List of professional cyclists who died during a race

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Parc des Princes Velodrome,
site of Breton's 1902 death
(circa 1900 postcard)

The first documented deaths of professional cyclists during competition date to the 1890s. Before 1929 at least 47 professional riders and pacemakers[Note 1] died at velodromes in track cycling[1][Note 2] and since 1994 a number of professionals have been killed in accidents with motorized vehicles while training on public roads. The dangers of cycling continue to be disputed among modern sources. For example, the 2005 United States Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) data showed bicycling to be nearly as dangerous as American football.[2] A survey of 2008 Olympics teams, however, indicated that cycling was not even in the top 6 most injury-prone sports during competition that year.[3]

Deaths during a race[edit]

Riders who have died during a Race
Image Name Date of Death Nationality Notes
Pierre Froget August 21, 1894 France France Velodrome of Vichy. Crash while tandem racing as a track cyclist. Died 6 days later at the age of 21, was the first victim of a cycling accident on a French track.[4]
AW "Bert" Harris April 21, 1897 United Kingdom United Kingdom Known as "Bert Harris" or "Invincible Harris", he was the fastest short-distance rider in England, the first Professional Cycling Champion of England and was one of the most well-known athletes of his day. His last and fatal race was held at Aston on Easter Monday of 1897 where his cycle touched another rider and he was upset head-first onto the track's surface. Harris died a few days later, never having regained consciousness, and tens of thousands of mourners lined the streets of Leicester for his funeral procession.[5][6][7][8][9][10][Note 3]
Oscar Aaronson[Note 4] December 22, 1900 Sweden Sweden Injured during December 16, 1900 competitors' crash at the New York City/Madison Square Garden Six-Day Race.[11][12] Died on the 22nd from aftereffects of crash, from exhaustion and pneumonia.[13]
Harry Elkes May 30, 1903 United States United States Track cyclist. Charles River Track, Cambridge, Massachusetts.[14][15][16] Elkes held the world record-holder for "paced-cycle racing" during most of his career and just prior to his fatal accident had achieved a new 5 Miles World Record, going that distance in 6 minutes, 12 1/5 seconds.[14] Marshall Taylor in his autobiography called Elkes "one of the greatest middle-distance riders that ever pedalled a bicycle."[17]
A picture of Edouard Taylor posing on his bike. Edouard Taylor[Note 5] 1903[16][Note 6] France France Aubervilliers, France. In 1899 Taylor held a National (Stayers) Championship of France and in 1900 he was 3rd at the European Championships, 2nd at the World Championships and also beat Henry Elkes by 300 metres in a 50-mile race.[18] In his last year of competition he placed 3rd at the World Stayers Championship.[19][20]
A picture of Alfred Görnemann beside a bike. Alfred Görnemann October 11, 1903 German Empire German Empire Track cyclist, Dresden track[21]
Pilack June 16, 1904 German Empire German Empire ? Track cyclist, pacemaker.[21][22]
Paul Dangla June 18, 1904 France France 1903 World Record-holder (Track), Dresden track[1][23] France, track cyclist,[Note 7][24][25]
Karl Käser August 14, 1904 German Empire German Empire Track cyclist, Plauen track.[26]
A picture of George Leander being pushed on a bike by someone. George Leander August 23, 1904 United States United States Track cyclist.[16][27]
