List of plantations in West Virginia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Harewood (1770) was designed by John Ariss and built by George Washington's brother Samuel Washington in Jefferson County.
Blakeley (1820) in Jefferson County was built by George Washington's great-nephew, John Augustine Washington II.
Shepherd Hall (1798) in Ohio County is one of the earliest plantations established in the Ohio River valley.
Willow Wall (1811–1812) in Hardy County was used as a hospital by McNeill's Rangers for wounded irregulars.

Former plantations that operated within the present-day boundaries of the U.S. state of West Virginia were located in the counties of the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians and in the Kanawha and Ohio River valley regions. Beginning in the mid-to-late 18th century, members of the Washington family and other prominent Virginia families began to build elegant Georgian mansions on their plantations in the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians region of present-day West Virginia.[1] Plantations initially developed in the counties lying within the Northern Neck Proprietary of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron within the Shenandoah Valley and South Branch Potomac River valleys.[2] They carried over the practice of slavery from the plantations of the Piedmont and Tidewater regions of Virginia, where plantations had become the foundation of society and industry.[2] Following the French and Indian War, settlement and agricultural development continued unabated in the Shenandoah and South Branch Potomac valleys.[3] Early instances of western Virginia plantations with grand homes include the John Ariss-designed Harewood (1774) for George Washington's brother Samuel Washington and Happy Retreat (1780) built by Washington's younger brother Charles Washington, both of which are located near Charles Town in present-day Jefferson County.[4][5][6] In Hampshire County, Nicholas Casey constructed a Georgian mansion (1774) at his Wappocomo plantation, one of the first plantation houses of its kind in the South Branch Potomac River valley.[7]

Plantations continued to develop along the fringes of present-day West Virginia. By the close of the 18th century, Harman Blennerhassett had constructed a mansion on his plantation on Blennerhassett Island and Moses Shepherd had built Shepherd Hall near Wheeling, both in the Ohio River valley.[4] Despite the agricultural development of then western Virginia's bottomlands and the resulting wealth of the plantation owners, the hinterlands of the Allegheny Mountains and Allegheny Plateau regions remained underpopulated and inhabited by subsistence farmers of meager means into the middle of the 19th century.[4] By the 1860 United States Census, Berkeley, Greenbrier, Hampshire, Hardy, Jefferson, Kanawha, and Monroe counties consequently had the largest populations of slaves in present-day West Virginia.[8]

The economic and political differences between western and eastern Virginia began to grow. Following Virginia's secession from the Union in 1861, the Restored Government of Virginia was established at Wheeling during the American Civil War.[9] Despite West Virginia receiving Union statehood on June 20, 1863, sympathies and loyalties within the state's borders remained divided, especially within areas economically dependent upon the plantation system.[9] However, slaveowners in western Virginia tended to own fewer slaves than their counterparts in eastern Virginia and many did not support Virginia's secession.[10] In Mason County, where small farms were reliant upon slavery, its residents overwhelmingly supported the Union cause.[9] During the war, many plantations in West Virginia served as preferred venues for military headquarters and meeting places for both Union and Confederate military officers due to their adequate accommodations and resources. Altona near Charles Town was utilized as a military headquarters and meeting place for Union generals Philip Sheridan and Ulysses S. Grant, with Sheridan making use of the farm's horses and carriage.[11] Other plantations, like Mill Island and Willow Wall near Moorefield, and Elmwood near Shepherdstown, were utilized as hospitals for wounded soldiers and irregulars.[12][13][14]

In anticipation of the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, the West Virginia Legislature at Wheeling passed an act abolishing slavery in West Virginia on February 3, 1865, thus ending the institution of the plantation in West Virginia.[15] Since the 1960s, many of West Virginia's plantation houses have acquired places on the National Register of Historic Places, the United States government's official list of sites, buildings, and structures deemed worthy of preservation. The house at Traveller's Rest, near Kearneysville, is West Virginia's sole plantation house designated as a National Historic Landmark for its national-level historical significance. As of 2014, the majority of West Virginia's plantation houses remain under private ownership.

