List of programming languages by type

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This is a list of programming languages groups.

Contents

Array language[edit]

Array programming (also known as vector or multidimensional languages) generalize operations on scalars to apply transparently to vectors, matrices, and higher-dimensional arrays.

Aspect-oriented languages[edit]

Assembly languages[edit]

Main article: List of assemblers

Assembly languages directly correspond to a machine language (see below) so machine code instructions appear in a form understandable by humans. Assembly languages lets programmers use symbolic addresses, which the assembler converts to absolute addresses. Most assemblers also support macros and symbolic constants.

Authoring languages[edit]

Main article: Authoring language

Command line interface languages[edit]

Command-line interface (CLI) languages are also called batch languages, or job control languages. Examples:

Compiled languages[edit]

These are languages typically processed by compilers, though theoretically any language can be compiled or interpreted. See also compiled language.

Concurrent languages[edit]

Message passing languages provide language constructs for concurrency. The predominant paradigm for concurrency in mainstream languages such as Java is shared memory concurrency based on monitors. Concurrent languages that make use of message passing have generally been inspired by CSP or the π-calculus, but have had little commercial success, except for Ada and Erlang. Ada is a multipurpose language and concurrent programming is only one option available.

Curly-bracket languages[edit]

The curly-bracket or curly-brace programming languages have a syntax that defines statement blocks using the curly bracket or brace characters { and }. This syntax originated with BCPL (1966), and was popularized by C (1972). Many curly-bracket languages descend from or are strongly influenced by C. Examples of curly-bracket languages include:

There is dispute among programmers who use these languages about the placement of opening braces. Some put them on the lines of code which determine whether the contents of the braces are executed (e.g. the "if" or "while" condition) in order to reduce the number of lines and make more code visible at once. Others put every brace on a new line of code, in order to make brace nesting clearer. See Indent style.

Dataflow languages[edit]

Dataflow programming languages rely on a (usually visual) representation of the flow of data to specify the program. Frequently used for reacting to discrete events or for processing streams of data. Examples of dataflow languages include:

Data-oriented languages[edit]

Data-oriented languages provide powerful ways of searching and manipulating the relations that have been described as entity relationship tables which map one set of things into other sets. Examples of data-oriented languages include:

Data-structured languages[edit]

Data-structured languages are those where logic is structured in ways similar to their data. Such languages are generally well suited to reflection and introspection. There are three main types:

Assembly languages that statically link data inline with instructions can also be considered data-structured, in the most primitive way.

Declarative languages[edit]

Declarative languages describe a problem rather than defining a solution. Declarative programming stands in contrast to imperative programming via imperative programming languages, where serial orders (imperatives) are given to a computer. In addition to the examples given just below, all (pure) functional and logic-based programming languages are also declarative. In fact, "functional" and "logical" constitute the usual subcategories of the declarative category.

Embeddable languages[edit]

In source code[edit]

Source embeddable languages embed small pieces of executable code inside a piece of free-form text, often a web page.

Client-side embedded languages are limited by the capabilities of the browser or intended client. They aim to provide dynamism to web pages without the need to recontact the server.

Server-side embedded languages are much more flexible, since almost any language can be built into a server. The aim of having fragments of server-side code embedded in a web page is to generate additional markup dynamically; the code itself disappears when the page is served, to be replaced by its output.

Server side[edit]

The above examples are particularly dedicated to this purpose. A large number of other languages, such as Candle, Erlang, Scala, Perl and Ruby can be adapted (for instance, by being made into Apache modules).

Client side[edit]

In object code[edit]

A wide variety of dynamic or scripting languages can be embedded in compiled executable code. Basically, object code for the language's interpreter needs to be linked into the executable. Source code fragments for the embedded language can then be passed to an evaluation function as strings. Application control languages can be implemented this way, if the source code is input by the user. Languages with small interpreters are preferred.

Educational languages[edit]

Languages developed primarily for the purpose of teaching and learning of programming.