Charles Albert Brécy November 25, 1904 France France Track cyclist. Parc des Princes velodrome,[28] track cyclist,[Note 8]
Hubert Sevenich May 7, 1905 German Empire German Empire Track cyclist[29]
Willy Schmitter September 18, 1905 German Empire German Empire Track cyclist. European Championship, Leipzig track.[30] track cyclist, September 18, 1905, European Championship,[31]
Gustav Freudenberg April 29, 1906 German Empire German Empire Track cyclist.[32]
Richard Huhndorf July 22, 1906 German Empire German Empire Track cyclist.[33]
Charles Peguy June 9, 1907 France France Pace maker.[34]
Louis Mettling June 21, 1907 United States United States Track cyclist.[35]
Josef Schwarzer August 30, 1907 German Empire German Empire Pace maker. Düsseldorf track[36]
Moritz Hübner October 13, 1907 German Empire German Empire Track cyclist[37]
Gustav Schadebrodt October 22, 1907 German Empire German Empire Track cyclist[38]
Ernst Wolf October 29, 1907 German Empire German Empire Pace maker.[39]
Tim Johnson April 24, 1907 United Kingdom United Kingdom Track cyclist[40]
A picture of Karel Verbist crossing his arms while standing. Karel Verbist July 21, 1909 Belgium Belgium Track cyclist.,[41] Bruxelles track. Verbist collided with his pacemaker's (Constant Ceurremans') motorcycle.[42][43] Verbist is the subject of a macabre Dutch folk-poem... "Chareltje, Chareltje Verbist, hadt ge niet gereden op de pist(e), hadt ge niet gelegen in de kist."[44]
A picture of Fritz Theile in a hammock. Fritz Theile June 4, 1911 German Empire German Empire Track cyclist. Zehlendorf Velodrome.[45]
Hans Bachmann 1913 German Empire German Empire Pace maker. Velodrome Hall [46]
Hans Lange 1913 German Empire German Empire Track cyclist. Velodrome Hall[46]
August Kraft July 25, 1913 German Empire German Empire Track cyclist. Strasbourg, France[47]
Richard Scheuermann September 8, 1913 German Empire German Empire Cologne track[48][49]
Gus Lawson September 8, 1913 United States United States Pace maker. Cologne track[49]
Max Hansen October 12, 1913 German Empire German Empire Track cyclist. Berlin Velodrome Stadium.[46]
Piet van Nek (Sr.) April 14, 1914 Netherlands Netherlands Track cyclist. Leipzig track.[50]
Willy Hamann July 21, 1914 German Empire German Empire Track cyclist. Treptow track.The accident occurred on July 15, Hamann died six days later in hospital.[51]
Max Bauer 1917 German Empire German Empire Pace maker. Treptow track.[52]
Jacob Esser July 8, 1917 German Empire German Empire Track cyclist. Düsseldorf Germany track.[53][54]
A picture of Louis Darragon beside his bike. Louis Darragon April 28, 1918 France France Track cyclist. Vèlodrome d'Hiver Paris.[55]
A photo of Peter Günther seated fifteen years before his death. Peter Günther October 7, 1918 German Empire German Empire Track cyclist. Düsseldorf[56] Guenther died the day after an October 6 accident involving his collision with his pacemaker's motorcycle after the motorcycle's rear tire burst.[57]
Hans Schneider January 1920 Weimar Republic Weimar Republic Track cyclist[58]
Emanuel Kudela September 22, 1920 Weimar Republic Weimar Republic Track cyclist. Olympia track Berlin[59]
Christian Oorlemans August 22, 1922 Netherlands Netherlands Pace maker. Amsterdam track.[60]
Gustave Ganay August 23, 1926 France France Stayer. Died from a terrible fall at the Parc des Princes.[61] The accident was immortalized by Ernest Hemingway in A Movable Feast with "where we saw that great rider Ganay fall and heard his skull crumple under the crash helmet as you crack a hard-boiled against a stone to peel it on a picnic."[62]
