List of proposed state mergers

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This is a list of proposed state mergers, including both current and historical proposals. The entities listed below differ from separatist movements in that they would form as a merger or union of two or more existing states, territories, colonies, or other regions, becoming either a federation, confederation, or other type of unified sovereign state.

Current[edit]

Proposed state Components Notes
China  People's Republic of China
 Republic of China
Chinese reunification is the goal of both governments. Supported by Chinese nationalists.
Cyprus  Republic of Cyprus
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Supported by many Cypriots and the United Nations.
East African Federation  Burundi
 Kenya
 Rwanda
 Tanzania
 Uganda
Proposed political union between the five member states of the East African Community.
Korea  North Korea
 South Korea
Korean reunification has been a goal for both Koreas since the 1953 armistice agreement.

Historic[edit]

20th century[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
Greek-Serbian Federation  Greece
 Republic of Macedonia
 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1992–2001 No A serious project proposed by Slobodan Milošević in 1992.
Germany  East Germany
 West Germany
1990 Yes German reunification
 Yemen  North Yemen
 South Yemen
1990 Yes Yemeni unification
Senegambia Confederation  The Gambia
 Senegal
Between 1 January 1982 and 30 September 1989 Yes
(1 January 1982 – 30 September 1989)
Loose confederation was formed, but ended due to Gambia's lack of interest in integration.
Egypt Federation of Arab Republics  Libya
 United Arab Republic
Also invited:
 Iraq
 Sudan
1972–1977 No An attempt to build a Pan-Arab state.
 Vietnam  North Vietnam
 South Vietnam
1976 Yes
Arab Islamic Republic  Libya
 Tunisia
1974 No Proposed by Muammar Gaddafi.
 Tanzania  Tanganyika
Zanzibar
1964 Yes
Malaysia  Malaya
North Borneo
Sarawak
 Singapore
1963 Yes Singapore left the federation on 9 August 1965.
North Borneo Federation North Borneo
Sarawak
 Protectorate of Brunei
1956–1960 No
Arab Federation  Kingdom of Iraq
 Jordan
1958 Yes
(14 February 1958 – 2 August 1958)
An attempt to unify the two Hashemite kingdoms of Iraq and Jordan. While successful, the short-lived union was disestablished after a military coup deposed King Faisal II of Iraq.
Union of African States  Ghana
 Guinea
 Mali
1958 Yes
(23 November 1958 – 1962)
The Union fell apart in 1962, when Guinea started to reach out to the United States, against the Marxist leaning of the other partners, who were more oriented towards the Cold War adversary of the U.S., the Soviet Union.
 United Arab Republic  Egypt
 Syria
1958 Yes
(22 February 1958 – 28 September 1961)
A short-lived Pan-Arab state.
 West Indies Federation British Barbados
British Jamaica
British Leeward Islands
British Trinidad and Tobago
British Windward Islands
1958 Yes
(1958–1962)
The expressed intention of the Federation was to create a political unit that would become independent from Britain as a single state, however, before that could happen, the Federation collapsed due to internal political conflicts.
United Arab States  United Arab Republic
North Yemen
1958 Yes
(8 March 1958 – 26 December 1961)
Loose confederation between United Arab Republic and North Yemen.
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland  Nyasaland
 Northern Rhodesia
 Southern Rhodesia
1953 Yes
(1953–1963)
A semi-independent state.
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
People's Socialist Republic of Albania
People's Republic of Bulgaria
1946–1948 No Josip Broz Tito came extremely close to getting Albania into accepting integration into Yugoslavia, but relations cooled in 1948 over fears that Yugoslavia only intended to use Albania for raw materials, subsequently resulting in the expulsion of Yugoslav diplomats. Yugoslav/Bulgarian negotiations fell through when Moscow attempted to force both countries into accepting Soviet control over the merge, which caused Yugoslavia to withdraw from negotiations and precipitated the Tito–Stalin split.
Polish-Czechoslovak confederation  Czechoslovakia
 Poland
1939–1948 No A serious project proposed by Władysław Sikorski.
Greek-Yugoslav confederation Strictest definition:
 Greece
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Loosest definition also includes:
 Albania
 Bulgaria
 Romania
1942–1944 No
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
First Austrian Republic
1938 Yes (1938–1945) Academic disagreement whether union was forced. See Anschluss.
Soviet Union Byelorussian SSR
Russian SFSR
Transcaucasian SFSR
Ukrainian SSR
1922 Yes
(1922–1991)
Treaty on the Creation of the USSR
Ukrainian People's Republic Ukrainian People's Republic
West Ukrainian People's Republic
1919 Yes
(1919)
Act Zluky
Weimar Republic Weimar Republic
Republic of German-Austria
1918–1919 No Following the disintegration of Austria-Hungary in the final days of World War I, the German-speaking territories of the Empire attempted to begin a process of integration into Weimar Germany. The Allies did not favor the idea, and forced the Austrian rump state to sign the Treaty of Saint Germain, which prohibited Austria from uniting with Germany.
Międzymorze  Belarus
 Czechoslovakia
 Estonia
 Finland
 Hungary
 Latvia
 Lithuania
 Poland
 Romania
 Ukraine
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
November or December 1918 No Also called "Intermarium". Suggested shortly after World War I to combat the influences of Germany and Russia.
United Baltic Duchy Estonia
Latvia
1918 No Attempt to form German protectorate state in a Personal Union with Kaiser Wilhelm II, mostly lead by Baltic German nobility and was only recognized by the German Empire. After Germany's defeat in World War I, Latvia declared its independence. Germany Army General Rüdiger von der Goltz was unsuccessful at attempting to keep the region under German control.
Kingdom of Yugoslavia Kingdom of Montenegro
Kingdom of Serbia
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
1918 Yes
(1918–1992)
Creation of Yugoslavia
Balkan Federation  Albania
 Bulgaria
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
1910 No
Commonwealth of Australia  Queensland
 New South Wales
 Victoria
 Tasmania
 South Australia
 Western Australia
1901 Yes Federation of Australia

