Misspelling of Chelyophorus

Chelyophorus

Agassiz

1844

Valid.

Chuchinolepis

Chang

1978

Valid.

Clarkeosteus[1]

Obruchev

1964

Valid.

Cobandrahlepis[1]

Young

2005

Valid.

Coccosteus[1]

Miller

1841

Valid.

Coelosteichthys[1]

Whitley

1940

Valid.

Replacement name for Coelosteus Gross, 1930

Coelosteus

Gross

1930

Preocc.

Preoccupied by fish genus Coelosteus Newberry, 1887

Compagopiscis

Gardiner & Miles

1994

Valid.

Companognathus

Valid.

Cosmacanthus

Agassiz

1845

Valid.

Cryptaspidisca

Strand

1942

Syn.

Replacement name for Cryptaspis Bryant, 1934

Cryptaspis

Bryant

1934

Preocc.

Preoccupied by coleoptere genus Cryptaspis Pascoe, 1842

Ctenurella

Orvig

1960

Valid.

Cyrtosteus

Gross

1932

Valid.

Deinodus[1]

Hussakof
Bryant

1919

Valid.

Deirosteus

Wells

1942

Valid.

Denisonodus

Johnson
Elliott

1996

Valid.

Desmoporella

Orvig

1971

Valid.

Destnoporella[1]

Valid.

Deveonema

Kulczycki

1957

Valid.

Dhanguura[1]

Young

2004

Valid.

Diandongpetalichthys

Pan
Wang

1978

Valid.

Diadsomaspis[1]

Gross

1937

Valid.

Dicksonosteus[1]

Goujet

1975

Valid.

Dinichthys

Newberry

1873

Originally regarded as a synonym for Dunkleosteus, now according to Carr and Hlavin 2010, it is a distinct genus.[4]

Dinomylostoma

Eastman

1906

Valid.

Diplognathus

Newberry

1878

Valid.

Dobrowlania

Stensiö

1944

Valid.

Dunkleosteus

Lehman

1956

Valid.

Eastmanosteus

Obruchev

1964

Valid.

Eczematolepis

Miller

1892

Valid.

Replacement name for Acantholepis Newberry, 1875

Eldenosteus

Miles

1964

Valid.

Elegantaspis[1]

Heintz

1929

Valid.

Ellopetalichthys

Ørvig

1957

Valid.

Enseosteus

Jaekel

1919

Valid.

Epipetalichthys

Stensiö

1925

Valid.

Erikaspis

Dupret
Goujet
Mark-Kurik

2007

Valid.

Errolosteus

Young

1981

Valid.

Erromenosteus

Jaekel

1919

Valid.

Eskimaspis

Dineley
Liu Yuhai

1984

Valid.

Euleptaspis[1]

White
Moy-Thomas

1940

Valid.

Euptychaspis

White
Moy-Thomas

1941

Preocc.

Replacement name for Ptychaspis Bryant, 1935. Preoccupied by trilobite genus Euptychaspis Ulrich, 1931

Euryaspidichthys[1]

Whitley

1950

Valid.

Replacement name for Euryaspis Bryant, 1932

Euraspis[1]

Liu

1991

Valid.

Euryaspis

Bryant

1932

Preocc.

Preoccupied by coleoptere genus Euryaspis Blanchard, 1851

Eurycaraspis

Li

1991

Valid.

Fallacosteus

Long

1990

Valid.

Gaspeaspis[1]

Pageau

1969

Valid.

Gavinaspis[5]

Dupret
Zhu

2008

Valid.

Gemuendenaspis

Miles

1962

Valid.

Gemuendina

Traquair

1903

Valid.

Glyptaspis

Newberry

1890

Valid.

Golshanichthys[6]

Lelièvre
Janvier
Goujet

1981

Valid.

Goniosteus

Gross

1933

Valid.

Goodradigbeeon

White

1978

Valid.

Gorgonichthys

Claypole

1892

Valid.

Grazosteus

Gross

1958

Valid.

Arthrodire incertae sedis, known only from a medial dorsal plate with a pair of prominent, posterior-pointing prongs.

Groenlandaspis

Heintz

1932

Valid.

Grossaspis

White
Moy-Thomas

1940

Valid.