Franz Krupkat June 1, 1927 Weimar Republic Weimar Republic Track cyclist. Leipzig track.[63]
Ernst Feja June 1, 1927 Weimar Republic Weimar Republic Track cyclist[64]
Constant Ceurremans June 18, 1931 Belgium Belgium/Netherlands Netherlands Ceurremans, a pace-maker, was also involved in Karel (Charles) Verbist's fatal crash in 1909.[42][65]
Werner Krüger July 21, 1931 Weimar Republic Weimar Republic Kruger died after a fall on the Cologne-Riehl track during a stayer race, while riding as a pacemaker for Emil Thollembeek.[66]
Georg Pawlack[Note 9] June 10, 1933 Nazi Germany Nazi Germany A track cyclist, Pawlack was run over by a pacemaker after his bicycle slipped on a rain-soaked track.[67]
A picture of Georges Lemaire and two others. Georges Lemaire September 29, 1933 Belgium Belgium Belgian club championship, Uccle, Belgium [68][Note 10]
Emil Richli May 13, 1934 Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland track championships. Track cyclist[69]
Francisco Cepeda July 14, 1935 Spain Spain Tour de France. Died while making the Col du Galibier descent[70]
Stefan Veger November 1936 Netherlands Netherlands Track Gent[71]
A picture of André Raynaud wearing a helmet. André Raynaud March 1937 France France Antwerp Sportpaleis[42][72]
Adrian Buttafocchi July 6, 1937 France France Col Esteret, Grand Prix d'Antibes. Crash with a truck during race[73]
Richard Depoorter June 16, 1948 Switzerland Switzerland Crashed into a tunnel wall on a "descent of the Sustenpas near Bern"[74] during the Tour of Switzerland, died onsite or shortly thereafter of his injuries.[75][76][77]
A picture Léon Level (right) and another rider before a race. Léon Level March 26, 1949 France France "Parc des princes" track, Paris (track cyclist) [78]
Paul Kroll November 8, 1949 Germany Germany Berlin "1000 laps", Funkturm track[79][Note 11]
Gerard ("Gerrit") van Beek March 15, 1951 Netherlands Netherlands Berlin Six Days. Died of a fatal skull fracture suffered during race.[80][81]
Camille Danguillaume June 26, 1951 France France Killed in collision with press motorcycle during Critérium International (Championship of France)[82][83][84]
Serse Coppi June 29, 1951 Italy Italy Crashed near the end of the 1951 Tour of Piedmont (aka "Tour du Piedmont" and "Giro del Piemonte"). Finished race but then died on June 29, 1951.[85][86]
Rudi Mirke December 10, 1951 Germany Germany Berlin Six Day. Died after falling during the race.[87][Note 12]
Orfeo Ponsin May 20, 1952 Italy Italy Giro d'Italia[88]
Erich Metze May 28, 1952[Note 13] Germany Germany [89]
A picture of a cyclist looking over his shoulder. Stan Ockers October 1, 1956 Belgium Belgium 1955 World Champion(Road Race) track race at the Sportpaleis Antwerp[90][91][Note 14]
Russell Mockridge September 13, 1958 Australia Australia Tour of Gippsland[93][94][Note 15]
A cyclist laying in the road after an accident. Knud Enemark Jensen September 1960 Denmark Denmark 1960 Summer Olympic Games. The first competitor's death to occur during the modern Olympic era, Jensen collapsed during a 100-kilometer team time trial, suffering a skull fracture and dying several hours later. Some commentators state that Jensen's autopsy revealed traces of drugs in his system but the Italian authorities' 1961 report stated that the official cause of death was heatstroke. A race-day temperature of 40 degrees Celsius/93 degrees Fahrenheit and Jensen's post-accident care (being kept in a "hot military tent"), could have been probable contributing factors.[95][96][97][98][99][100][101]
