List of prolific inventors

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Thomas Edison was widely known as the world's most prolific inventor.[1][2] He held a total of 1,093 U.S. patents (1,084 utility patents and 9 design patents).[3] In 2003, he was passed by Japanese inventor Shunpei Yamazaki.[4] On February 26, 2008, Yamazaki was passed by Australian inventor Kia Silverbrook.[5] Silverbrook holds 4,705 U.S. utility patents as of March 15, 2015.[6]

Prolific inventors with 300 or more worldwide utility patent families are shown in the following table. In many cases, this number is also the number of U.S. utility patents granted. A patent family is a set of patents filed in various countries to protect a single invention.

Inventor # of Patent Families Country # of INPADOC patents Lived Main fields of invention Ref
Kia Silverbrook 4705  Australia 9885 1958– Printing, Digital paper, Internet, Electronics, CGI, Chemical, DNA, Lab-on-a-chip, MEMS, Mechanical, VLSI [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]
Shunpei Yamazaki 3928  Japan 13805 1942– Thin film transistors, Liquid crystal displays, Solar cells, Flash memory, OLED [4][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]
Paul Lapstun 1272  Australia 3136 19??– Printing, Digital paper, Internet, Electronics, CGI, VLSI [4][11][12][13][14][15][16][22][23][24]
Gurtej Sandhu 1150  India 1896 1960– Thin film processes and materials, VLSI, Semiconductor device fabrication [9][10][11][21][25][26]
Thomas Edison 1084  USA 2332 1847–1931 Electric power, Lighting, Batteries, Phonograph, Cement, Telegraphy, Mining [2][3][4][5][27][28]
Leonard Forbes 1075  Canada 1382 1940– Semiconductor Memories, CCDs, Thin film processes and materials, VLSI [4][10][11][12][14][29][30]
Jun Koyama 1046  Japan 3406 19??– Thin film transistors, Liquid crystal displays, OLED [31][32]
Lowell Wood 1001  USA 1155 19??– Mosquito laser, Nuclear weapons, Geoengineering, Various [17][33][34]
Donald Weder 997  USA 1985 1947– Florist supplies [4][9][10][11][21][35][36]
George Albert Lyon 993  Canada NA 1882–1961 Automotive, Stainless steel products [4][37]
John F. O'Connor 949  USA NA 1864–1938 Railway draft gearing [4][38]
Melvin De Groote 925  USA NA 1895–1963 Chemical de-emulsifiers [2][4]
Francis H. Richards 894  USA NA 1850–19?? Mechanical, automation [2][4]
Jay Walker 849  USA 2165 1955– Gaming machines [11][16][39][40]
Roderick Hyde 783  USA 2602 19??– Various [17][41][42]
Warren Farnworth 768  USA 931 1954– Semiconductor packaging [9][10][11][43][44]
Edward Jung 760  USA 2093 19??– Various [17][45][46]
Carleton Ellis 753  USA NA 1876–1941 Margarine, Polyester, Anti-knock gasoline, Paint stripper [38][47]
Ahmadreza Rofougaran 732  USA 1348 19??– Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits [48][49]
George Spector 722  USA 747 19??– Gadgets, Toys [9][10][50]
Salman Akram 713  USA 874 1967– Semiconductor packaging [9][10][11][51][52]
Hideo Ando 708  Japan 1880 19??– Optical recording [16][53][54]
Elihu Thomson 696  UK NA 1853–1937 Electric power, Arc lamp, Electric motors, Lightning arrester, Arc welder [2][38]
Tetsujiro Kondo 682  Japan 4117 19??– Signal processing, Image processing [55][56]
William Eby 676  USA 696 19??– Transgenic soybeans [57][58]
Michael J. Sullivan 662  USA 1394 19??– Golf balls [59][60]
William I. Wood 653  USA 3622 19??– Proteins, Antibodies [12][13][61][62]
Simon Walmsley 651  Australia 1250 19??– Printing, Electronics, VLSI, Cryptography [15][16][63][64]
Austin L. Gurney 635  USA 3539 19??– Proteins, Antibodies [12][13][65][66]
Audrey Goddard 622  USA 3482 19??– Proteins, Antibodies [12][13][67][68]
Shou-Shan Fan 615  China 1813 19??– Carbon nanotubes and applications of carbon nanotubes [69][70]
Rick Allen Hamilton II 609  USA 964 19??- Various [71][72]
Jerome Lemelson 606  USA NA 1923–1997 Toys, Industrial robots, Cordless telephones, Fax machines, Videocassette recorders [2][21][73]
Clarence Tegreene 598  USA 1858 19??– Various [74][75]
Béla Barényi 595  Hungary 1244 1907–1997 Passive safety in automobiles [76][77]
Paul J. Godowski 579  USA 2649 19??– Proteins, Antibodies [12][13][78][79]
Tadahiro Ohmi 577  Japan 2652 19??– Thin film processes and materials, Semiconductor device fabrication [80][81]