Replacement name for Ceraspis Schlueter, 1887

Grossilepis[7]

Stensiö

1949

Valid.

Grossosteus[1]

White
Moy-Thomas

1940

Valid.

Replacement name for Coelosteus Gross, 1930

Gymnotrachelus

Dunkle
Bungart

1939

Valid.

Gyracanthus[1]

Agassiz

1835

Valid.

Gyroplacosteus

Obruschev

1930

Valid.

Hadrosteus

Gross

1932

Valid.

Harrytoombsia

Miles
Dennis

1979

Valid.

Heintzaspis

Strand

1932

Valid.

Replacement name for Acanthapsis Newberry, 1975

Heintzichthys

Whitley

1933

Valid.

Replacement name for Stenognathus Newberry, 1898

Heightingtonaspis[1]

White

1969

Valid.

Heintzosteus[1]

Goujet

1984

Valid.

Heterogaspis[1]

Strand

1932

Valid.

Heterosteus

Asmuss

1856

Valid.

Heteroyunnanolepis

Wang

1944

Valid.

Holdenius

Dunkle
Bungart

1942

Valid.

Hollardosteus

Lehman

1956

Valid.

Holonema

Newberry

1890

Valid.

Homosteus[1]

Asmuss

1856

Valid.

Huginaspis[1]

Heintz

1929

Valid.

Hussakofia

Cossmann

1910

Valid.

Replacement name for Brachygnathus Hussakof, 1909

Hybosteus[1]

Gross

1933

Valid.

Replacement name for Coelosteus Gross, 1930

Incisoscutum

Dennis
Miles

1981

Valid.

Jagorina

Jaekel

1921

Valid.

Jaekelaspis[1]

Heintz

1929

Valid.

Janiosteus[6]

Ivanov

1988

Valid.

Jerulalepis[1]

Burrow

1996

Valid.

Jiangxilepis

Valid.

Jiuchengia[1]

Valid.

Kendrichthys

Valid.

Kiangyousteus

Valid.

Kiangyosteus[1]

Valid.

Kimaspis

Mark-Kurik

1973

Valid.

Kimberia

Dennis-Bryan
Miles

1983

Preocc.

Preoccupied by mollusc genus Kimberia Cotton & Woods, 1935

Kimberleyichthyes

Dennis-Bryan
Miles

1983

Valid.

Replacement name for genus Kimberia Dennis-Bryan & Miles, 1983

Kolpaspis[1]

Pageau

1969

Valid.

Kolymaspis

Bystrow

1956

Valid.

Kosoraspis

Gross

1959

Valid.

Kueichowlepis[1]

P'an
Wang

1975

Valid.

Kujdanowiaspis[1]

Stensiö

1942

Valid.

Kweichowlepis

Valid.

Lataspis[1]

Strand

1932

Valid.

Replacement name for Plataspis Heintz 1929

Latocamurus

Long

1988

Valid.

Lanrentaspis

Pageau

1969

Valid.

Laurentaspis

Lapsus Calami.

Lepadolepis

White
Moy-Thomas

1940

Valid.

Replacement name for Ceratolepis Gross, 1933

Lehmanosteus[1]

Goujet

1984

Valid.

Leptosteus

Jaekel

1919

Valid.

Liognathus[1]

Agassiz

1846

Valid.

Liognathus[1]

Newberry

1873

Preocc.

Preoccupied by fish genus Liognathus Agassiz, 1846

Lispognathus[1]

Miller

1892

Valid.

Replacement name for Liognathus Newberry, 1873

Litilpetalichthyes

Valid.

Liujiangolepis

Wang

1987

Valid.

Livosteus[1]

Obruchev

1962

Valid.

Lophostracon[1]

Lankester

1884

Valid.

Luetkeichthys[1]

Bystrow

1957

Valid.

Lunaspis

Broili

1929

Valid.

Lyhoalepis[8]

Tong-Dzuy
Janvier
Doan-Nhat

1994

Valid.

Machaerognathus

Hussakof
Bryant

1919

Valid.

Macropetalichthys

Norwood
Owen

1846

Valid.

Macropetalichthys

Broili

1933

Preocc.