Tom Simpson July 13, 1967 United Kingdom United Kingdom Tour de France.[102][103] 1965 World Road Race Champion,[104][105][Note 16]
Valentin Uriona July 30, 1967 Spain Spain Spanish Championship [106][107]
José Samyn August 28, 1969 France France Zingem, Belgium [108]
Radames Treviño[109] April 12, 1970  Mexico Crashed during a regional race between Pachuca and Mexico City[110]
A picture of Jean-Pierre Monseré holding his child after winning a race. Jean-Pierre Monseré March 15, 1971 Belgium Belgium 1970 World Champion. Grand Prix de Retie.[111][112][Note 17][113]
Manuel Galera February 14, 1972 Spain Spain Tour of Andalusia,[114][115]
Juan Manuel Santisteban[Note 18] May 21, 1976 Spain Spain Giro d'Italia. Died as a result of injuries when his head struck a crash barrier.[70][88]
A picture of Karl Kaminski and another rider being paced during a track race. Karl Kaminski August 10, 1978 East Germany East Germany Leipzig[116]
A photo of Agostinho wearing an Adidas jacket. Joaquim Agostinho May 10, 1984 Portugal Portugal During the Tour of Algarve.[117] Died ten days after colliding with a dog who had run onto the race-course.[118]
Emilio Ravasio May 28, 1986 Italy Italy Giro d'Italia[88]
Vicente Mata February 17, 1987 Spain Spain Trofeo Luis Puig[119] Died after colliding with a car during race.
Michel Goffin February 27, 1987 Belgium Belgium Tour du Haut-Var in Marseilles France.[120][121] Goffin crashes and, after spending six days in a coma, dies from his injuries.[119]
Connie Meijer August 17, 1988 Netherlands Netherlands A criterium in the Netherlands[122]
A plaque honoring Casartelli with a picture of him in the center. Fabio Casartelli July 18, 1995 Italy Italy Tour de France.[123][124][125] Casartelli was the reigning Olympic Champion at the time of his crash and subsequent death.[119]
José Antonio Espinosa[Note 19] November 1996 Spain Spain Fuenlabrada,[126][127][Note 20]
Manuel Sanroma June 19, 1999 Spain Spain Volta a Catalunya[128]
Saúl Morales February 28, 2000 Spain Spain Tour of Argentina[129]
Nicole Reinhart September 17, 2000 United States United States Arlington Massachusetts circuit race[130]
Andrei Kivilev March 12, 2003  Kazakhstan Paris–Nice[131]
Brett Malin[verification needed] June 17, 2003 United States United States Race Across America[132][133]
Juan Barrero June 11, 2004 Colombia Colombia Vuelta a Colombia("Tour of Colombia")[134]
Tim Pauwels September 26, 2004 Belgium Belgium A cyclo-cross race in Belgium[135]
Alessio Galletti June 15, 2005 Italy Italy Subida al Naranco[136][137]
Bob Breedlove June 25, 2005 United States United States Race Across America[132]
Isaac Gálvez November 26, 2006 Spain Spain Six Days of Ghent. Galvez died after coming into contact with Dimitri De Fauw and then crashing into a track railing.[138][139]
Bruno Neves May 11, 2008 Portugal Portugal Classica de Amarante.[140] Neves' collapse from heart failure caused him to crash during the race.[141][142][143]
Thomas Casarotto September 10, 2010 Italy Italy During the Giro del Friuli Venezia Giulia[144] at Pesariis,[145] Casarotto hit the wing mirror of a SUV parked on the course[145] and then crashed. He died September 15, 2010 of head injuries and trauma.[146]
Wouter Weylandt wearing a Quick Step uniform and sunglasses. Wouter Weylandt May 9, 2011 Belgium Belgium Giro d'Italia[147]
Junior Heffernan March 3, 2013 United Kingdom United Kingdom Died after collision with a car during the Severn Bridge Road Race in Gloucestershire[148]


