List of proposed states and territories of India

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Proposed states of India

This is a list of proposed states and territories of India, in addition to the existing twenty nine states and seven union territories.[1] The admission or creation of new states and territories is a power reserved solely for the Parliament of India, which can do so by admitting new states, separating territory from an existing state or by merging two or more states or parts thereof.[2]

History[edit]

The states of India in 1951

Before independence, most of India was divided into British-administered provinces and nominally autonomous princely states, which were governed with British advice. After the partition of India, some of these administrative divisions became part of the Dominion of Pakistan, whilst the remaining states and provinces formed the Dominion of India. The colonial system of administration continued until 1956 when the States Reorganization Act abolished the provinces and princely states in favour of new states which were based on language and ethnicity.

Several new states and union territories have been created out of existing states since 1956. The Bombay Reorganization Act split Bombay State into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960.[3] Nagaland was created on 1 December 1963.[4] The Punjab Reorganization Act of 1966 created a new Hindi-speaking state of Haryana from the southern districts of Punjab state,[5] transferred the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh, and designated a union territory around Chandigarh, the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana.[6]

Statehood was conferred upon Himachal Pradesh on 25 January 1971,[7] and Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura.[8] On 21 January 1972 the Kingdom of Sikkim joined the Indian Union as a state on 26 April 1975.[9] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu became a separate union territory.[10]

Three new states were created in 2000; Chhattisgarh (1 November 2000) was created out of eastern Madhya Pradesh,[11] Uttaranchal (9 November 2000), which was renamed Uttarakhand in 2007,[12] was created out of the mountainous districts of northwest Uttar Pradesh,[13] and Jharkhand was created out of the southern districts of Bihar on 15 November 2000.[14]

Delhi[edit]

The nine districts of Delhi

Delhi /ˈdɛli/, also known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi, is a metropolitan region that includes the national capital city, New Delhi, and together with the neighbouring cities of Baghpat, Gurgaon, Sonipat, Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Noida, Greater Noida forms the National Capital Region, with a population of about 22 million residents.[15][16] The political administration of Delhi more closely resembles that of a state than a union territory, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the Union government and the local government of Delhi. The previous National Democratic Alliance government introduced a bill in Parliament in 2003, to grant full statehood to Delhi, but the legislation was not passed.[17]

Karbi Anglong[edit]

Karbi Anglong is one of the two hill districts of Assam. Karbi Anglong was previously known as Mikir Hills. It was part of the Excluded Areas and Partially Excluded Areas (the present North East India) during British India. The British India government had never included this area under their government jurisdiction. Thereby no government development work or activity were done, nor any tax levied from the hills, including Karbi Anglong (then Mikir Hills). The first memorandum for a Karbi homeland was presented to Governor Reid on 28 October 1940 by Semsonsing Ingti and Khorsing Terang at Mohongdijua,[18] Mikir Hills (now Karbi Anglong). Then the Karbi leaders were part of the All Party Hill Leaders' Conference (APHLC) formed on 6 July 1960 represented by Raidang Ingti, Basa Ingti Kathar, John Kathar, Davidlong Inghi, Barelong Terang, Moniram Langneh. Later Harlongbi Ingti Kathar, Pitor Tisso, Bapuram Singnar, Longsodar Katharson (Ingti Kathar); and then, Gandhiram Timung, Protap Chandro Tokbi, Song Beh, Nihang Teron, Harikanto Ronghang, Sonaram Terang, Harsing Taro, Thong Timung, Sara Ingti Kathar, Moniram Rongpi, Rongpi Lamding, and many more.[19] The movement again gained momentum when the Karbi Anglong District Council passed a resolution demanding a Separate State in 1981. Then again from 1986 through the leadership of Autonomous State Demand Committee (ASDC) demanded Autonomous statehood of Karbi Anglong & Dima Hasao under Article 244(A). In 2002, the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council again passed another resolution to press for statehood. Besides there were several Memoranda submitted at different times by several organizations. The demand for Separate State of Karbi Anglong took a violent turn on 31 July 2013 where student demonstrators burst out in anger burning almost every government building. Following which, the elected political leaders of Karbi Anglong jointly submitted a memorandum to the Prime Minister of India demanding a separate State. The Prime Minister had given them his assurance to discuss the matter.

Vidarbha[edit]

Vidarbha region is composed of Amarvati and Nagpur divisions

Vidarbha (Marathi: विदर्भ) is a region that comprises the Amravati and Nagpur divisions of eastern Maharashtra. The State Reorganization Act of 1956 placed Vidarbha in Bombay State. Shortly after this, the States Reorganisation Commission recommended the creation of "Vidarbha state" with Nagpur as the capital, but instead it was included in Maharashtra state, which was formed on 1 May 1960.