Artur Fischer 570  Germany 3097 1919– Fasteners, Construction toys [82][83]
Kie Y Ahn 567  USA 703 1930–2012 Thin film processes and materials, VLSI, Semiconductor device fabrication [84][85]
Jeyhan Karaoguz 560  USA 1439 19??– Wireless communications, Computer networks [86][87]
Louis L. Hsu 545  USA 969 19??– Various [88][89]
Edward J. Nowak 540  USA 1083 1952– Semiconductor device fabrication, Semiconductor memory, Semiconductor device [90][91]
Edwin H. Land 535  USA 1236 1909–1991 Instant photography, Polarizing film [92][93]
Henri Dreyfus 524   Switzerland 2117 1882–1944 Polymers, Synthetic fibers, Dyes [94][95]
Clyde C. Farmer 513  USA 830 18??–19?? Railway air brakes [38][96][97]
Heinz Focke 511  Germany 2898 19??– Cigarette packaging [9][98][99]
Mark I. Gardner 511  USA 587 1955– Consumer electronics, Energy, Computers, Semiconductors, Physics [9][10][100][101]
Louis H. Morin 503  USA 720 18??–19?? Fasteners, Locks, Bobbins [96][102]
Ravi K. Arimilli 498  India 767 1963– Computer architecture, Semiconductor memory, Cache coherence, Symmetric multiprocessing [103][104]
Tobin King 496  Australia 1225 19??– Printing, Digital paper, Mechanical [105][106]
Jack A. Mandelman 481  USA 889 19??- Various [107][108]
Nathan Myhrvold 476  USA 1420 1959– Various [109][110]
Mark Malamud 473  USA 1566 1960– Various [111][112]
Royce Levien 471  USA 1622 19??– Various [113][114]
Kangguo Cheng 462  USA 892 1972– Semiconductor device fabrication, Semiconductor memory, Semiconductor device [115][116][117]
Eberhard Ammermann 450  Germany 5165 19??– Fungicides [21][118][119]
Thomas E. Murray 449  USA 462 1860–1929 Electrical, HVAC, Wheels, Metal working, Light dimmer [120][121]
Robert W. Lord 443  USA 1470 19??– Various [122][123]
Muriel Y. Ishikawa 443  USA 1418 19??– Various [124][125][126]
Hongyong Zhang 439  Japan 795 19??– Thin film transistors, Liquid crystal displays [127][128]
Akira Nakazawa 437  Australia 557 19??– Printing, Mechanical [129][130]
James M. Hart 424  USA 1309 19??– Motor vehicle transmission [131][132]
Scott Wittkopp 423  USA 1002 19??– Motor vehicle transmission [133][134]
John Hays Hammond, Jr. 417  USA 460 1888–1965 Radio control, Radio communications, Torpedoes [135][136]
Jeffrey P. Gambino 414  USA 727 1957- MEMS, CMOS, BiCMOS, DRAM, Image Sensors, RF, Biosensors, 3D Integrated Circuits [137][138]
Wilhelm Brandes 411  Germany 2932 19??– Fungicides [21][139][140]
Stanford Ovshinsky 400  USA 1643 1922–2012 Batteries, Solar cells, Liquid crystal displays, Hydrogen fuel cells, Computer data storage [141][142]
Josef Theurer 383  Austria 5042 19??– Railroad maintenance machines [21][143][144]
Eric C. Leuthardt 377  USA 1138 19??- Medical devices [145][146]
Hans-Joachim Santel 375  Germany 2651 19??– Herbicides, Pesticides, Organic chemistry [21][147][148]
Gisela Lorenz 373  Germany 4165 19??– Fungicides, Organic chemistry [21][149][150]
George P. Liang 370  China 492 1947- Gas turbine cooling [151][152]
John M. Santosuosso 369  USA 648 19??- Various [153][154]
Garry Jackson 363  Australia 651 19??– Printing, Mechanical [155][156]
George Westinghouse 361  USA NA 1846–1914 Electric power, Electricity meter, Railway air brake, Steam engines [157][158][159]
Bruce B. Doris 358  USA 699 19??- [160][161]
Robert S. Langer 353  USA 1741 1948– Biotechnology, Drug delivery, Tissue engineering [162][163]
Paul W. Dent 353  USA ? 19??– Wireless communications [164]
David V. Horak 351  USA 588 19??- Various [165][166]
Anthony K. Stamper 350  USA 656 1959- MEMS, CMOS, BiCMOS, Silicon-germanium [167][168]
Ronald S. Cok 348  USA 715 19??– OLED displays; image processing [169][170]
Robert R. Schmidt 344  Germany 2432 19??– Herbicides, Fungicides, Organic chemistry [171][172]
Norman Berry 341  Australia 509 19??– Printing, Mechanical [173][174]
Cary L. Bates 341  USA 543 1961- Programming tools, DBX, Memory debuggers [175][176][177]
Mark Kroll 333  USA 479 1952– Implantable medical devices [178][179][180]
Jordin T. Kare 331  USA 1100 1956- Various [181][182]
Kai-Li Jiang 319  China 746 19??- Carbon nanotubes and applications of carbon nanotubes [183][184]
Vincent J. Zimmer 315  USA 848 1970- Computer software and firmware [185][186]