Preoccupied by fish genus Macropetalichthys Norwood & Owen, 1846

Maideria[1]

Lelièvre

1995

Valid.

Malerosteus

Kulczycki

1957

Valid.

Materpiscis[9]

Long
Trinajstic
Young
Senden

2008

Valid.

Mcnamaraspis

Long

1995

Valid.

Mediaspis[1]

Heintz

1929

Valid.

Megaloplax

Obruchev

1933

Valid.

Melanosteus

Lelièvre
Goujet

1987

Valid.

Microbrachius

Traquair

1888

Valid.

Microsteus

Gross

1932

Valid.

Millerosteus[1]

Stensiö

1959

Valid.

Mithakaspis

Young
Goujet

2003

Valid.

Mizia

Zhu

1996

Valid.

Monaspis[1]

Heintz

1929

Valid.

Murmur

Whitley

1951

Valid.

Replacement name for Euptychaspis White & Moy-Thomas 1941

Murrindalaspis

Long

1984

Valid.

Mylostoma

Newberry

1883

Valid.

Neopetalichthys

Liu

1973

Valid.

Neophlyctaenius[1]

Denison

1950

Valid.

Nessariostoma

Broili

1933

Valid.

Notopetalichthys

Woodward

1941

Valid.

Oestophorus

Miller

1892

Valid.

Replacement name for Spenophorus Newberry, 1890

Ohioaspis

Wells

1944

Valid.

Ohiodorulites

Whitley

1933

Valid.

Replacement name for Acanthapsis Newberry, 1975

Omalosteus[10]

Zakharenko

2006

Valid.

Operchaliosteus

Valid.

Operchallosteus[1]

Kulczycki

1957

Valid.

Oracanthus[1]

Agassiz

1837

Valid.

Ottanosteus[1]

Valid.

Overtonaspis

White

1961

Valid.

Oxyosteus

Jaekel

1911

Valid.

Pachyosteus

Jaekel

1903

Valid.

Pageauaspis[1]

Denison

1978

Valid.

Replacement name for Quebecaspis Pageau, 1969

Palaeacanthaspis

Brotzen

1934

Valid.

Palaeomylus

Woodward

1891

Valid.

Panxiosteus

Wang

1979

Valid.

Parabelosteus

Valid.

Parabuchanosteus

White
Toombs

1972

Valid.

Paramylostoma

Dunkle
Bungart

1945

Valid.

Parapetalichthys[1]

Kuhn

1949

Valid.

Replacement name for Macropetalichthys Broili, 1933

Paraplesiobatis

Broili

1933

Valid.

Paraptyctodus[1]

Valid.

Parawalterosteus[1]

Stensiö

1963

Valid.

Pelycophorus[1]

Valid.

Phlyctaenacanthus[1]

Eastman

1898

Valid.

Phlyctaenaspis[1]

Traquair

1890

Valid.

Replacement name for Phlyctaenius Traquair, 1890

Phlyctaenius[1]

Traquair

1890

Preocc.

nec Phlyctaenium Zittel 1879

Pholidosteus

Jaekel

1907

Valid.

Phyllolepis[1]

Agassiz

1844

Valid.

Phymolepis

Chang

1978

Valid.

Phymosteus[1]

Wang
Zhu

2004

Valid.

Pinguosteus

Long

1990

Valid.

Placolepis[1]

Ritchie

1984

Valid.

Plataspis[1]

Heintz

1929

Preocc.

Preoccupied by hemiptere genus Plataspis Hope, 1837

Platyaspis

Koenen

1896

Valid.

Plourdosteus

Ørvig

1951

Valid.

Ponerichthys[1]

Miller

1892

Invalid, declared a junior synonym of Dunkleosteus.

Prescottaspis

Valid.

Proaethaspis[1]

Denison

1978

Valid.

Procondylolepis[11]

Zhang

1984

Valid.

Prosphymaspis[1]

Gross

1937

Valid.

Protitanichthys[1]

Valid.

Pseudopetalichthys

Moy-Thomas

1939

Valid.

Pterichthyodes

Bleeker

1859

Valid.

Ptychaspis

Bryant

1935

Preocc.

