List of private spaceflight companies

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This page is a list of non-governmental entities that currently offer – or are planning to offer – equipment and services geared towards spaceflight, both robotic and human spaceflight.

List of abbreviations used in this article

LEO: Low Earth orbit
GTO: Geostationary transfer orbit
VTOL: Vertical take-off and landing
SSTO: Single-stage-to-orbit
TSTO: Two-stage-to-orbit
SSTSO: Single-stage-to-sub-orbit

Manufacturers of space vehicles[edit]

Crew and cargo transport vehicles[edit]

Company name Craft name Craft type Launcher
name
Launcher
type
Maximum
reach
Passenger
capacity
Craft status Notes
Romania ARCA Haas 2b capsule Haas 2b rocket sub-orbit 2 development [1]
Romania ARCA Super Haas capsule Super Haas rocket orbit 2 development [2]
United States Armadillo Aerospace Black Armadillo rocket self-powered self-powered sub-orbit 1-3 testing [3]
United States Bigelow Aerospace and Boeing CST-100 capsule Atlas V[4] rocket LEO 7 testing First use is planned for 2015[5]
United States Bigelow Aerospace and Lockheed Martin Orion Lite capsule Atlas 5 CTS or Falcon 9 rocket LEO 6-7 cancelled [6]
United States Blue Origin New Shepard rocket self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 3 testing [7]
Denmark Copenhagen Suborbitals Tycho Brahe rocket self-powered self-powered sub-orbit 1 testing [8]
Denmark Copenhagen Suborbitals Tycho Deep Space I and II capsule - rocket sub-orbit 1 development [8]
European UnionEADS Astrium unnamed craft spaceplane self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 4 development [9]
Isle of ManExcalibur Almaz TKS derivative capsule multiple rocket LEO 3 development [10][11]
United States Interorbital Systems Solaris X capsule self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 6 cancelled [12]
United States Interorbital Systems Crew Module capsule Neptune TSAAHTO rocket lunar orbit 6 development [13]
Japan Japanese Rocket Society Kankoh-maru rocket self-powered (SSTO) self-powered (SSTO) LEO 50 proposed Sponsors needed[14]
United StatesOrbital Sciences Corp. Cygnus capsule Antares (rocket) rocket LEO - operational (2/2) 2 spacecraft have entered orbit and returned to earth[15]
United StatesOrbital Sciences Corp. Prometheus spaceplane Atlas V rocket LEO 4 development [16]
United StatesPlanetSpace Canadian Arrow rocket self-powered self-powered sub-orbit 3 testing
United StatesPlanetSpace Silver Dart spaceplane Canadian Arrow rocket LEO 8 development [17]
United Kingdom Reaction Engines Ltd. HOTOL spaceplane self-powered (SSTO) self-powered (SSTO) LEO - cancelled [18][full citation needed]
United Kingdom Reaction Engines Ltd. HOTOL 2 spaceplane An 225 airplane LEO - proposed [19]
United Kingdom Reaction Engines Ltd. Skylon spaceplane self-powered (SSTO) self-powered (SSTO) LEO 5-20 development [19]
Rocketplane Kistler K-1 rocket self-powered (TSTO) self-powered (TSTO) LEO - cancelled [20][full citation needed]
Rocketplane Kistler Rocketplane XP spaceplane self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 6 cancelled [21][full citation needed]
Rotary Rocket Roton rocket self-powered (SSTO) self-powered (SSTO) LEO 2 cancelled [22]
Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne spaceplane WhiteKnightOne airplane sub-orbit 2 retired (3/3) [23]
United KingdomUnited StatesScaled Composites and Virgin Galactic
(The Spaceship Company)
SpaceShipTwo spaceplane WhiteKnightTwo airplane sub-orbit 8 testing First use planned for 2014[24]
United KingdomUnited StatesScaled Composites and Virgin Galactic
(The Spaceship Company)
SpaceShipThree spaceplane WhiteKnightTwo airplane LEO (or suborbital passenger-delivery)  ? proposed [25]
Space Adventures and Myasishchev Design Bureau Explorer (Cosmopolis XXI, C-21) spaceplane M-55X airplane sub-orbit 5 development [26]
Space Transport Corp. Rubicon I rocket self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 3 cancelled [27]
SpaceDev Dream Chaser spaceplane Atlas V rocket LEO 7 testing [28]
United States SpaceX Dragon (cargo) capsule Falcon 9 rocket LEO 0 operational (5/5) Five spacecraft have entered orbit and returned to earth.[29]
United States SpaceX Dragon (V2) capsule Falcon 9 rocket LEO 7 development unveiled 29 May 2014
United Kingdom Starchaser Industries NOVA capsule Starchaser 4 rocket sub-orbit - testing [30]
United Kingdom Starchaser Industries Thunderstar capsule Starchaser 5 rocket sub-orbit 3 development [31]
United Kingdom Starchaser Industries Thunderbird capsule Starchaser 5 rocket sub-orbit 6 development [31]
Truax Engineering, Inc. X-3 Volksrocket capsule Private Enterprise rocket sub-orbit 1 cancelled[citation needed]
t/Space CXV capsule QuickReach rocket LEO and lunar orbit 6 development [32]
Venturer Aerospace S-550 capsule Falcon 9 rocket LEO 6 cancelled [33]
XCOR Xerus spaceplane self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 2 cancelled [34]
XCOR Lynx spaceplane self-powered (SSTSO) self-powered (SSTSO) sub-orbit 1 development First test flight now planned for winter 2014-2015.[35][36][37]