Key[edit]

Color and symbol Historic register listing
* National Historic Landmark
National Register of Historic Places
United States Historic District
Not listed on a register.

Plantations[edit]

NRHP reference number[16] Name Image Date designated[16] Locality[16] County[16]
03000346† Christian Allemong House[17] May 2, 2003 Summit Point
39°14′14″N 77°58′43″W / 39.23722°N 77.97861°W / 39.23722; -77.97861 (Allemong, Christian, House)
Jefferson
95001322† Altona[11] Altona November 24, 1995 Charles Town
39°17′24″N 77°52′57″W / 39.29000°N 77.88250°W / 39.29000; -77.88250 (Altona)
Jefferson
80004024† Aspen Hill[18] March 13, 1980 Charles Town
39°19′18″N 77°51′44″W / 39.32167°N 77.86222°W / 39.32167; -77.86222 (Aspen Hill)
Jefferson
07000241† Barleywood[3] May 24, 2007 Charles Town
39°18′54″N 77°54′42″W / 39.31500°N 77.91167°W / 39.31500; -77.91167 (Barleywood)
Jefferson
73001914† Beall-Air[19] Beall-Air August 17, 1973 Halltown
39°18′55″N 77°48′44″W / 39.31528°N 77.81222°W / 39.31528; -77.81222 (Beall-Air)
Jefferson
84003588† Belvedere[20] January 12, 1984 Charles Town
39°17′5″N 77°50′43″W / 39.28472°N 77.84528°W / 39.28472; -77.84528 (Belvedere)
Jefferson
87000486† Beverley[21] Beverley March 20, 1987 Charles Town
39°15′3″N 77°53′34″W / 39.25083°N 77.89278°W / 39.25083; -77.89278 (Beverley)
Jefferson
82004319† Blakeley[22] Blakeley April 15, 1982 Charles Town
39°15′36″N 77°54′22″W / 39.26000°N 77.90611°W / 39.26000; -77.90611 (Blakeley)
Jefferson
72001294‡ Blennerhassett Island[23] Blennerhassett Island September 7, 1972 Blennerhassett Island
39°16′19″N 81°37′29″W / 39.27194°N 81.62472°W / 39.27194; -81.62472 (Blennerhassett Island)
Wood
99001397‡ Boidstones Place[24] November 22, 1999 Shepherdstown
39°28′11″N 77°48′6″W / 39.46972°N 77.80167°W / 39.46972; -77.80167 (Boidstones Place)
Jefferson
82004321† The Bower[25] The Bower April 15, 1982 Leetown
39°21′54″N 77°57′27″W / 39.36500°N 77.95750°W / 39.36500; -77.95750 (The Bower)
Jefferson
The Burg[26] The Burg Mechanicsburg
39°20′8.84″N 78°48′32.78″W / 39.3357889°N 78.8091056°W / 39.3357889; -78.8091056 (The Burg)
Hampshire
74002004† Cedar Lawn[27] Cedar Lawn December 4, 1974 Charles Town
39°17′6″N 77°55′22″W / 39.28500°N 77.92278°W / 39.28500; -77.92278 (Cedar Lawn)
Jefferson
73001908† Claymont Court[28] Claymont Court July 25, 1973 Charles Town
39°16′7″N 77°54′21″W / 39.26861°N 77.90583°W / 39.26861; -77.90583 (Claymont Court)
Jefferson
73001917† Cold Spring[29] August 14, 1973 Shepherdstown
39°23′48″N 77°49′5″W / 39.39667°N 77.81806°W / 39.39667; -77.81806 (Cold Spring)
Jefferson
07000239† Cool Spring[30] Cool Spring March 27, 2007 Charles Town
39°14′44″N 77°55′55″W / 39.24556°N 77.93194°W / 39.24556; -77.93194 (Cool Spring)
Jefferson
94001292† Cool Spring[31] November 21, 1994 Gerrardstown
39°19′53″N 78°06′23″W / 39.33139°N 78.10639°W / 39.33139; -78.10639 (Cool Spring)
Berkeley
80004431† Edgewood[32] December 10, 1980 Bunker Hill
39°19′49″N 78°3′29″W / 39.33028°N 78.05806°W / 39.33028; -78.05806 (Edgewood)
Berkeley
73001918† Elmwood[14] Elmwood August 17, 1973 Shepherdstown
39°23′50″N 77°48′50″W / 39.39722°N 77.81389°W / 39.39722; -77.81389 (Elmwood)