Deaths during training or another reason related to cycling[edit]

These athletes did not die during competition, but rather died during training, during scheduled breaks while participating in a professional race or from another reason related to cycling. Since 1994, at least eighteen professional cyclists have been killed after being struck by a car or truck, fifteen while training, three while out cycling for pleasure.

1900s to 1928[edit]

  • Archie McEachern, May 13, 1902, Canada, Track cyclist. Coliseum Cycling Track, Atlantic City, New Jersey.[149] McEachern, a former middle distance Canadian National Champion, was also winner of the 1901 New York Madison Square Garden Six-Day Bicycle Race (the first Canadian to do so). In May 1902 he was participating in a practice run prior to the Atlantic City velodrome's official opening that was being paced by a tandem motorcycle (driven by his two trainers Bobby Thompson and Alfred Boake). Riding closely to the pace vehicle, McEachern was fatally injured when the bike's drive chain broke and he died within minutes.[150][151] Canadian Cyclist placed him 9th on their list of Top 25 Canadian Cyclists of the Century in 1999[150] and Journal of Sport History (Volume 1-2, published 1974) stated that he "was one of Canada's most famous professional cyclists" of his day.[152]
  • Breton,[153] track cyclist, Parc des Princes track, August 1902. Breton was killed when he steered his bicycle away from another cyclist and into the path of a 14 horsepower motorcycle being driven at 50 mph by Marius Thé. The track management allowed motorcyclists and racing bicyclists (called "flyers") to train at the same time.[153]
  • Jimmy Michael, Aberaman, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Wales, United Kingdom. 1885 & 1902 World Record-holder (Track).[154] Died while en route from the UK to the United States on the ocean steamer "Savoie". He was either suffering from alcoholic delirium tremens,[155] a brain hemorrhage[1] or possibly a combination of the two. Michael's death most certainly had its genesis in a 1903 cycling accident at Friedenau[22] where he fractured his skull[156] and thereafter suffered debilitating headaches.[21][157] November 1904
  • Hugh McLean, USA, died on September 9 or 10, 1909.[158] as a result of a training accident earlier in the month at the Revere, Mass. cycling track.[Note 21][159][160] McLean was a champion middle distance cyclist[159] who had placed 2nd in the 1899 World Championship (Track/Stayers) and 1st with Floyd Krebs at the 1907 Boston Six Days.[160]
  • Franz Suter,[162] Switzerland, June 1, 1914. Struck by a train while training with his brother Paul near Courbevoie, France.
  • Floyd MacFarland, United States. 1900 & 1908 Six-Day Race Winner (Madison Square Garden). Stabbed to death with a screwdriver during practice at Newark Velodrome, April 17, 1915.[55][163]
  • Ottavio Bottecchia, 1924 & 1925 Tour de France Winner,[164] Italy, June 14, 1927. Found by the side of the road with bruises and serious skull fracture. The cause has remained a mystery — various theories have included a solo-crash/serious fall or an assault by unknown Fascists.[165][166]
  • Gustave Lejour, 1928 Track cyclist, while training on the Frankfurt (Germany) track[167]

1975[edit]

  • Tommy Godwin, United Kingdom. In 1939, Godwin achieved the long-distance record for miles cycled in one year...75,065 miles. Authorities have since determined that the attempt to beat this mileage would be too dangerous so the figure will never be overtaken. Godwin died in 1975 of heart failure, aged 63, returning from a ride to Tutbury Castle with friends.[168]

1994 to 2009[edit]