Space stations[edit]

Private Company name Space Craft name Space Craft type Internal
volume
Passenger
capacity
Craft status Ref
Bigelow Aerospace Genesis I Inflatable module 11.5 m3 (406 cu ft)[38] unmanned currently in LEO [39]
Bigelow Aerospace Genesis II Inflatable module 11.5 m3 (406 cu ft)[40] unmanned currently in LEO [41]
Bigelow Aerospace Galaxy Inflatable module 16.7 m3 (590 cu ft)[42] unmanned cancelled [43]
Bigelow Aerospace Sundancer Inflatable module 180 m3 (6,357 cu ft) 3 cancelled [44]
Bigelow Aerospace BA 330 Inflatable module 330 m3 (11,654 cu ft) 6 testing [45]
Bigelow Aerospace BA 2100 Inflatable module 2,100 m3 (74,161 cu ft) 16 proposed
Excalibur Almaz Almaz derivative Rigid module  ? 3 development [10][11]
Galactic Suite Ltd. Galactic Suite Rigid module  ? 6 proposed [46]
Global Space Organization GSO Lunar Station One 3D Printed  ? 10 proposed [47]
Orbital Technologies/RSC Energia Orbital Technologies Commercial Space Station Rigid Module The first module CSS will be volume about 20 m³. 7 development [48]

Launch vehicles[edit]

