List of prisoner-of-war camps in Germany

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Part of Lists of Prisoner-of-War Camps section in the Prisoner-of-war camp article.

This article is a list of prisoner-of-war camps in Germany (and in German occupied territory) during any conflict. These are the camps that housed captured members of the enemy armed forces, crews of ships of the merchant marine and the crews of civil aircraft.

For civilian and concentration camps, see List of concentration camps of Nazi Germany.

Contents

World War I POW Camps[edit]

During World War I camps were run by the 25 Army Corps Districts into which Germany was divided.[1][2]

Types of camps[edit]

Kriegsgefangenenlager (KGFL, "Prisoner of war camps") were divided into:

  • Mannschaftslager ("Enlisted Men's Camp") for private soldiers and NCOs.
  • Offizierslager ("Officer Camp") for commissioned officers.
  • Internierungslager ("Internment Camp") for civilians of enemy states.
  • Lazarett, military hospital for POWs.

List of camps by Army Corps districts[edit]

Map of POW camps in Germany during WWI
Kriegsgefangenenlager Crossen, 1914
British, French and Portuguese troops, c.1918
French colonial troops from North and West Africa
French POWs at work at a farm in Westscheid bei Mennighüffen

Guards Corps (Berlin)[edit]

Mannschaftslager
Lazarett
  • Berlin. Located on Alexandrinenstrasse.

I Army Corps (Königsberg)[edit]

None found.

II Army Corps (Stettin)[edit]

Mannschaftslager
Lazarett

III Army Corps (Berlin)[edit]

Mannschaftslager
Internierungslager
  • Havelberg. For 4,500 internees of various nationalities, including nearly 400 British Indians

IV Army Corps (Magdeburg)[edit]

Offizierlager
Mannschaftslager
  • Gardelegen. Camp opened in September 1914.
  • Grabow. Formerly a military camp, consisting of eight compounds of six barracks each.
  • Merseburg An assembly camp holding up to 25,000 prisoners, from which men were drafted to work camps.
  • Quedlinburg. A camp 2½ miles from the town, holding 12,000 men.
  • Wittenberg. A camp 10½ acres in area at Klein Wittenberg, 2 miles from the city. Eight compounds held 13,000 men.
  • Zerbst. A camp at an infantry drill ground two miles north of the city. It held up to 15,000 men, but there were 100,000 registered there, the majority engaged in industry and agriculture.
Internierungslager
  • Ruhleben. Camp for up to 4,500 internees six miles from Berlin located at a racecourse.

V Army Corps (Posen)[edit]

Mannschaftslager
  • Lauban.
  • Sagan. A camp five miles from the town holding 6,000 men.
  • Skalmierschütz. A very large camp for Russians and Romanians to which British and American prisoners were sent in early 1918.
  • Sprottau A camp three miles from the town, and also a Lazarett for prisoners with tuberculosis.
  • Stralkowo. A camp three miles from the town holding mainly Russians and Romanians, and British from March 1918.

VI Army Corps (Breslau)[edit]

Offizierlager
Mannschaftslager
  • Lamsdorf. A camp at a military training ground that was reopened during World War II as Stalag VIII-B.
  • Neuhammer. A clearing camp for Upper Silesia. 100,000 men were registered there, but were mostly in work camps under its administration.
Lazarett
  • Beuthen. Two large Lazaretts, containing British prisoners from early 1918.

VII Army Corps (Münster)[edit]

Offizierlager
Mannschaftslager
  • Burg Steinfurt. A camp for British prisoners.
  • Dortmund.
  • Duisburg.
  • Dülmen.
  • Düsseldorf.
  • Erfurt. Held 15,000 men.
  • Friedrichsfeld. Camp holding 35,000 men,
  • Hammerstein. A camp for Russian prisoners.
  • Heilsberg
  • Minden. A camp three miles from the town with 18,000 men.
  • Münster. There were four camps: Münster I was outside the city in open farming country, Münster II was at the racecourse, Münster III was a former Army barracks, and Münster IV was reserved for Russian prisoners.
  • Sennelager. Three camps just north of Paderborn, named Senne I, II & III.
  • Stendal. The camp was a mile NE of the town, and was centre of a number of work camps, holding 15,000 men.
  • Tuchel. A camp for Russians and Romanians, also holding British and American prisoners from 1918.
Lazarett