  • Néstor Mora, Augusto Triano (or "Augusto Gonzalez")[170] and Hernán Patiño, February 21, 1995, Colombia Three members of Team Postobon were killed almost immediately while group training when a truck collided with another vehicle, sending the second vehicle careening into the group of cyclists.[171]
  • Beryl Burton, United Kingdom. Heart failure while out delivering invitations by bicycle to her 59th birthday party, May 8, 1996. One of the most dominating figures in world sports history, Burton regularly beat male competitors. Her 12-hour record of 277.25 miles (raced in 1967) stood as both the women's and the men's world record for two years and is still the women's world record.[172]
  • Peter Longbottom, United Kingdom. Hit by a motor vehicle whilst riding near York, 10 February 1998, aged 38. Pete had been an established GB international road rider and had gained multiple national titles.[173]
  • Edith Atkins,[175] England. Was hit by a car while pushing her bicycle across a pedestrian road crossing, August 28, 1999
  • Anders Nilsson, Sweden, June 21, 2000. National team member in Triathlon, professional. Died immediately when hit by a speeding car during bicycle training, the car left the scene.[176]
  • Ricardo Otxoa, Spain. February 15, 2001.[177] Hit by a car during a training session together with his brother Javier (who survived but suffered serious brain injuries). The Circuito de Getxo was renamed the Memorial Ricardo Otxoa in his honor.
  • Luke Harrop, Australia. January 13, 2002. Struck by a stolen car driven by an unlicensed driver who was out on bail at the time and who also fled the scene. Gold Coast, Brisbane, Australia during a training ride. Having severe head trauma, former champion triathlete Harrop died a day after the accident. In 2003, Australia's Gold Coast Triathlon was renamed in Harrop's memory as the Gold Coast Triathlon — Luke Harrop Memorial.[178][179][180][181][182]
  • Lauri Aus, Estonia. July 20, 2003. Hit by a truck driven by a drunk driver while training for the Estonian MTB (Mountain Biking) Championship.[183][184]
  • Stive Vermaut, Belgium. Retired from professional cycling in 2002 because of a congenital heart disease. Had a heart attack during a recreational ride on June 13, 2004 and died later that month on June 30.[185]
  • Zak Carr, England, UK. Struck from behind and killed while cycling to work near Norwich, on October 17, 2005[187]
  • Scott Peoples, Australia. Struck from behind and killed on a training ride in December 2006 in Victoria.[188]
  • Zinaida Stahurskaya, Belarus. 2000 World Road Race Champion. Struck by a car on a training ride in Belarus, June 25, 2009[191]

2010 to present[edit]