This table was current as of March 15, 2015. The columns are defined as follows:

  • Inventor: The name of the inventor.
  • # of Patent Families: This is the number of families of utility patents that have been issued. In many cases above, it is also the number of issued U.S. utility patents. There is a direct correspondence between the number of patent families and the number of unique patented inventions. Conversely, the total number of worldwide patents does not correspond closely to the number of inventions, as each separate invention must be filed as a separate patent in each country for which patent protection is sought. Only utility patents (or the international equivalent) are listed, as a utility patent is a patent for an invention. Not all patents are for inventions. Other patent types are: design patents for the ornamental design of an object; plant patents for plant varieties; and reissue patents, where a correction is made to an already granted patent. This list does not include patent applications (patents pending) as there is no guarantee that a patent application actually describes a novel invention until the patent is granted.
  • # of INPADOC patents: This is the worldwide number of patents of all types (utility, design, plant, etc.) This includes patent applications, and duplication of the same patent in multiple countries, so is usually an overestimate of the total number of inventions. This data is primarily from INPADOC, an international patent collection produced and maintained by the European Patent Office (EPO). For some inventors active before computer records were available, the total number of patents is not available (NA).
  • Country: This is the country of birth of the inventor, where known. If the country of birth is unknown, this is the country of patent filing.
  • Lived: These are the birth and death years of the inventor, where known.
  • Main fields of invention: These are the main areas that the inventor is or was active in.

Threshold for inclusion[edit]

As the average number of patents per inventor is around 3, some sources define prolific inventors as five times above the average (in terms of patents), leading to a threshold of 15 patents.[187] However, this table currently has an arbitrary cut-off limit for inclusion of 300 patent families. This is purely for practical reasons – there are 88 inventors throughout history with more than 300 utility patent families, but tens of thousands of inventors with more than 15 patents. The threshold of 300 patents means that some famous prolific inventors such as Nikola Tesla are not included this list, as Tesla had 111 patents.[188][189]

Significance of inventions[edit]

This table is a ranking of the most prolific inventors, not necessarily the most significant inventors. The significance of inventions is often not apparent until many decades after the invention has been made. For recent inventors, it is not yet possible to determine their place in history.