Jefferson
73001918‡ Fort Hill[33] Fort Hill January 9, 1997 Burlington
39°18′37″N 78°56′8″W / 39.31028°N 78.93556°W / 39.31028; -78.93556 (Fort Hill)
Mineral
78002791† Green Bottom[34] Green Bottom May 22, 1978 Lesage
38°35′12″N 82°14′58″W / 38.58667°N 82.24944°W / 38.58667; -82.24944 (Lesage)
Cabell
88002956‡ Samuel Gwinn Plantation[35] March 8, 1989 Lowell
37°38′55″N 80°43′35″W / 37.64861°N 80.72639°W / 37.64861; -80.72639 (Gwinn, Samuel, Plantation)
Summers
73001912† Happy Retreat[5] Happy Retreat July 2, 1973 Charles Town
39°16′56″N 77°51′35″W / 39.28222°N 77.85972°W / 39.28222; -77.85972 (Washington, Charles, House)
Jefferson
73001909† Harewood[6] Harewood March 14, 1973 Charles Town
39°18′9″N 77°55′11″W / 39.30250°N 77.91972°W / 39.30250; -77.91972 (Harewood)
Jefferson
76001938† Hazelfield[36] Hazelfield December 12, 1976 Shenandoah Junction
39°22′25″N 77°51′36″W / 39.37361°N 77.86000°W / 39.37361; -77.86000 (Hazelfield)
Jefferson
86000811‡ Henderson Hall[37] Henderson Hall April 17, 1986 Williamstown
39°22′40″N 81°28′58″W / 39.37778°N 81.48278°W / 39.37778; -81.48278 (Williamstown)
Wood
11000556† Hickory Grove[38][39] August 18, 2011 Romney
39°19′29″N 78°46′50″W / 39.32472°N 78.78056°W / 39.32472; -78.78056 (Hickory Grove)
Hampshire
85003521† Hillside[40] December 12, 1985 Charles Town
39°15′47″N 77°52′5″W / 39.26306°N 77.86806°W / 39.26306; -77.86806 (Hillside)
Jefferson
74002007† Holly Grove[41] Holly Grove August 28, 1974 Charleston
38°20′11″N 81°36′56″W / 38.33639°N 81.61556°W / 38.33639; -81.61556 (Holly Grove)
Kanawha
94000214† Hopewell[42] March 25, 1994 Millville
39°16′4″N 77°47′36″W / 39.26778°N 77.79333°W / 39.26778; -77.79333 (Hopewell)
Jefferson
84003476† Lick Run Plantation[43] January 12, 1984 Bedington
39°31′10″N 77°54′2″W / 39.51944°N 77.90056°W / 39.51944; -77.90056 (Lick Run Plantation)
Berkeley
84003623† Longmeadow/The Holmwood[44] August 23, 1984 Southside
38°42′11″N 81°58′4″W / 38.70306°N 81.96778°W / 38.70306; -81.96778 (Couch-Artrip House)
Mason
91000452‡ Lynnside Manor[45] Lynnside Manor April 26, 1991 Sweet Springs
37°32′42″N 80°41′14″W / 37.54500°N 80.68722°W / 37.54500; -80.68722 (Lynnside Manor)
Monroe
80004408‡ Maidstone Manor[46] December 10, 1980 Hedgesville
39°35′14″N 77°54′32″W / 39.58722°N 77.90889°W / 39.58722; -77.90889 (Maidstone Manor Farm)
Berkeley
04000311† Maidstone-on-the-Potomac[47] Maidstone-on-the-Potomac April 15, 2004 Falling Waters
39°35′59″N 77°50′21″W / 39.59972°N 77.83917°W / 39.59972; -77.83917 (Maidstone-on-the-Potomac)
Berkeley
75001886† The Manor[48] December 18, 1975 Petersburg
39°0′36″N 79°7′40″W / 39.01000°N 79.12778°W / 39.01000; -79.12778 (The Manor)
Grant
93000616† Media[49] November 10, 1994 Shenandoah Junction
39°19′46″N 77°50′32″W / 39.32944°N 77.84222°W / 39.32944; -77.84222 (Media Farm)
Jefferson
73001904† Mill Island[12] July 2, 1973 Moorefield
39°2′22″N 78°57′38″W / 39.03944°N 78.96056°W / 39.03944; -78.96056 (Mill Island)
Hardy
75001888† Montescena[50] November 12, 1975 Lewisburg
37°46′14″N 80°28′33″W / 37.77056°N 80.47583°W / 37.77056; -80.47583 (Montescena)
Greenbrier