Further information: List of orbital launch systems
Company name Launcher
name
Launcher
type
No. of
stages
Maximum
reach
Launcher
status
Maiden
flight
Ref
AirLaunch LLC QuickReach rocket 2 LEO development  ? [49]
ARCA Haas 2b small rocket 1 suborbit development  ? [1]
ARCA Super Haas medium rocket 2 LEO development  ? [2]
Beal Aerospace BA-2 medium rocket 3 GTO cancelled  ? [50]
Canadian Arrow Canadian Arrow rocket 2 LEO testing  ? [citation needed]
DIRECT Leviathan-140 rocket 2 GTO development  ? [51]
Galaxy Express GX medium rocket 2 SSO cancelled  ? [52]
Interorbital Systems Sea Star TSAAHTO light rocket LEO development  ? [53]
Interorbital Systems Neptune 30 light rocket multi LEO proposed  ? [13]
Interorbital Systems Neptune 1000 medium rocket multi lunar orbit proposed  ? [13]
Interorbital Systems Neptune TSAAHTO heavy rocket lunar orbit proposed  ? [13]
Lockheed Martin VentureStar medium rocket 1 LEO cancelled  ? [54]
Orbital Sciences Corp. Minotaur-C, formerly Taurus light rocket 4 LEO operational (6/9) 1994 [55][56][57]
Orbital Sciences Corp. Antares medium rocket 3 LEO Operational (3/3) 2013 [58]
Orbital Transport & Raketen AG OTRAG medium rocket variable LEO retired 1977 [citation needed]
Rocket Lab ATEA-1 light rocket 2 suborbit operational (1/1) 2009 [59][60]
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
SR-M light rocket 1 suborbit operational  ? [61]
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
Sprite light rocket - - testing  ? [61]
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
Liberty light rocket - - development  ? [61]
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
Exodus medium rocket - - development  ? [61]
Scorpius Space Launch Company
(Spin-off of Microcosm)
Space Freighter medium rocket - - proposed  ? [61]
Space Services Inc. of America Percheron light rocket 1 suborbit cancelled  ? [62]
Space Services Inc. of America Conestoga 1620 medium rocket 4 LEO cancelled  ? [62]
Space Transport Corp. Spartan light rocket 3 suborbit cancelled  ?
SpaceX Falcon 1 light rocket 2 LEO retired (2/5) 2008 [63]
SpaceX Falcon 1e light rocket 2 LEO proposed  ? [63]
SpaceX Falcon 5 medium rocket 2 GTO cancelled  ? [64]
SpaceX Falcon 9 medium rocket 2 GTO operational (8/9) 2010 [65]
SpaceX Falcon Heavy heavy rocket 2+boosters lunar orbit development 2015 (planned) [65]
Firefly Space Systems Firefly Alpha light rocket 2 LEO development  ? [66]
Texas Spacelines Inc / TSI. Sol Cazador light rocket 7 HEO/lunar/escape development  ? [67]
Ventions VR-1 Nanosat Launch Vehicle (NLV) development 2012 [68]
Mishaal Aerospace M-SV Suborbital Vehicle 1 Suborbital development 2014 [69]
Mishaal Aerospace M-OV Small Sat (<=500 kg) Orbital Vehicle 1+2-10 Boosters LEO development 2016 [69]

Landers, rovers and probes[edit]

Company name Craft name Craft type Craft status Ref
Armadillo Aerospace unnamed craft rocket module testing [70]
BlastOff! Corporation Lunar 1 rover cancelled [71]
Odyssey Moon MoonOne (M-1) rover development [72]
Astrobotic Technology Artemis Lander lander development [73]
Astrobotic Technology Red Rover rover development [74]
Astrobotic Technology Griffin lunar lander negotiating [75]
Masten Space Systems XEUS lunar lander negotiating [75]
Moon Express MX-1 family lunar lander negotiating [75]
Team Italia rover development [76]
Mars One unnamed lander development [77]
Team FREDNET development [78]
TransOrbital TrailBlazer lunar orbiter cancelled [79]
ARCASPACE ELE lunar orbiter development [80]
STELLAR development [81]
Omega Envoy development [82]
Independence-X development [83]
SYNERGY MOON development [84]
Euroluna ROMIT development [85]
Puli Space Technologies Puli rover fundraising [86]
Golden Spike Company Moon lander proposed [87]

Research craft and tech demonstrators[edit]