The common symbol for inventiveness – the light bulb – is a perfect example. The first incandescent light bulb was invented by British chemist Sir Humphry Davy in 1802. Many subsequent inventors improved Davy's invention prior to the successful commercialization of electric lighting by Thomas Edison in 1880, 78 years later. Electric lighting continued to be developed. Edison's carbon filament light bulb was made obsolete by the tungsten filament light bulb, invented in 1904. It is this that forms the popular conception of a light bulb, though there are other major forms of lighting. The principle of fluorescent lights was known since 1845, and various inventors, including Edison and Nikola Tesla worked on them without commercial success. Various improvements were made by many other inventors, until General Electric introduced "fluorescent lumiline lamps" commercially in 1938, first available to the public at the 1939 World's Fair. LED lamps also have a long history, with the first light-emitting diode (LED) invented in 1927 by Oleg Losev. LEDs were initially of low brightness, and have been used as indicator lamps and seven-segment displays since 1968. It wasn't until the development of high efficiency blue LEDs by Shuji Nakamura in the 1980s that white LEDs for lighting applications became practical. Although higher cost than incandescent light bulbs, LEDs have higher efficiency and longer life and may finally displace light bulbs in general lighting applications. In each case, more than 50 years passed between the initial invention and commercial success in general lighting applications.

Various published lists[edit]

Rankings of prolific inventors have been published at various times. However, until the patent records were digitized, these lists were very tedious to prepare, as many thousands of patent records had to be checked manually. Even after digitization, it is still not a simple process. While the USPTO keeps statistics for annual rankings of inventions assigned to companies, it no longer publishes rankings of individual inventors. The last such list was published by the USPTO in 1998.[21] Also, patents predating 1976 have not yet been digitized in the USPTO records. This means that patents before 1976 will not be included in a USPTO search by inventor name, and the number of patents granted before 1976 must be added to current searches.

Popular Science (1936)[edit]

In January 1936, Popular Science published a list of the "most prolific living inventors to be found in America today".[38]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 John F. O'Connor 949
2 Elihu Thomson 696
3 Carleton Ellis 648
4 Henry A. Wise Wood 434
5 John Hays Hammond Jr. 360
6 Clyde C. Farmer 344
7 Ethan I. Dodds 321
8 Edward Weston 309

Thomas Edison was not included in the list, as he died in 1931, five years earlier.

Time Magazine (2000)[edit]

On December 4, 2000, Time Magazine published a list of the "top five inventors".[2]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Thomas Edison 1,093
2 Melvin De Groote 925
3 Francis H. Richards 894
4 Elihu Thomson 696
5 Jerome Lemelson 554

This list only included U.S. inventors, so omitted Canadian inventor George Albert Lyon, with 993 U.S. patents at the time of publication, Japanese inventor Shunpei Yamazaki, with 745 U.S. patents, and Béla Barényi, with 595 German patents. Also omitted were John F. O'Connor with 949 U.S. patents, and Carleton Ellis, with 753 U.S. patents at the time of publication.

USA Today (2005)[edit]

On December 13, 2005 USA Today published a list of "the top 10 living U.S. patent holders":[9]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Shunpei Yamazaki 1,432
2 Donald Weder 1,322
3 Kia Silverbrook 810
4 George Spector 723
5 Gurtej Sandhu 576
6 Warren Farnworth 547
7 Salman Akram 527
8 Mark Gardner 512
9 Heinz Focke 508
10 Joseph Straeter 477

This research was performed by ipIQ of Chicago (now "The Patent Board"[190]) and 1790 Analytics[191] of New Jersey. This list only considered living inventors, and thus did not include such prolific inventors as Thomas Edison, Melvin De Groote, and Elihu Thomson. This list included design patents, which are not patents for inventions.

Condé Nast Portfolio (2007)[edit]

On October 15, 2007 Condé Nast Portfolio Magazine published a list[10] of "the world's most prolific inventors alive":

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Shunpei Yamazaki 1,811
2 Kia Silverbrook 1,646
3 Donald Weder 1,350
4 George Spector 722
5 Gurtej Sandhu 674
6 Leonard Forbes 671
7 Warren Farnworth 635
8 Salman Akram 612
9 Mark Gardner 515
10 Joseph Straeter 485

This research was performed by The Patent Board,[190] a Chicago patent research and advisory firm. As with the USA Today list, the Portfolio list only considered living inventors, and thus did not include such prolific inventors as Thomas Edison. This list also included design patents, which are not patents for inventions.

Business Insider (2011)[edit]

On 6 May 2011 Business Insider published an article titled: "The Ten Greatest Inventors In The Modern Era"[4] containing the following list:

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Kia Silverbrook 3,847
2 Shunpei Yamazaki 2,061
3 Thomas Edison 1,084
4 George Albert Lyon 993
5 Paul Lapstun 969
6 Donald Weder 951
7 John F. O'Connor 949
8 Leonard Forbes 948
9 Melvin De Groote 925
10 Francis H. Richards 894

This list included living and dead inventors, and only included granted utility patents (patents for inventions).