73001916† Prato Rio[51] Prato Rio April 11, 1973 Leetown
39°20′49″N 77°56′12″W / 39.34694°N 77.93667°W / 39.34694; -77.93667 (Prato Rio)
Jefferson
73001911† Richwood Hall[52] Richwood Hall June 19, 1973 Charles Town
39°17′32″N 77°55′51″W / 39.29222°N 77.93083°W / 39.29222; -77.93083 (Richwood Hall)
Jefferson
01001328‡ Ridgedale[53][54] November 29, 2001 Springfield
39°24′49″N 78°44′19″W / 39.41361°N 78.73861°W / 39.41361; -78.73861 (Washington Bottom Farm)
Hampshire
82004320† Rion Hall[55] Rion Hall September 20, 1982 Halltown
39°18′4″N 77°49′2″W / 39.30111°N 77.81722°W / 39.30111; -77.81722 (Rion Hall)
Jefferson
89002316‡ Rockland[56] February 5, 1990 Shepherdstown
39°24′30″N 77°51′29″W / 39.40833°N 77.85806°W / 39.40833; -77.85806 (Rockland)
Jefferson
84003500† Rural Hill[57] Rural Hill January 12, 1984 Hedgesville
39°30′55″N 78°0′5″W / 39.51528°N 78.00139°W / 39.51528; -78.00139 (Edward Tabb House)
Berkeley
78002791† Shepherd Hall[58] Shepherd Hall December 18, 1970 Wheeling
40°2′33″N 80°39′33″W / 40.04250°N 80.65917°W / 40.04250; -80.65917 (Wheeling)
Ohio
95000418† Snow Hill[59] April 14, 1995 Leetown
39°20′7″N 77°54′30″W / 39.33528°N 77.90833°W / 39.33528; -77.90833 (Jefferson County Alms House)
Jefferson
80004021† Sycamore Dale[60][61] December 2, 1980 Romney
39°20′15″N 78°46′24″W / 39.33750°N 78.77333°W / 39.33750; -78.77333 (Sycamore Dale)
Hampshire
72001288* Traveller's Rest[62] Traveller's Rest November 15, 1972 Kearneysville
39°23′17.3″N 77°54′04.3″W / 39.388139°N 77.901194°W / 39.388139; -77.901194 (Traveller's Rest)
Jefferson
12001050† Valley View[63][64] Valley View December 12, 2012 Romney
39°21′23.4″N 78°45′35.25″W / 39.356500°N 78.7597917°W / 39.356500; -78.7597917 (Valley View)
Hampshire
84003594† Vinton[65] January 12, 1984 Charles Town
39°16′8″N 77°51′38″W / 39.26889°N 77.86056°W / 39.26889; -77.86056 (Jacks-Manning Farm)
Jefferson
77001378† Walnut Grove[66] August 22, 1977 Union
37°36′9″N 80°32′29″W / 37.60250°N 80.54139°W / 37.60250; -80.54139 (Walnut Grove)
Monroe
Wappocomo[7] Wappocomo Romney
39°21′37.24″N 78°45′10.21″W / 39.3603444°N 78.7528361°W / 39.3603444; -78.7528361 (Wappocomo)
Hampshire
73001906† Willow Wall[13] Willow Wall July 2, 1973 Old Fields
39°7′40″N 78°57′56″W / 39.12778°N 78.96556°W / 39.12778; -78.96556 (Willow Wall)
Hardy
93001358† Willowbrook[67] December 2, 1993 Union
37°34′30″N 80°32′19″W / 37.57500°N 80.53861°W / 37.57500; -80.53861 (Byrnside-Beirne-Johnson House)
Monroe
00000254† Woodlawn[68] March 24, 2000 Kearneysville
39°20′21″N 77°53′07″W / 39.33917°N 77.88528°W / 39.33917; -77.88528 (Woodlawn)
Jefferson
06000654† York Hill[69] York Hill July 26, 2006 Shenandoah Junction
39°22′36″N 77°50′47″W / 39.37667°N 77.84639°W / 39.37667; -77.84639 (York Hill)
Jefferson

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chambers 2004, pp. 20–21.
  2. ^ a b Ambler 1910, p. 8.
  3. ^ a b Wallace, Edie; Reed, Paula S. (August 2006). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Barleywood". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c Chambers 2004, p. 21.