Esoteric languages[edit]

An esoteric programming language is a programming language designed as a test of the boundaries of computer programming language design, as a proof of concept, or as a joke.

Extension languages[edit]

Extension programming languages are languages embedded into another program and used to harness its features in extension scripts.

Fourth-generation languages[edit]

See also: Category:4GL

Fourth-generation programming languages are high-level languages built around database systems. They are generally used in commercial environments.

Functional languages[edit]

Functional programming languages define programs and subroutines as mathematical functions. Many so-called functional languages are "impure", containing imperative features. Not surprisingly, many of these languages are tied to mathematical calculation tools. Functional languages include:

Pure[edit]

Impure[edit]

Hardware description languages[edit]

In electronics, a Hardware description language or HDL is a specialized computer language used to describe the structure, design and operation of electronic circuits, and most commonly, digital logic circuits. The two most widely used and well-supported HDL varieties used in industry are Verilog and VHDL. Hardware description languages include:

HDLs for analog circuit design[edit]

  • Verilog-AMS (Verilog for Analog and Mixed-Signal)
  • VHDL-AMS (VHDL with Analog/Mixed-Signal extension)

HDLs for digital circuit design[edit]

Imperative languages[edit]

Imperative programming languages may be multi-paradigm and appear in other classifications. Here is a list of programming languages that follow the imperative paradigm:[1][2]

Interactive mode languages[edit]

Interactive mode languages act as a kind of shell: expressions or statements can be entered one at a time, and the result of their evaluation is seen immediately.

Interpreted languages[edit]

Interpreted languages are programming languages in which programs may be executed from source code form, by an interpreter. Theoretically, any language can be compiled or interpreted, so the term *interpreted language* generally refers to languages that are commonly interpreted rather than compiled.

Iterative languages[edit]

Iterative languages are built around or offering generators.

List-based languages – LISPs[edit]

List-based languages are a type of data-structured language that are based upon the list data structure.

Little languages[edit]

Little languages serve a specialized problem domain.

  • awk can serve as a prototyping language for C, because the syntax is similar
  • Comet is used to solve complex combinatorial optimization problems in areas such as resource allocation and scheduling.
  • SQL has only a few keywords, and not all the constructs needed for a full programming language.[3] Many database management systems extend SQL with additional constructs as a stored procedure language.

Logic-based languages[edit]

Logic-based languages specify a set of attributes that a solution must have, rather than a set of steps to obtain a solution. Examples:

Machine languages[edit]

Machine languages are directly executable by a computer's CPU. They are typically formulated as bit patterns, usually represented in octal or hexadecimal. Each group of npatterns (often 1 or more bytes) causes the circuits in the CPU to execute one of the fundamental operations of the hardware. The activation of specific electrical inputs (e.g., CPU package pins for microprocessors), and logical settings for CPU state values, control the processor's computation. Individual machine languages are processor specific and are not portable. They are (essentially) always defined by the CPU developer, not by 3rd parties. The symbolic version, the processor's assembly language, is also defined by the developer, in most cases. Since processors come in families based on a shared architecture, the same basic assembly language style can often be used for more than one CPU. Each of the following CPUs served as the basis for a family of processors:

Macro languages[edit]

Textual substitution macro languages[edit]

Macro languages transform one source code file into another. A "macro" is essentially a short piece of text that expands into a longer one, possibly with parameter substitution. They are often used to preprocess source code. Preprocessors can also supply facilities like file inclusion. Macro languages may be restricted to acting on specially labeled code regions (pre-fixed with a # in the case of the C preprocessor. Alternatively, they may not, but in this case it is still often undesirable to (for instance) expand a macro embedded in a string literal, so they still need a rudimentary awareness of syntax. That being the case, they are often still applicable to more than one language. Contrast with source-embeddable languages like PHP, which are fully featured.