Strutpatent.com (2012)[edit]

Strutpatent.com publishes a list of the "Top 10 Inventors" [11] listing inventors ranked by US patents (of all types) issued since 1990:

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Kia Silverbrook 4,279
2 Shunpei Yamazaki 1,664
3 Donald Weder 1,310
4 Paul Lapstun 1,098
5 Leonard Forbes 959
6 Gurtej Sandhu 728
7 Warren Farnworth 685
8 Salman Akram 653
9 Jay Walker 644
10 Chang-Hwan Hwang 634

This list included only patents granted since 1990, and includes design patents as well as utility patents.

Annual lists (2007–2012)[edit]

Strutpatent.com publishes weekly, monthly, and annual lists of the top ten categories, inventors and assignees of US patents since 2007. These lists include all patent types, not just patents for inventions (utility patents).

The top ten inventors of US patents for 2007:[12]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Kia Silverbrook 502
2 Audrey Goddard 232
3 William I. Wood 232
4 Austin L. Gurney 225
5 Chang-Hwan Hwang 203
6 Paul J. Godowski 193
7 Shunpei Yamazaki 139
8 Paul Lapstun 129
9 Leonard Forbes 120
10 Victoria Smith 112

The top ten inventors of US patents for 2008:[13]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Kia Silverbrook 576
2 Chang-Hwan Hwang 198
3 Audrey Goddard 168
4 Austin L. Gurney 167
5 William I. Wood 166
6 Paul J. Godowski 153
7 Shunpei Yamazaki 143
8 Paul Lapstun 137
9 Chang-Soo Lee 129
10 Victoria Smith 122

The top ten inventors of US patents for 2009:[14]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Kia Silverbrook 444
2 Shunpei Yamazaki 137
3 Paul Lapstun 113
4 Bartley K. Andre 92
5 Daniele De Iuliis 92
6 Jonathan Ive 92
7 Matthew Rohrbach 92
8 Richard P. Howarth 91
9 Duncan Robert Kerr 91
10 Leonard Forbes 91

The top ten inventors of US patents for 2010:[15]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Kia Silverbrook 709
2 Paul Lapstun 191
3 Shunpei Yamazaki 162
4 Simon Walmsley 115
5 Bartley K. Andre 114
6 Matthew Rohrbach 109
7 Richard P. Howarth 108
8 Jonathan Ive 108
9 Duncan Robert Kerr 108
10 Daniel J. Coster 106

The top ten inventors of US patents for 2011:[16]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Kia Silverbrook 754
2 Paul Lapstun 268
3 Shunpei Yamazaki 163
4 Hideo Ando 162
5 You Yoshioka 153
6 Scott H. Wittkopp 126
7 James M. Hart 125
8 Edward Jung 112
9 Simon Walmsley 112
10 Jay S. Walker 99

The top ten inventors of US patents for 2012:[17]

Rank Inventor U.S. Patents
1 Kia Silverbrook 220
2 Edward Jung 180
3 Shunpei Yamazaki 172
4 Lowell Wood 169
5 Roderick Hyde 140
6 Bin Li 124
7 Royce Levien 122
8 Mark Malamud 119
9 Shunpei Yamazaki 118
10 John Rinaldo 117

This table omitted Rick Allen Hamilton II. The USPTO database shows Hamilton was an inventor or co-inventor of 128 US patents granted in 2012,[192] which would place Hamilton at 6th rank for 2012.