  • Jorge Alvarado, Mexico. A Bahati pro team rider, Alvarado was training when he was struck head-on by a vehicle being driven by an 18-year-old illegally street racing in San Bernardino, CA on April 8, 2010.[195][196]
  • Jure Robič, Slovenia. September 24, 2010. Robič, who won RAAM five times and was renowned for pushing himself to extreme mental breakdown during endurance races, died in a head-on collision with a car while descending on a narrow mountain forest road in Plavški Rovt near Jesenice, Slovenia .[197]
  • Carla Swart, South Africa. January 19, 2011. Swart was a professional who had won nineteen individual and team cycling titles spanning four different variations of biking (cyclo-cross, mountain bike, road, and track) while on the Lees–McRae College cycling team. She lost her cycling computer while on a training ride in her native South Africa and turned into the path of an oncoming truck in a bid to retrieve it.[198]
  • Brian Phillips, United Kingdom. 27 March 2011, Brian died whilst competing in a TTT in Italy. Brian had been one of the UK's top time-trialists, had national titles, and was a regular top finisher in the BBAR.[199]
  • Shamus Liptrot, Australia. May 10, 2011. Died as a result of injuries sustained in a "horrific crash"[200] during the Men's C Grade scratch track race[201] at the 2007 Devonport (Tasmania) Christmas Carnival.[202]
  • Xavier Tondo, Spain. May 23, 2011.[203] Died after being crushed by his garage door while preparing for a training ride with teammate Benat Intxausti.
  • Carly Hibberd, Australia, was hit by a car while training in Italy. July 6, 2011.[204]
  • Rob Goris, Belgium. July 5, 2012.[205] Died from a heart attack in his sleep while visiting the Tour De France.
  • Burry Stander, South Africa. January 3, 2013. Died during a training ride after colliding with a vehicle.[206]
  • Victor Cabedo, South Africa. September 19, 2013. Died during a training ride after colliding with a vehicle.[207][208]
  • Amy Dombroski, United States. October 3, 2013. A Cyclo-cross competitor, Dombroski was hit by a truck while training in Belgium.[209]
  • Kristof Goddaert, Belgium. February 18, 2014. He was killed during a training ride in Antwerp. He fell from his bike and was struck by a bus.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Pacemakers" in this sense were motorcyclists who rode motorcycles as a team mate in front of and for specific professional cyclists. These motorized vehicles provided an additional boost of speed to the cyclists behind them via their slipstreams. (See Horman's Life in the Slipstream.)
  2. ^ The total includes the professional pacemakers (14) and riders (33) but does not include injuries/deaths of bystanders. On page 101 Mangan recounts some details of the infamous 1909 Friedenau (Berlin) track accident with nine spectators being killed and 52 others injured.
  3. ^ According to BBC Inside Out and other sources, the accident that caused Harris' death could be considered suspicious. The front wheel he borrowed in order to race was damaged and some have speculated about whether such an experienced cyclist would have made this mistake.
  4. ^ Some sources spell Oscar Aaronson's last name as "Aronson".
  5. ^ Taylor is also known as "Edouard-Henry Taylor".
  6. ^ There appears to be some confusion over the year of Taylor's death, reported in various reliable sources as occurring in either 1903 or 1902. Any references to his death occurring in 1901 seem to be in error since he placed 3rd at the World Championships in 1902.
  7. ^ The June 18 date seems to be the date of the accident. Dangla apparently lingered in a coma before dying of his injuries on June 24. See "ATHLETICS(Note by Amateur)".
  8. ^ The accident took place on November 14, Brecy died on November 25 after lingering for 11 days.
  9. ^ Pawlack is also rendered as "Georg Klein Bohrau Pawlack".
  10. ^ Per Cycling Archives, this race is also known as the "Inter Clubs Championship" and took place in Uccle, Belgium.
  11. ^ When Walter Rutt (the former world champion) wrote to the "American Bicyclist and Motorcyclist(Volume 71)" published in 1950, he referred to this race not as the actual Six-Day Race but as a 'team race that was run before' it and that this team race was of a 'A Thousand Laps'(150 km) variety.
  12. ^ There were two Berlin Six-Days run in 1951. Van Beek died while racing the March 1951 Berlin Six-Day and Mirke died during the December Six-Day.
  13. ^ Metze's month of death is variously reported as being either in May(Velo Gotha) or in July.(www.cyclingarchives.com)
  14. ^ Ockers crashed on September 29 and died two days later, thousands of people took to the streets for his funeral.[90][92]
  15. ^ Jim Taylor was a fellow cyclist riding in the Tour and was also hit by the bus that killed Mockridge.