Preoccupied by trilobite genus Ptychaspis Hall, 1863

Ptyctodopsis

Denison

1985

Valid.

Ptyctodus

Pander

1858

Valid.

Qataraspis

White

1969

Valid.

Quasipetalichthys

Liu

1973

Valid.

Quebecaspis[1]

Pageau

1969

Preocc.

Preoccupied by trilobite genus Quebecaspis Rasetti, 1944

Qujinolepis

Zhang

1978

Valid.

Rachiosteus

Gross

1938

Valid.

Radotina

Gross

1950

Valid.

Ramphodus[1]

Davis

1883

Valid.

Remigolepis[11]

Stensiö

1931

Valid.

Rhachiosteus

Gross

1938

Valid.

Rhamphodontus[1]

Valid.

Rhamphodopsis[1]

Watson

1934

Valid.

Rhampodus[1]

Valid.

Rhenonema

Obruchev

1964

Valid.

Rhinosteus

Jaekel

1911

Valid.

Rhynchodontus[1]

Jaekel

1919

Valid.

Rhynchodus

Newberry

1873

Valid.

Rhynchognathus[1]

Jaekel

1929

Valid.

Rhynchosteus[1]

Jaekel

1925

Valid.

Ringinia[1]

Whitley

1950

Valid.

Rinodus[1]

Newberry
Worthen

1866

Valid.

Rolfosteus

Dennis
Miles

1979

Valid.

Romundina

Orvig

1975

Valid.

Sedowichthys[1]

Bystrow

1957

Valid.

Selenosteus

Dean

1901

Valid.

Shearsbyaspis

Young

1984

Valid.

Sigaspis[1]

Goujet

1973

Valid.

Simblaspis[1]

Denison

1958

Valid.

Simosteus[1]

Dennis
Miles

1982

Valid.

Sinolepis

Liu
Pan

1958

Valid.

Squamatognathus

Hanke
Stewart
Lammers

1996

Valid.

Stenognathus[1]

Newberry

1898

Preocc.

Preoccupied by coleoptere genus Stenognathus Chaudoir, 1843

Stenosteus

Dean

1901

Valid.

Stensioella

Broili

1933

Valid.

Steurtzaspis[1]

Valid.

Stuertzaspis

Westoll
Miles

1963

Valid.

Svalbardaspis[1]

Heintz

1929

Valid.

Synauchenia

Jaekel

1919

Valid.

Szeaspis[1]

Liu

1979

Preocc.

Preoccupied by trilobite genus Szeaspis Chang, 1969

Taemasosteus

White

1978

Valid.

Taeniolepis

Gross

1932

Valid.

Tafilalichthys

Lehman

1956

Valid.

Tapinosteus

Stensiö

1963

Valid.

Taunaspis

Schmidt

1933

Valid.

Tiaraspis

Gross

1962

Valid.

Timanosteus

Obruchev

1962

Valid.

Titanichthys

Newberry

1885

Valid.

Tityosteus[1]

Gross

1960

Valid.

Tollichthys[1]

Bystrow

1957

Valid.

Tollodus

Mark-Kurik

1977

Valid.

Tomaiosteus[1]

Kulczycki

1957

Valid.

Tongdzuylepis[1]

Janvier
Phuong

1999

Valid.

Toombsosteus

White

1978

Valid.

Torosteus

Gardiner
Miles

1990

Valid.

Trachosteus

Newberry

1890

Valid.

Trematosteus

Jaekel

1927

Valid.

Tropidosteus

Gross

1933

Valid.

Tubalepis[12]

Panteleyev

2003

Valid.

Tubonasus

Dennis
Miles

1979

Valid.

Uralosteus[1]

Mark-Kurik
Young

2003

Valid.

Vukhuclepis[8]

Janvier
Thanh
Phuong
Truong

1997

Valid.

Walterosteus[1]

Stensiö

1959

Valid.

Watsonosteus

Miles
Westoll

1963

Valid.

Weejasperaspis

White

1978

Valid.

Westralichthys[6]

Long

1987

Valid.

Wheathillaspis

White

1961

Valid.

Wijdeaspis

Obruchev

1964

Valid.

Wijeaspis[1]

Valid.

Williamsaspis

White

1952

Valid.