Differences between lists[edit]

Differences in patent numbers between the various lists are due to several reasons:

  • The lists were created on different dates. As many of the inventors in the lists are still active, the number of patents they hold are increasing.
  • While the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is the primary source for U.S. patent information, only patents issued since 1976 can be electronically searched by the inventor's name at the USPTO website.[193] For some of the listed inventors, such as Thomas Edison, all of their patents predate 1976, so other sources must be used.
  • Often entities list the worldwide total number of patents that they hold. This is not the same as the number of inventions, as a patent in one country may be for the same invention as a patent in another country. The set of patents covering a single invention in different countries is a Patent family.
  • The Time, USA Today and Portfolio lists show the total number of U.S. patents, including patents for designs (Design patents) as well as patents for inventions (Utility patents).
  • The annual lists from strutpatent.com list only those patents issued in the particular year to the inventor, not all of the inventor's patents.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thomas Alva Edison Biography at Rutgers University
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Man-Made Marvels Time Magazine, Dec 4, 2000
  3. ^ a b List of Edison patents
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The Ten Greatest Inventors In The Modern Era Business Insider, 6 May 2011
  5. ^ a b c The True Inventor Basson-Booyens website
  6. ^ a b USPTO Utility Patent Search for Kia Silverbrook
  7. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Kia Silverbrook
  8. ^ US Patent Applications of Kia Silverbrook
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j You really can find identities of top patent holders USA Today, Dec 13, 2005
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Masters of invention Portfolio, October 15, 2007
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Strutpatent list of the top 10 inventors since 1990
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i List of the top ten US patent grantees for 2007 StrutPatent.com website
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h List of the top ten US patent grantees for 2008 StrutPatent.com website
  14. ^ a b c d e List of the top ten US patent grantees for 2009 StrutPatent.com website
  15. ^ a b c d e List of the top ten US patent grantees for 2010 StrutPatent.com website
  16. ^ a b c d e f g List of the top ten US patent grantees for 2011 StrutPatent.com website
  17. ^ a b c d e f List of the top ten US patent grantees for 2012 StrutPatent.com website
  18. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Shunpei/Shumpei Yamazaki
  19. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Shunpei/Shumpei Yamazaki
  20. ^ US Patent Applications of Shunpei Yamazaki
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j USPTO publication: Prolific Inventors Receiving Utility Patents 1988-1997
  22. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Paul Lapstun
  23. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Paul Lapstun
  24. ^ US Patent Applications of Paul Lapstun
  25. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Gurtej Sandhu
  26. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Gurtej Sandhu
  27. ^ Edison's Foreign Patents
  28. ^ The Complete Thomas Alva Edison U.S. Patent Collection
  29. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Leonard Forbes
  30. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Leonard Forbes
  31. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Jun Koyama
  32. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Jun Koyama
  33. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Lowell Wood
  34. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Lowell Wood
  35. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Donald Weder
  36. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Donald Weder
  37. ^ Archived Boliven Utility Patent Search for George Albert Lyon(s)
  38. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Jay Walker
  39. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Jay Walker
  40. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Roderick Hyde
  41. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Roderick Hyde
  42. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Warren Farnworth
  43. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Warren Farnworth
  44. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Edward Jung
  45. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Edward Jung
  46. ^ B. Zorina Khan, The Democratization of Invention: Patents and Copyrights in American Economic Development, 1790-1920 (Cambridge University Press, 2005) pp209-210
  47. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Ahmadreza Rofougaran
  48. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Ahmadreza Rofougaran
  49. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for George Spector
  50. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Salman Akram
  51. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Salman Akram
  52. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Hideo Ando
  53. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Hideo Ando
  54. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Tetsujiro Kondo
  55. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Tetsujiro Kondo
  56. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for William Eby
  57. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for William Eby
  58. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Michael Sullivan
  59. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Michael J. Sullivan
  60. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for William I. Wood
  61. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for William I. Wood
  62. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Simon Walmsley
  63. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Simon Walmsley
  64. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Austin L. Gurney
  65. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Austin L. Gurney
  66. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Audrey Goddard
  67. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Audrey Goddard
  68. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Shou-Shan Fan
  69. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Shou-Shan Fan
  70. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Rick Allen Hamilton II
  71. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Rick Allen Hamilton II
  72. ^ The Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention & Innovation web site, Jerome Lemelson's Patents.
  73. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Clarence Tegreene
  74. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Clarence Tegreene
  75. ^ German Utility Patent Search for Béla Barényi
  76. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Béla Barényi
  77. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Paul J. Godowski
  78. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Paul J. Godowski
  79. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Tadahiro Ohmi
  80. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Tadahiro Ohmi
  81. ^ Reference to German patents of Artur Fischer
  82. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Artur Fischer
  83. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Kie Y Ahn