  5. ^ a b McGee, Ted (March 9, 1973). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Happy Retreat". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  6. ^ a b Snell, Charles W. (August 1, 1972). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Harewood". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  7. ^ a b Brannon 1976, pp. 313–316.
  8. ^ Kennedy 1864, pp. 516–518.
  9. ^ a b c Chambers 2004, pp. 26–27.
  10. ^ Burleyson, Eric; Weiblen, Kirsten; Riebe, Erin (April 2004). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Captain David Pugh House". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  11. ^ a b Ehman, Jean Crolius (July 13, 1995). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Altona". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  12. ^ a b Snider, Nancy (August 1972). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Mill Island". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  13. ^ a b Snider, Nancy (August 1972). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Willow Wall". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  14. ^ a b McGee, Ted (March 9, 1973). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Elmwood". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  15. ^ West Virginia Archives and History, West Virginia Division of Culture and History (2013). "On This Day in West Virginia History: February 3". West Virginia Archives and History, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  16. ^ a b c d "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  17. ^ Owens, Valarie; Dunkum, Mike; Murdock, Jennifer W. (January 18, 2003). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Christian Allemong House". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  18. ^ Harding, James E. (October 27, 1979). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Aspen Hill". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  19. ^ McGee, Ted (April 5, 1973). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Beall-Air". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  20. ^ Pauley, Michael J.; Marshall, Paul D. (November 18, 1983). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Belvedere". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  21. ^ Pauley, Michael J. (August 1986). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Beverley". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  22. ^ Pauley, Michael J. (January 20, 1980). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Blakeley". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  23. ^ Hershman, Marlene (May 1982). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Blennerhassett Island Historic Area". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  24. ^ Hyman, Elizabeth H.; Pogany, Erin; Jourdan, Katherine (September 10, 1999). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Boidstones Place". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  25. ^ Pauley, Michael J. (November 1, 1981). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: The Bower". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  26. ^ Brannon 1976, pp. 406–408.
