There are multiple political parties in Pakistan. Pakistan is a multi-party democracy but has seen various military governments as well. Since no one party has a chance of gaining power alone, parties work with each other to form coalition governments.
Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (Pakistan Movement for Justice) (abbr. PTI) was founded by Imran Khan on 25 April 1996 in Lahore, Pakistan. Founded initially as a socio-political movement, PTI began to grow slowly but never achieved immediate popularity. The general elections in 2008 were boycotted by the PTI. During the 2011–12, PTI has emerged as a robust counterweight to Pakistan's two traditional political parties, the Pakistan People's Party and the Pakistan Muslim League (N). While the PML-N's former stronghold consisted of the urban areas of Punjab and the PPP drew most of its support from Sindh, PTI maintains that it represents all Pakistanis, regardless of religious, ethnic, linguistic, and provincial backgrounds. Even though of little election success in the past, PTI has established itself as one of the country's mainstream national parties mainly after 30 October 2011 when over Hundred thousand people gathered in Lahore in support of the Party. PTI claims to have over 6 million workers in Pakistan. The party is an anti-status quo movement advocating for an egalitarian and modern model of Islamic democraticwelfare state. PTI believes in pursuing a foreign policy based on a nationalist agenda arguing that terrorism, extremism, and radicalisation have only increased as Pakistan has joined the US-led War on Terror. PTI believes that Pakistan must withdraw from this war, negotiate a peace settlement, and fight the battle against militancy on its own terms. In Pakistani general elections, 2013, party secured 32 general seats of National Assembly, became largest party in Provincial Assembly of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and second largest in Provincial Assembly of Punjab.
Muttahida Qaumi Movement (United National Movement) (abbr. MQM) is generally known as a party which holds some mobilising potential in Muhajir community living in a few urban areas of Sindh province. The student organisation, All Pakistan Muhajir Student Organization (APMSO), was founded in 1978 by Altaf Hussain which subsequently gave birth to the Muhajir Quami Movement in 1984. The organisation maintains liberal and progressive stances on many political and social issues but MQM is heavily criticised for involvement in various violent and criminal activities in city of Karachi. From 1992 to 1999, the MQM was the alleged target of the Pakistan Army's Operation Cleanup against criminal groups leaving hundreds of civilians dead. In 1997, the MQM officially removed the term Muhajir (which denotes the party's roots of Urdu-speaking Muslims from present-day Indian regions) from its name, and replaced it with Muttahida ("United"). The MQM is one of few socially liberal political parties in Pakistan and organised the largest rallies in Pakistan in protest of the actions of al-Qaeda on 11 September 2001 demonstrating sympathy with the victims of the terrorist attacks. Mutahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) is the second largest party in Sindh and fourth largest in the country.
^Haq, Farhat (1 November 1999). "Rise of the MQM in Pakistan: Politics of Ethnic Mobilization". Asian Survey (University of California Press) 35 (11): 990–1004. doi:10.1525/as.1995.35.11.01p00677.|accessdate= requires |url= (help)