  • cpp (the C preprocessor)
  • m4 (originally from AT&T, bundled with UNIX)

Application macro languages[edit]

Scripting languages such as Tcl and ECMAScript (ActionScript, ECMAScript for XML, JavaScript, JScript) have been embedded into applications. These are sometimes called "macro languages", although in a somewhat different sense to textual-substitution macros like m4.

Metaprogramming languages[edit]

Metaprogramming is writing of programs that write or manipulate other programs (or themselves) as their data or that do part of the work that is otherwise done at run time during compile time. In many cases, this allows programmers to get more done in the same amount of time as they would take to write all the code manually.

Multiparadigm languages[edit]

Multiparadigm languages support more than one programming paradigm. They allow a program to use more than one programming style. The goal is to allow programmers to use the best tool for a job, admitting that no one paradigm solves all problems in the easiest or most efficient way.

  • Ada (concurrent, distributed, generic (template metaprogramming), imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
  • ALF (functional, logic)
  • Alma-0 (constraint, imperative, logic)
  • APL (functional, imperative)
  • BETA (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
  • C++ (generic, imperative, object-oriented (class-based), functional)
  • C# (generic, imperative, object-oriented (class-based), functional, declarative)
  • ChucK (imperative, object-oriented, time-based, concurrent, on-the-fly)
  • Cobra (generic, imperative, object-oriented (class-based), functional, contractual)
  • Common Lisp (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based), aspect-oriented (user may add further paradigms, e.g., logic))
  • Curl (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based), metaprogramming)
  • Curry (concurrent, functional, logic)
  • D (generic, imperative, functional, object-oriented (class-based), metaprogramming)
  • Delphi (generic, imperative, object-oriented (class-based), metaprogramming)
  • Dylan (functional, object-oriented (class-based))
  • ECMAScript (functional, imperative, object-oriented (prototype-based))
  • Eiffel (imperative, object-oriented (class-based), generic, functional (agents), concurrent (SCOOP))
  • F# (functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), language-oriented)
  • Fantom (functional, object-oriented (class-based))
  • FPr (function-level, object-oriented (class-based))
  • Harbour
  • Hop
  • J (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
  • Julia (functional, imperative, object-oriented, metaprogramming)
  • LabVIEW (dataflow, visual)
  • Lasso (macro, object-oriented (prototype-based), procedural, scripting)
  • Lava (object-oriented (class-based), visual)
  • Leda (functional, imperative, logic, object-oriented (class-based))
  • Lua (functional, imperative, object-oriented (prototype-based))
  • Mercury (functional, logical, object oriented)
  • Metaobject protocols (object-oriented (class-based, prototype-based))
  • Nemerle (functional, object-oriented (class-based), imperative, metaprogramming)
  • OCaml (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
  • Oz (functional (evaluation: eager, lazy), logic, constraint, imperative, object-oriented (class-based), concurrent, distributed)
  • Object Pascal (imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
  • Perl (imperative, functional (can't be purely functional), object-oriented, class-oriented, aspect-oriented (through modules))
  • PHP (imperative, object-oriented)
  • Pike
  • Poplog (functional, imperative, logic)
  • Prograph (dataflow, object-oriented (class-based), visual)
  • Python (functional, object-oriented (class-based), imperative, metaprogramming)
  • R
  • Racket (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based)..., and can be extended by the user)
  • REBOL (functional, imperative, object-oriented (prototype-based), metaprogramming (dialected))
  • ROOP (imperative, logic, object-oriented (class-based), rule-based)
  • Ruby (functional, object-oriented (class-based))
  • Rust (concurrent, functional, imperative, object-oriented)
  • Scala (functional, object-oriented)
  • Seed7 (imperative, object-oriented, generic)
  • SISAL (concurrent, dataflow, functional)
  • Spreadsheets (functional, visual)
  • Tcl (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
    • Tea (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
  • Windows PowerShell (functional, imperative, pipeline, object-oriented (class-based))
  • XL (concept programming approach)

Numerical analysis[edit]

Non-English-based languages[edit]

Object-oriented class-based languages[edit]

Class-based Object-oriented programming languages support objects defined by their class. Class definitions include member data. Message passing is a key concept (if not the key concept) in Object-oriented languages.