Woodwardosteus[1]

White
Moy-Thomas

1940

Valid.

Wuttagoonaspis[1]

Ritchie

1973

Valid.

Xichonolepis

Pan
Wang

1978

Valid.

Xinanpetalichthyes

Valid.

Yiminaspis

Dupret

2008

Valid.

Yinosteus

Valid.

Yunnanocanthus[1]

Valid.

Yunnanolepis

Liu

1963

Valid.

Yurammia[1]

Young

2005

Valid.

Zhanjilepis

Zhang

1978

Valid.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn Haraamo, Mikko (2005-11-15). "Mikko's Phylogeny Archive entries on "†Acanthothoraci" "†Actinolepidae" "†Antiarcha" "†Arthrodira" "†Coccosteoidea" "†Coccosteina" "†Dinichthyloidea" "†Groelandaspididae" "†Holonematidae" "†Macropetalichthyidae" "†Phlyctaeniidae" †Phyllolepida "†Placodermi" "†Ptyctodontidae" "†Rhenanida"". Retrieved 2008-01-13. 
  2. ^ Young, Gavin C. (2005). "Early Devonian arthrodire remains (Placodermi, ?Holonematidae) from the Burrinjuck area, New South Wales, Australia". Geodiversitas 27 (2): p.201. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 
  3. ^ Denison, Robert H. (1941). "The soft anatomy of Bothriolepis". Journal of Paleontology 15 (5): pp. 553–561. JSTOR 1298812. 
  4. ^ Carr R. K., Hlavin V. J. (2010). "Two new species of Dunkleosteus Lehman, 1956, from the Ohio Shale Formation (USA, Famennian) and the Kettle Point Formation (Canada, Upper Devonian), and a cladistic analysis of the Eubrachythoraci (Placodermi, Arthrodira)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 159 (1): 195–222. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00578.x. 
  5. ^ Dupret, Vincent; M. Zhu (2007-11-30). "Early Devonian arthrodire remains (Placodermi, ?Holonematidae) from the Burrinjuck area, New South Wales, Australia". Geological Magazine. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 
  6. ^ a b c Carr, Robert K.; William J. Hlavin (2005-04-28). "Dinichthyidae (Placodermi):A paleontological fiction?". Geobios 28 (2): pp. 85–87. doi:10.1016/S0016-6995(95)80092-1. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 
  7. ^ Luksevics, Erwin (2001). "Bothriolepid antiarchs (Vertebrata, Placodermi) from the Devonian of the north-western part of the East European Platform". Geodiversitas 23 (4): p.489. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 
  8. ^ a b Janvier, Phillippe; Thanh, Tong-Dzuy; Phuong, Ta Hoa; Truong, Doan Nhât; Tong-Dzuy Thanh, Ta Hoa Phuong and Doan Nhât Truong (August–October 1997). "The Devonian vertebrates (Placodermi, Sarcopterygii) from Central Vietnam and their bearing on the Devonian palaeogeography of Southeast Asia". Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 15 (4-5): p.393–406. doi:10.1016/S0743-9547(97)00020-2. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 
  9. ^ Long, J. A.; Trinajstic, K.; Young, G. C.; Senden, T. (2008). "Live birth in the Devonian period". Nature 453 (7195): 650–652. doi:10.1038/nature06966. PMID 18509443. 
  10. ^ Zakharenko, G. V. (2007-11-20). "A new pachyosteomorph arthrodire (Pisces: Placodermi) from the Upper Frasnian of the Central Devonian Field, Russia". Paleontological Journal 41 (6): p.642. doi:10.1134/S0031030107060081. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 
  11. ^ a b Jiang, Pan; D. L. Dineley (Oct 22, 1988). "A Review of Early (Silurian and Devonian) Vertebrate Biogeography and Biostratigraphy of China". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 235 (1278): pp.29–61. doi:10.1098/rspb.1988.0062. JSTOR 36236. 
  12. ^ Panteleyev, N. V. (2001). "Tubalepis gen. nov. (Placodermi, Antiarchi) from the Upper Devonian of the Minusa Depression". Paleontological Journal ? (?): p.???. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 

Uncited genera can be attributed to:

External links[edit]