VIII Army Corps (Coblenz)[edit]

Offizierlager
  • Crefeld. There was also a Lazarett there.
Mannschaftslager
  • Limburg an der Lahn. A camp holding 12,000 men in which Irish prisoners were concentrated for the purpose of recruiting for the Irish Brigade.
  • Meschede. The camp, just outside of the town, held 10,000 POW.
  • Wahn. Located 20 miles south-east of Cologne at the Wahner Heide Artillery practice camp. The camp has 35,000 men on its register and was formerly a parent camp for work camps in the district.
Lazarett
  • Aachen. Nine hospitals for British POW awaiting repatriation.
  • Coblenz.
  • Cologne. Several hospitals. British prisoners were treated either in the Garrison Lazarett I or the Kaiserin Augusta Schule Lazarett VI.
  • Trier. Officer prisoners were treated in the Reserve Lazarett IV (Horn Kaserne).

IX Army Corps (Altona)[edit]

Offizierlager
Mannschaftslager
  • Güstrow. Situated in pine-woods three miles from the town. It held 25,000 men, but had another 25,000 registered there assigned to work camps.
  • Lübeck. A camp for men employed at the docks. Also a reserve Lazarett.
  • Neumünster
  • Parchim. A camp built on a former cavalry drill ground three miles from the town. Held 25,000 men, and up to 45,000 more registered in work camps.
Lazarett
  • Bremen. A garrison hospital and also a work camp attached to Soltau.
  • Hamburg Reserve Lazarett VII was a ward of the central prison at Fuhlsbüttel. Reserve Lazarett III was at the Eppendorfer Krankenhaus, and at Veddel there was a Lazarett for Navy personnel.

X Army Corps (Hannover)[edit]

Offizierlager
  • Bad Blenhorst near Nienburg
  • Celle. At Scheuen, and until late 1916 also Reserve Lazarett I (St Joseph).
  • Clausthal.
  • Hesepe nr. Osnabrück.
  • Holzminden. For British officers. Housed in a former cavalry barracks (built 1913). The site of a noted tunnel escape in July 1918.
  • Osnabrück. Camp located in a former artillery barracks.
  • Ströhen.
  • Schwarmstedt.
  • Wahmbeck. At a hotel holding mostly officers from the merchant service.
Mannschaftslager
Lazarett
  • Hanover. Lazarett V was in the Royal War School, and there was another at the Garrison Lazarett.
Internierungslager
  • Celle Castle. For civilians and ex-officers.
  • Holzminden. For up to 10,000 civilian internees, mainly Polish, Russian, French and Belgian, and including a small number of Britons. Comprised two camps, one for men, the other for women and children.

XI Army Corps (Cassel)[edit]

Offizierlager
Mannschaftslager
  • Langensalza. Opened in 1914, the camp held 10,000 men.
  • Ohrdruf. Located on a former Army training ground and held 15,000 men.

XII Army Corps (Dresden)[edit]

Offizierlager
Mannschaftslager

XIII Army Corps (Stuttgart)[edit]

Mannschaftslager
  • Heilbronn Sub-camp of Stuttgart.
  • Stuttgart. Two camps; one in the city in an abandoned factory building, the other in a disused factory three miles outside.
  • Ludwigsburg.
Lazarett
  • Kempten. British prisoners quartered in the hospital there.