Polymorphic functions parameterized by the class of some of their arguments are typically called methods. In languages with single dispatch, classes typically also include method definitions. In languages with multiple dispatch, methods are defined by generic functions. There are exceptions where single dispatch methods are generic functions (e.g. Bigloo's object system).

Multiple dispatch[edit]

Single dispatch[edit]

Object-oriented prototype-based languages[edit]

Prototype-based languages are object-oriented languages where the distinction between classes and instances has been removed:

Off-side rule languages[edit]

Off-side rule languages are those where blocks are formed, indicated, by their indentation.

Procedural languages[edit]

Procedural programming languages are based on the concept of the unit and scope (the data viewing range of an executable code statement). A procedural program is composed of one or more units or modules, either user coded or provided in a code library; each module is composed of one or more procedures, also called a function, routine, subroutine, or method, depending on the language. Examples of procedural languages include:

Reflective languages[edit]

Reflective languages let programs examine and possibly modify their high level structure at runtime. This is most common in high-level virtual machine programming languages like Smalltalk, and less common in lower-level programming languages like C. Languages and platforms supporting reflection:

Rule-based languages[edit]

Rule-based languages instantiate rules when activated by conditions in a set of data. Of all possible activations, some set is selected and the statements belonging to those rules execute. Rule-based languages include:

Scripting languages[edit]

"Scripting language" has two apparently different, but in fact similar meanings. In a traditional sense, scripting languages are designed to automate frequently used tasks that usually involve calling or passing commands to external programs. Many complex application programs provide built-in languages that let users automate tasks. Those that are interpretive are often called scripting languages.

Recently, many applications have built-in traditional scripting languages, such as Perl or Visual Basic, but there are quite a few "native" scripting languages still in use. Many scripting languages are compiled to bytecode and then this (usually) platform independent bytecode is run through a virtual machine (compare to Java).

Stack-based languages[edit]

Stack-based languages are a type of data-structured language that are based upon the stack data structure.

Synchronous languages[edit]

Synchronous programming languages are optimized for programming reactive systems, systems that are often interrupted and must respond quickly. Many such systems are also called realtime systems, and are found often in embedded uses. Examples:

Syntax handling languages[edit]

These languages assist with generating lexical analyzers and parsers for Context-free grammars.

  • ANTLR
  • Candle (instead of generating lexical analyzers or parsers, Candle takes EBNF kind of grammar and generate the AST of the source)
  • Coco/R (EBNF with semantics)
  • GNU bison (FSF's version of Yacc)
  • GNU Flex (FSF's version of Lex)
  • glex/gyacc (GoboSoft compiler compiler to Eiffel)
  • lex (Lexical Analysis, from Bell Labs)
  • M4
  • yacc (yet another compiler compiler, from Bell Labs)
  • JavaCC

Visual languages[edit]

Visual programming languages let users specify programs in a two-(or more)-dimensional way, instead of as one-dimensional text strings, via graphic layouts of various types.

Some dataflow programming languages are also visual languages.

Wirth languages[edit]

Computer scientist Niklaus Wirth designed and implemented several influential languages.

XML-based languages[edit]

These are languages based on or that operate on XML. Although the big-boy equivalents of Oracle/PostgreSQL/MSSQL don't yet exist for XML, there are languages to navigate through it and its more tree-oriented structure.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Your Answer… You asked: list of imperative programming languages". True Knowledge. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  2. ^ Imperative programming history, Wikipedia
  3. ^ The objects of SQL are collections of records, called tables. A full programming language can specify algorithms, irrespective of runtime. Thus an algorithm can be considered to generate usable results. In contrast, SQL can only select records which are limited to the current collection, the data at hand in the system, rather than produce a statement of the correctness of the result.

External links[edit]