Further information: List of sounding rockets
Company name Craft name Craft purpose Craft status Ref
ARCA Demonstrator 2b demonstrate reusable monopropellant engine retired
Armadillo Aerospace Quad demonstrate VTOL operational
Blue Origin Goddard demonstrate VTOL operational
Interorbital Systems Neutrino systems testing operational
Interorbital Systems Tachyon systems testing operational [88]
Lockheed Martin X-33 demonstrate SSTO cancelled
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1 demonstrate VTOL retired
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1B Lunar Lander Challenge Level 1 operational
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1E Lunar Lander Challenge Level 2, commercial precursor flights operational
Masten Space Systems XA-0.1E2 commercial flights development
McDonnell Douglas DC-X demonstrate VTOL retired (11 test flights)
Rotary Rocket Roton ATV demonstrate VTOL retired (3 test flights)
Space Services Inc. Conestoga I systems testing retired (1 test) [62]
SpaceX Grasshopper demonstrate VTOL retired (8 tests) [89]
SpaceX F9R Dev1 refine VTOL (low altitude) destroyed (5 flights) [90]
SpaceX F9R Dev2 refine VTOL (high altitude) development
Swedish Space Corp. Maxus payload to 700 km operational
Swedish Space Corp. Maser payload to 300 km operational
UP Aerospace SpaceLoft XL payload to 140 km operational [91]

Space mining[edit]

Company name Body to be mined Mining craft Mining status Ref
Infinite Space Dynamics Near-Earth Asteroids, Moon, Asteroid Belt Development Development
Shackleton Energy Company Moon Architecture Architecture
Moon Express Moon Unknown Unknown
Planetary Resources Near-Earth asteroids Arkyd Series 100, 200, 300 development [92]
Deep Space Industries Near-Earth asteroids press conference
Global Space Organization Moon, Near-Earth asteroids Robotic Systems proposed [93]
Stott Space Inc. Near-Earth asteroids fundraising [94]

Space manufacturing[edit]

Company name Products Manufacturing craft status Ref
Infinite Space Dynamics Propellant, Space Infrastructure, Propellant depot, communications platforms, space solar power satellites
Shackleton Energy Company propellant, space infrastructure, Propellant depot
Deep Space Industries propellant, communications platforms, space solar power satellites

Space Colonization[edit]

Company name Colony location Status Ref
Mars One Mars Fundraising and assessing astronaut applications [95]

Propulsion manufacturers[edit]

Company name Engine Engine type Applications Ref
Ad Astra Rocket Company VASIMR magnetoplasma may be used for future Mars missions[96]
AE Aerospace HIRE[97][98] hybrid ion rocket
AE Aerospace Scearamjet[99][full citation needed] Electric Scramjet
American Rocket Company hybrid rocket The company became insolvent and was shut down in May 1996. Its lineage is part of SpaceShipOne.
ARCA Executor (rocket engine) LOX/RP-1 IAR 111, Haas 2, Haas 2b, Super Haas
CU Aerospace PUC, CHIPS, PPT-11 MCD[100] / Resistojet / PPT[101] Small satellite / CubeSat missions[102]
Reaction Engines Ltd. SABRE precooled air-breathing rocket planned to be used in Skylon [103]
Virgin Galactic RocketMotorTwo hybrid rocket SpaceShipTwo
SpaceDev hybrid rocket SpaceShipOne[citation needed]
SpaceX Kestrel (rocket engine) LOX/RP-1 Falcon 1 second stage
SpaceX Merlin (rocket engine) LOX/RP-1 Falcon 1,[104] Falcon 9,[105] Falcon 9 Heavy first stage[citation needed]
SpaceX Merlin Vacuum LOX/RP-1 Falcon 9, Falcon 9 Heavy second stage[citation needed]
SpaceX Raptor (rocket engine) LOX/Liquid methane "a highly reusable methane staged-combustion engine that will power the next generation of SpaceX launch vehicles designed for the exploration and colonization of Mars."[106]

Satellite launchers[edit]

Spaceliner companies[edit]

Company name Contracts for Craft utilised Status
Benson Space Company SpaceDev Dream Chaser waiting for hardware[citation needed]
MirCorp none Soyuz TM, Progress M1 and Mir defunct, Mir deorbited
Space Adventures none Soyuz and the ISS active (7 tourists sent)
RocketShip Tours XCOR Lynx rocketplane waiting for hardware
Virgin Galactic Scaled Composites SpaceShipTwo waiting for hardware

Spacecraft component developers and manufacturers[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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