XIV Army Corps (Karlsruhe)[edit]

Offizierlager
  • Karlsruhe. Two camps; one in the grounds of the Karlsruher Schloss contained naval and, later, aviation officers, the other, the former Europäischer Hof, was known as "The Listening Hotel", and was an interrogation centre.
  • Freiburg. Located in an old university building.
  • Heidelberg. In barracks four miles from town.
  • Ingolstadt. The camps were located in the city fortifications; fortresses 8, 9 & 10. As a camp for persistent escapers, it was the World War I counterpart to Colditz. Documented in the book The Escaping Club by Alfred John Evans.
  • Villingen. The camp was in a disused barracks.
  • Weingarten near Karlsruhe.
Mannschaftslager
  • Ingolstadt. Situated on the edge of the town, holding 4,000 men.
  • Mannheim Located two miles outside of the city. From February 1917 it used as a clearing or exchange camp for British prisoners of war awaiting repatriation. Held 10,000 men.
Internierungslager
  • Rastatt Camp for French civilians. During 1918 it was used as a military transit camp.

XV Army Corps (Strasbourg)[edit]

Offizierlager

XVI Army Corps (Metz)[edit]

  • Metz. Known as Lazarett Saint-Clément.

XVII Army Corps (Danzig)[edit]

Mannschaftslager
  • Czersk. A camp for Russian POWs, to which British prisoners were also later sent.
  • Danzig (Troyl) The "camp" consists of barges moored on the bank of the Vistula River, each containing from 100 to 500 men. The administration block, kitchen, and other facilities of the camp are on shore. Men from the failed Irish Brigade were sent here.[4]

XVIII Army Corps (Frankfurt-am-Main)[edit]

Offizierlager
Mannschaftslager
Lazarett

XIX Army Corps (Leipzig)[edit]

Offizierlager
Mannschaftslager
  • Chemnitz. Camp located in the Friedrich-August Kaserne.
  • Zwickau. Camp holds 10,000 POW.

XX Army Corps (Allenstein)[edit]

Mannschaftslager
  • Arys
  • Osterrade Located at a locomotive works. A sub-camp of Preußisch Holland.
  • Preußisch Holland. Holds 15,000 POW, though up to 35,000 registered there in various work camps.

XXI Army Corps (Saarbrücken)[edit]

Offizierlager

I Royal Bavarian Army Corps (Munich)[edit]

Mannschaftslager
Lazarett
  • Munich. The large war school in the Mars Platz is used as a hospital, and there is another known as Lazarett B.

II Royal Bavarian Army Corps (Würzburg)[edit]

Offizierlager
Mannschaftslager

III Royal Bavarian Army Corps (Nürnberg)[edit]

Mannschaftslager
  • Amberg. Held 5,000 POW.
  • Bayreuth. Held 5,000 POW.
  • Landau
  • Nuremberg. Located three miles from the town on an old training ground of the Nuremberg Garrison.
Lazarett

Others[edit]

Offizierlager
Mannschaftslager
  • Cassel (Niederzwehren). Held 20,000 POW.
  • Constance. All officers and men for internment in Switzerland are concentrated here. Held 15,000.
  • Deutsch Gabel Camp for merchant seamen under Austrian administration.
  • Grafenwöhr Camp and Lazarett (Bavarian Corps)
  • Gleiwitz. Located in a cavalry barracks. British prisoners sent there after March 1918.
  • Heustadt. A centre for work camps in East Prussia.
  • Heuberg. Located at the training area Lager Heuberg.
  • Kalisch. Camp for Russian and Romanian soldiers, and also British from April 1918.
  • Kattowitz Camp for Russian and Romanian soldiers, and also British from April 1918.
  • Marienburg A centre for work camps in East Prussia.
  • Neuburg am Inn
  • Ulm. Camp on the outskirts of the town, of the usual barrack type.
  • Zittau Russian POWs.
Lazarett

World War II POW Camps[edit]

1944 map of POW camps in Germany.

POW camps run by the Germans during World War II. There were around 1,000 Prisoner-of-War camps in Germany during World War II.[6]

Germany was a signatory at the Third Geneva Convention, which established the provisions relative to the treatment of Prisoners of War.

  • Article 10 required that PoWs should be lodged in adequately heated and lighted buildings where conditions were the same as German troops.
  • Articles 27-32 detailed the conditions of labour. Enlisted ranks were required to perform whatever labour they were asked and able to do, so long as it was not dangerous and did not support the German war effort. Senior Non-commissioned officers (sergeants and above) were required to work only in a supervisory role. Commissioned officers were not required to work, although they could volunteer. The work performed was largely agricultural or industrial, ranging from coal or potash mining, stone quarrying, or work in saw mills, breweries, factories, railroad yards, and forests. PoWs hired out to military and civilian contractors were supposed to receive pay. The workers were also supposed to get at least one day a week of rest.
  • Article 76 ensured that PoWs who died in captivity were honourably buried in marked graves.