  16. ^ The circumstances surrounding Simpson's death were controversial. The autopsy report said that drugs (amphetamines) were found in his system but judged the cause of death as being a combination of heat-stroke, oxygen depletion and physical exertion. Notwithstanding the drugs in his system the temperature that day was at least 42 degrees Celsius and the fact that Tour officials limited riders to two bottles of water a day was most probably a contributing factor.
  17. ^ Wilcockson refers to the race as "a kermesse race at Retié".
  18. ^ Maneul's last name is also sometimes spelled as "Santiesteban".
  19. ^ Espinosa's is also known as "José Antonio Espinosa Hernandez".
  20. ^ Espinosa's accident actually occurred during a team time trial ("el Criterium de Fuenlabrada") for the Fuenlabrada race, not the actual race itself.
  21. ^ The date of McLean's death is reported as both September 3 (The World almanac) and as "early today" September 9 or 10th (News from the Outside World).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Mangan, J.A., ed. (2002). Reformers, sport, modernizers: middle-class revolutionaries (European Sports History Review, Volume 4). Psychology Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-7146-5244-3. 
  2. ^ Schoenberger, Chana R. (November 11, 2006). "The Most Dangerous Sports". Forbes.com. Retrieved August 22, 2010. 
  3. ^ Astrid Junge, PhD (September 25, 2009). "Sports Injuries During the Summer Olympic Games 2008". The American Journal of Sports Medicine. Retrieved November 6, 2010. 
  4. ^ Das Stahlrad, 1894, p. 850f. Frankfort.
  5. ^ "Cycling Notes: The Late A.W. Harris". The Argus (Melbourne, Victoria Australia). June 1, 1897. p. 6. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Recently discovered Peregrine adverts and images". Hilldodger's cycling history site. March 26, 2010. Retrieved May 9, 2011. 
  7. ^ "Bert Harris — superstar". BBC. Retrieved May 9, 2011. 
  8. ^ "Bert Harris, First Professional Cycling Champion of England". Hilldodger's cycling history site. December 7, 2008. Retrieved May 9, 2011. 
  9. ^ Sarah Staples (April 7, 2005). "Did Bert Fall Or Was He Pushed?". The Leicester Mercury. Retrieved May 9, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Bert Harris 1874-1897". Welford Road Cemetery Leicester. Retrieved May 9, 2011. 
  11. ^ Arthur Devlin. "6-Day Bicycle Racing — Boston International Six day Bicycle Race". Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  12. ^ "Aronson, Injured in the Six-Day Race, is Critically Ill with Pneumonia". The World (New York World). "Old Fulton NY Post Cards By Tom Tryniski" website (fultonhistory.com). December 19, 1900. p. 9. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Bicyclist Oscar Aronson Dead of Physical Exhaustion". The World (New York World). "Old Fulton NY Post Cards By Tom Tryniski" website (fultonhistory.com). December 23, 1900. p. 2. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  14. ^ a b "Harry Elkes Killed in Bicycle Race". New York Times (New York). May 31, 1903. p. 1. Retrieved August 4, 2010. 
  15. ^ "News of the Week...Elkes Killed in Cycle Race". The Summary XXXI (23) (New York State Reformatory at Elmira, published June 6, 1903). 1903. p. 3. Retrieved August 4, 2010. 
  16. ^ a b c Mangan, p.127
  17. ^ Major Taylor & Marshall W. Taylor (1928). The fastest bicycle rider in the world: the story of a colored boy's indomitable courage and success against great odds. Books for Libraries Press, Wormley Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8369-8910-6. Retrieved May 15, 2011. 
  18. ^ Massachusetts Reformatory (Concord, Mass.) (1900). Our paper, Volume 16 By Massachusetts Reformatory (Concord, Mass.). p. 331. Retrieved July 7, 2011. 
  19. ^ "Edouard-Henry Taylor". Cycling Archives. Retrieved July 7, 2011. 
  20. ^ "Track Cycling: World Championships: Men: Stayer". Retrieved July 7, 2011. 
  21. ^ a b c Stuyfersant, Andre (March 12, 2009). "Death at the Velodrome". Sportgeschiedenis.nl("Sports History"). Retrieved August 20, 2010. 
  22. ^ a b Stuyfersant, Andre (May 2010). "Stuyfssportverhalen("Stuyf Sports Stories")". Retrieved August 20, 2010. 
  23. ^ Mangan, J.A., ed. (2002). Reformers, sport, modernizers: middle-class revolutionaries (European Sports History Review, Volume 4). Psychology Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-7146-5244-3. 
  24. ^ "ATHLETICS(Notes by Amateur)". Otago Witness. August 17(Hereturikōkā) 1904. p. 54. Retrieved August 22, 2010. 
  25. ^ Cerretini, Giovanni and Mannini, Paolo (2008). Ciclisti 2008 (Tutti i ciclisti del Museo del Ciclismo). p. 67. Retrieved August 22, 2010. 
  26. ^ Sport-Album der Rad-Welt, vol. 3, 1904, p. 104. Berlin, Verlag Rad-Welt.
  27. ^ Harper, William Arthur (1999). How You Played the Game:The Life of Grantland Rice. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-8262-1204-7. Retrieved August 22, 2010. 
  28. ^ "Charles Albert Brecy". Retrieved August 25, 2010. 
  29. ^ Sport-Album der Rad-Welt, Vol. 4/1905, p. 72. Berlin, Verlag Rad-Welt.
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External links[edit]

Ride for Silence: "Let the Silence Roar"
Ride for Silence 1983-2010 In Memoriam
League of American Cyclists - In Memoriam 2005 to 2009