Support for a separate state of Vidarbha had been expressed by Loknayak Bapuji Aney and Brijlal Biyani Vidarbha. The demand for the creation of a separate state are based on allegations of neglect by the Maharashtra state government. Jambuwantrao Dhote led a popular struggle for Vidarbha statehood in the 1970s. Two politicians, N.K.P. Salve and Vasant Sathe, have led 21st century attempts to bring about a state of Vidarbha.

Harit Pradesh / Paschimanchal/Braj[edit]

Proposed states in Uttar Pradesh

Harit Pradesh (Hindi: हरित प्रदेश, Urdu: ہرِت پردیش) is a proposed state, which would comprise 22 districts of Western Uttar Pradesh, currently forming six divisions – Agra, Aligarh, Bareilly, Meerut, Moradabad, and Saharanpur. The most prominent advocate for the creation of the new state is Ajit Singh, the leader of the Rashtriya Lok Dal party. Mayawati also supported the formation of Harit Pradesh in December 2009.

There is another demand within the same region - Braj Pradesh: Braj consisting of Agra division and Aligarh division from Uttar Pradesh and districts of Bharatpur and Gwalior from Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. The proposed capital would be in Agra.[20][21] So far, Braj has remained as a historical and cultural region, rather than a political entity. Language of Braj is Braj Bhasha.

Awadh / Central Uttar Pradesh[edit]

Awadh state consisting of Awadhi speaking districts of central Uttar Pradesh. The population of proposed state would be approximately 5 crores (50 million people) with an area of approximately 75,000 km2 and capital at Lucknow.

Purvanchal[edit]

Purvanchal (Hindi: पूर्वांचल, Urdu: پُورواںچل) is a geographic region of north-central India, which comprises the eastern end of Uttar Pradesh state. It is bounded by Nepal to the north, Bihar state to the east, Bagelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh state to the south, the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh to the west. Purvanchal comprises three divisions – Awadhi region in the west, Bhojpuri region in the east and the Baghelkhand region in the south.

The most commonly spoken language in Purvanchal is Bhojpuri.

Purvanchal area is represented by 23 Members of Parliament to the lower house of Indian Parliament, and 117 legislators in the 403 member Uttar Pradesh state assembly or Vidhan Sabha.[22] Districts-Azamgarh, Ballia, Chandauli, Deoria, Ghazipur, Gorakhpur, Jaunpur, Kushinagar, Maharajganj, Mau, Mirzapur, Sant Kabir Nagar, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Siddharth Nagar, Varanasi.

As a fallout of Telangana creation movement, Mayawati proposed 13 Dec 2009 to carve Purvanchal.[23] out of Uttar Pradesh. Current movement for Purvanchal is spearheaded by famous politician Amar Singh.

Bundelkhand[edit]

Bundelkhand comprises parts of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

Kashmir[edit]

The proposed Kashmir state comprises the Kashmir valley region in Jammu & Kashmir

Jammu/ Dogradesh[edit]

The Jammu region of the present day Indian state of 'Jammu and Kashmir' is predominantly inhabited by the Dogras. The demand for the creation of a separate state of 'Jammu' is almost 60 years old and has its origin in the 'Praja Parishad' agitation of 1952-53. Historically, the people of Jammu or the Dogras were never connected with the region of Kashmir given the geographical proximity of the two regions and were united as a state only after the sale of the area comprising the regions of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh to Raja Gulab Singh Jamwal by the British.

The demand for the creation of a separate 'Jammu' State has gained ground with the marginalization of the people of the region in Elected Government and in selection in the state government services. In addition, there are no cultural or linguistic similarities between the people of the 'Jammu' and the 'Kashmir' region of the state (Barring the people residing in the Districts of Doda and Poonch in the Jammu region). Also, while the people of Kashmir are predominantly Muslim, the Jammu region is largely Hindu with the community comprising almost 70% of the population.

The proposed Dogradesh state comprise the Jammu region in Jammu & Kashmir

Ladakh[edit]

Ladakh, comprising a sizeable chunk of eastern Jammu and Kashmir, has asked for Union Territory status as part of a desire to protect its Buddhist culture from the influence of the mainly Muslim Kashmir Valley.

Gorkhaland[edit]

Map of the proposed state of Gorkhaland

Gorkhaland (Nepali: गोर्खाल्याण्ड) is a proposed state covering areas inhabited by the ethnic Gorkha (Nepali) people, namely Darjeeling hills and Dooars in the northern part of West Bengal.[24] The movement for Gorkhaland has gained momentum in the line of ethno-linguistic-cultural sentiment of the people who desire to identify themselves as Gorkha.[25]

The demand for a separate administrative region has existed since 1907, when the Hillmen's Association of Darjeeling submitted a memorandum to the Morley-Minto reforms committee.[26] After Indian independence, the Akhil Bharatiya Gorkha League (ABGL) was the first political party from the region to demand greater identity for the Gorkha ethnic group and economic freedom for the community. In 1980, the Pranta Parishad of Darjeeling wrote to the then Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, with the need to form a state for the Gorkhas.