  27. ^ McGee, Ted (April 1973). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Cedar Lawn". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  28. ^ McGee, Ted (October 6, 1972). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Claymont Court". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  29. ^ McGee, Ted (March 9, 1973). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Cold Spring". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  30. ^ Reed, Paula S.; Wallace, Edie (August 2006). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Cool Spring". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  31. ^ Gioulis, Michael; Wood, Don C. (April 30, 1994). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Cool Spring". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  32. ^ Wood, Don C. (1980). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Edgewood". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  33. ^ McPherson, Beth Ann; Pierce, Susan M. (September 20, 1996). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Fort Hill". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  34. ^ Harding, James E. (October 27, 1977). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Green Bottom". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  35. ^ Schmauss, David C. (July 28, 1988). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Samuel Gwinn Plantation". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  36. ^ Pitts, Phillip R.; Harding, James E. (March 2, 1976). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Hazelfield". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  37. ^ Collins, Rodney S. (January 25, 1986). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Henderson Hall". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  38. ^ Brannon 1976, pp. 296–300.
  39. ^ Baker, Charles; Riebe, Erin (May 2010). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Hickory Grove". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  40. ^ Pauley, Michael J. (April 2, 1984). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Hillside". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  41. ^ Harding, James E. (May 13, 1974). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Holly Grove". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  42. ^ Crolius, Jean T. (November 20, 1993). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Hopewell". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  43. ^ Ruth, Frances D. (September 30, 1983). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Lick Run Plantation". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  44. ^ Collins, Rodney S. (March 1984). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Couch-Artrip House". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  45. ^ Pauley, Michael J. (January 15, 1991). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Lynnside Historic District". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  46. ^ Wood, Don C. (1980). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Maidstone Manor Farm". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  47. ^ Taylor, David L. (October 2003). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Maidstone-on-the-Potomac". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  48. ^ Harding, James E. (April 1975). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: The Manor". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  49. ^ Crolius, Jean T. (March 8, 1993). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Media Farm". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  50. ^ Turley, C. E.; Harding, James E. (March 12, 1975). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: David S. Creigh House". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  51. ^ Snell, Charles W. (July 27, 1972). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Prato Rio". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  52. ^ McGee, Ted (October 6, 1972). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Richwood Hall". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  53. ^ Brinker, Loretta; Jourdan, Katherine (July 2001). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Washington Bottom Farm". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  54. ^ Brannon 1976, pp. 323–324.
  55. ^ Pauley, Michael J. (1982). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Rion Hall". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  56. ^ Crolius, Jean T. (August 5, 1989). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Rockland". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  57. ^ Ruth, Frances D. (September 1983). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Edward Tabb House". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  58. ^ Lewis, Clifford M. (September 21, 1970). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Shepherd Hall". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  59. ^ Blickenstaff, Julia S.; Creamer, Carmen; Wood, Don; Grove, Beverly; Geertsema, Galtjo L. (December 13, 1994). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Jefferson County Alms House". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  60. ^ Brannon 1976, pp. 300–302.
  61. ^ Pauley, Michael J. (October 6, 1980). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Sycamore Dale". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  62. ^ Snell, Charles W. (July 31, 1972). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Traveller's Rest". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  63. ^ Brannon 1976, pp. 309–312.
  64. ^ Zimmerman, Courtney Fint (August 24, 2012). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Valley View". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  65. ^ Pauley, Michael J.; Marshall, Paul D. (November 15, 1983). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Jacks-Manning Farm". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  66. ^ Turley, C. E.; Harding, James E. (November 4, 1976). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Walnut Grove". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  67. ^ Ripley, Ronald (June 30, 1993). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Byrnside-Beirne-Johnson House". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  68. ^ Lazelle, Jeremy (November 22, 1999). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Woodlawn". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  69. ^ Wallace, Edie; Reed, Paula S. (March 2006). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: York Hill". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]