19th century[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
German Empire North German Confederation
Kingdom of Bavaria
Kingdom of Württemberg
Grand Duchy of Baden
Grand Duchy of Hesse
Alsace-Lorraine (Part of French Third Republic)
Austrian Empire
1871 Partial
(1871–1918)
Unification of Germany (excluding Austria) after German victory over the French in the Franco-Prussian War. See also, the German Question regarding the competing ideas of "Greater Germany" and "Lesser Germany" (whether or not a united Germany should include the Austrian Empire). The matter was settled with the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, in which Prussia assumed leadership of the various minor German nation states.
Antillean Confederation Cuba
Puerto Rico
 Dominican Republic
1869 or 1870 No Proposed by Ramón Emeterio Betances.
Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Sardinia
Papal States
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Part of Austrian Empire)
1848–1870 Yes Although the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed in 1861, the Italian Unification is generally considered to have been incomplete until after the integration of Venetia in 1866 and the capture of Rome in 1870. See Italian Unification and Expedition of the Thousand.
Dominion of Canada  New Brunswick
 Nova Scotia
 Ontario
 Quebec
1867 Yes Canadian Confederation
Greater Republic of Central America El Salvador
Honduras
Nicaragua
Considered joining:
Costa Rica
 Guatemala
1895–1898 Yes
(1896–1898)
Kingdom of Greece Kingdom of Greece
United States of the Ionian Islands
1864 Yes Treaty of London (1864)
United Principalities Wallachia
Moldavia
1862 Yes Becomes Kingdom of Romania in 1881
United States United States
Republic of Texas
1845 Yes See Texas annexation
Peru–Bolivian Confederation Bolivia
Peru
1829–1839 Yes
(1836–1839)
Gran Colombia Viceroyalty of New Granada
Venezuela
Free Province of Guayaquil
1819–1830 Yes
(1819–1830)
Scandinavia  Denmark
 Norway
 Sweden
Mid-19th century No
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland  Kingdom of Great Britain
 Kingdom of Ireland
1800 Yes
(1801–1922)

18th century[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
Kingdom of Great Britain  Kingdom of England
 Kingdom of Scotland
1707 Yes
United States of America Republic of Vermont
United States of America
1777–1791 Yes

17th century[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
January Uprising.svg Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Cossack Hetmanate
1658–1659 No Treaty of Hadiach

16th century[edit]

Proposed state Components Time period Successful? Notes
Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite Commonwealth Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Tsardom of Russia
1574–1658 No
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569)
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
1569 Yes
(1569–1795)
See Union of Lublin

See also[edit]

References[edit]