Types of Camps[edit]

  • Dulag or Durchgangslager (transit camp) – These camps served as a collection point for POWs prior to reassignment. These camps were intelligence collection centers.
  • Dulag Luft or Durchgangslager der Luftwaffe (transit camp of the Luftwaffe) – These were transit camps for Airforce POWs. The main Dulag Luft camp at Frankfurt was the principal collecting point for intelligence derived from Allied POW interrogation.
  • Ilag/Jlag or Internierungslager ("Internment camp") – These were civilian internment camps.
  • Marlag or Marine-Lager ("Marine camp") – These were Navy personnel POW camps.
  • Milag or Marine-Internierten-Lager ("Marine internment camp") – These were merchant seamen internment camps.
  • Oflag or Offizier-Lager ("Officer camp") – These were POW camps for officers.
  • Stalag or Stammlager ("Base camp") – These were enlisted personnel POW camps.
  • Stalag Luft or Luftwaffe-Stammlager ("Luftwaffe base camp") – These were POW camps administered by the German Air Force for Allied aircrews.

Nomenclature[edit]

At the start of World War II, the German Army was divided into 17 military districts (Wehrkreis), which were each assigned Roman numerals. The camps were numbered according to the military district. A letter behind the Roman number marked individual Stalags in a military district.

e.g.

Stalag II-D was the fourth Stalag in Military District II (Wehrkreis II).

Sub-camps had a suffix "/Z" (for Zweiglager - sub-camp). The main camp had a suffix of "/H" (for Hauptlager - main camp).

e.g.

Oflag VII-C/H meant this is the main camp.
Oflag VII-C/Z meant this is a sub-camp of a main camp.

Some of these sub-camps were not the traditional POW camps with barbed wire fences and guard towers, but merely accommodation centers.

List of Camps by Military District[edit]

Diorama of the German World War II PoW camp Stalag Luft III.
Collection of everyday items of Polish prisoners from the Oflag VII-A Murnau.

Military District I (Königsberg)[edit]

Military District II (Stettin)[edit]

Military District III (Berlin)[edit]

Military District IV (Dresden)[edit]

Military District V (Stuttgart)[edit]

Military District VI (Münster)[edit]

Military District VII (Munich)[edit]

Military District VIII (Breslau)[edit]

Military District IX (Kassel)[edit]

Military District X (Hamburg)[edit]

Military District XI (Hanover)[edit]

Military District XII (Wiesbaden)[edit]

Military District XIII (Nuremberg)[edit]

Military District XVII (Vienna)[edit]

Military District XVIII (Salzburg)[edit]

Military District XX (Danzig)[edit]

Military District XXI (Posen)[edit]

Other Camps[edit]

Luftwaffe Camps[edit]

The camps for Allied airmen were run by the Luftwaffe independently of the Army.

Kriegsmarine Camps[edit]

The camps for Allied seamen was run by the Kriegsmarine independently of the Army.

Fictional prison camps[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Steuer (2008) Ch.13, pp.3-6
  2. ^ Pope-Hennessy, Una (1920). Map of the Main Prison Camps in Germany and Austria, with Gazetter and Index. London: Nisbet & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 4 May 2012. 
  3. ^ Steuer (2008) Ch.11, p.6
  4. ^ "Danzig Prisoner of War Camp in WWI". irishbrigade.eu. 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2012. 
  5. ^ "History of the Fortress". kronach.de. 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012. 
  6. ^ Eric Lichtblau (3 March 2013). "The Holocaust Just Got More Shocking". New York Times. Retrieved 5 March 2013. 
Bibliography

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Nichol, John. The Last Escape. ISBN 0-670-03212-3 (The suffering of Allied POWs in the last months of the war.)