  84. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Kie Y Ahn
  85. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Jeyhan Karaoguz
  86. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Jeyhan Karaoguz
  87. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Louis L. Hsu
  88. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Louis L. Hsu
  89. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Edward J. Nowak
  90. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Edward J. Nowak
  91. ^ Victor K. McElheny, Insisting on the impossible: The Life of Edwin Land (Perseus Books, 1998)
  92. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Edwin H. Land
  93. ^ Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation
  94. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Henry Dreyfus
  95. ^ a b Archived Boliven.com website
  96. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Clyde C. Farmer
  97. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Heinz Focke
  98. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Heinz Focke
  99. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Mark I. Gardner
  100. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Mark I. Gardner
  101. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Louis H. Morin
  102. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Ravi K. Arimilli
  103. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Ravi K. Arimilli
  104. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Tobin King
  105. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Tobin King
  106. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Jack A. Mandelman
  107. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Jack A. Mandelman
  108. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Nathan Myhrvold
  109. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Nathan Myhrvold
  110. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Mark Malamud
  111. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Mark Malamud
  112. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Royce Levien
  113. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Royce Levien
  114. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Kangguo Cheng
  115. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Kangguo Cheng
  116. ^ Bio of Kangguo Cheng
  117. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Eberhard Ammermann
  118. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Eberhard Ammermann
  119. ^ Full patent listing for Thomas E. Murray
  120. ^ Thomas E. Murray web site
  121. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Robert W. Lord
  122. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Robert W. Lord
  123. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Muriel Y. Ishikawa
  124. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Muriel Y. Ishikawa
  125. ^ Bio of Muriel Y. Ishikawa
  126. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Hongyong Zhang
  127. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Hongyong Zhang
  128. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Akira Nakazawa
  129. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Akira Nakazawa
  130. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for James M. Hart
  131. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for James M. Hart
  132. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Scott Wittkopp
  133. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Scott Wittkopp
  134. ^ The Infography of John Hays Hammond, Jr.
  135. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for John Hays Hammond
  136. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Jeffrey P. Gambino
  137. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Jeffrey P. Gambino
  138. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Wilhelm Brandes
  139. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Wilhelm Brandes
  140. ^ US Patents of Stanford Ovshinsky
  141. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Stanford Ovshinsky
  142. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Josef Theurer
  143. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Josef Theurer
  144. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Eric C. Leuthardt
  145. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Eric C. Leuthardt
  146. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Hans-Joachim Santel
  147. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Hans-Joachim Santel
  148. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Gisela Lorenz
  149. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Gisela Lorenz
  150. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for George P. Liang
  151. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for George P. Liang
  152. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for John M. Santosuosso
  153. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for John M. Santosuosso
  154. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Garry Jackson
  155. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Garry Jackson
  156. ^ George Westinghouse article at ideafinder.com
  157. ^ Hubert, P. G. (1894). Men of achievement. Inventors. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Page 296+
  158. ^ George Westinghouse article in Encyclopaedia Britannica
  159. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Bruce B. Doris
  160. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Bruce B. Doris
  161. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Robert S. Langer
  162. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Robert S. Langer
  163. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Paul W. Dent
  164. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for David V. Horak
  165. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for David V. Horak
  166. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Anthony K. Stamper
  167. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Anthony K. Stamper
  168. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Ronald S. Cok
  169. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Ronald S. Cok
  170. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Robert R. Schmidt
  171. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Robert R. Schmidt
  172. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Norman Berry
  173. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Norman Berry
  174. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Cary L. Bates
  175. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Cary Bates
  176. ^ Bio of Cary L. Bates
  177. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Mark W. Kroll
  178. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Mark W. Kroll
  179. ^ http://www.startribune.com/business/22114119.html
  180. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Jordin T. Kare
  181. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Jordin T. Kare
  182. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Kai-Li Jiang
  183. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Kai-Li Jiang
  184. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Vincent Zimmer
  185. ^ Worldwide Patent Search for Vincent Zimmer
  186. ^ Prolific Inventors: Who are They and Where do They Locate? International Centre for Economic Research Working Paper No. 14/2010
  187. ^ List of Nikola Tesla patents
  188. ^ Jim Bieberich's Complete Nikola Tesla U.S. Patent Collection
  189. ^ a b The Patent Board website
  190. ^ 1790 Analytics website
  191. ^ USPTO Utility Patent Search for Rick Allen Hamilton II for 2012
  192. ^ USPTO Patent Search website