The movement for a separate state of Gorkhaland gained serious momentum during the 1980s, when a violent agitation was carried out by Gorkha National Liberation Front (GNLF) led by Subhash Ghising. The agitation ultimately led to the establishment of a semiautonomous body in 1988 called the Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council (DGHC) to govern certain areas of Darjeeling district. However, in 2008, a new party called the Gorkha Janmukti Morcha (GJM) raised the demand for a separate state of Gorkhaland once again.[27] In 2011, GJM signed an agreement with the state and central governments for the formation of Gorkhaland Territorial Administration, a semiautonomous body that replaced the DGHC in the Darjeeling hills.[28]

Kamtapur[edit]

Kamtapur in northern parts of West Bengal.[29] The proposed state consists of the districts of Koch Behar, Jalpaiguri, and southern plains of Darjeeling including Siliguri city.

Bodoland[edit]

Bodoland.JPG

The agitation for the creation of a separate Bodoland state resulted in an agreement between the Indian Government, the Assam state government and the Bodo Liberation Tigers Force. Per that agreement of 10 February 2003, the Bodoland Territorial Council, an entity subordinate to the government of Assam, was created to govern four districts covering 3082 Bodo-majority villages in Assam.[30][31] Elections to the council were held on 13 May 2003, and Hagrama Mahillary was sworn in as chief of the 46-member council on 4 June 2003.[32]

Dimaraji[edit]

The Dimasa people of Northeast India have been demanding a separate state called Dimaraji or "Dimaland" for several decades. It would comprise the Dimasa inhabited areas of Assam and Nagaland, namely Dima Hasao district and Cachar district, parts of Nagaon district and Karbi Anglong district in Assam together with part of Dimapur district in Nagaland.[33]

Dimaraji Map

Kosal[edit]

Main article: Kosal state movement

The Kosal region is the entire Western Odisha area located in Odisha state, between 19° 37’- 23° N latitude and 82° 28’- 85° 22’ E longitudes comprising the districts of Sundargarh, Jharsuguda, Debagarh, Sambalpur, Bargarh, Sonepur, Boudh, Bolangir, Nuapada, Kalahandi, Nabarangpur, Aathmallik sub-division of Angul district and Kashipur block of Rayagada district. It is surrounded by Jharkhand state on the north, on the east by the dist of Keonjhar, Angul and Kandhamal; on the south by Rayagada, Koraput and on the west by Chhattisgarh state. This geographical area comes under the Western Odisha Development Council.

Mithila[edit]

The Maithili speaking region

Mithila (Devnagri: मिथिला, mithilā Tirhuta: মিথিলা) is proposed to cover the Maithili speaking regions of Bihar and Jharkhand with not yet consensus on the capital(Muzaffarpur/ Barauni/Darbhnaga has been proposed by different persons and groups. There are 24 Maithili-speaking districts in Bihar: Araria, Begusarai, Bhagalpur, (Banka),Darbhanga, East Champaran Katihar, Khagaria, Kishanganj, Madhepura, Madhubani,, Muzaffarpur, Purnea, Saharasa, Samastipur, Sheohar, Sitamarhi, Supaul, Vaishali, and West Champaran,Munger, Shekhpura,Lakhisarai,jamui There are six Maithili-speaking districts in Jharkhand: Deoghar, Dumka, godda, Jamtara, Pakaur, and Sahebganj.

Tulu Nadu[edit]

Tulu Nadu in relation to Karnataka and Kerala

Tulu Nadu is a region on the border between the states of Karnataka and Kerala in southern India. The demand for a separate state is based on a distinct culture and language (Tulu, which does not have official status), and neglect of the region by the two state governments.[34][35] To counter these demands and accusations, the Karnataka and Kerala state governments have created the Tulu Sahitya Academy to preserve and promote Tuluva culture.[36] The proposed state would comprise three existing districts; Dakshina Kannada and Udupi in Karnataka, and Kasaragod in Kerala.[37][38] Ninety percent of the region lies in Western Ghats which is in forest.

North Karnataka[edit]

North Karnataka is the region that was Hyderabad Karnataka and Bombay Karnataka prior to States Reorganisation Act, 1956. Historically this region was never part of kingdoms of Southern Karnataka (Mysore). The region has great influence from Deccan/Central part of India. People from North Karnataka (of non-Kannada origin) were transferred to southern parts of Karnataka to deliberately alter the population distribution and prevent it from becoming a separate state. Now, they have returned and are demanding a separate state.

It includes the districts of Gulbarga,Bijapur,Yadagiri, Raichur, Gadag, Dharwad, Haveri, Koppal, Belgaum, Bagalkot, Bidar, Bellary, Major cities in the region include Gulbarga, Hubli, Dharwad, Belgaum, Bellary, Bijapur, Bidar. The region is approximately 40% of Karnataka. It has nearly 100 assembly seats out of total 224. However fund allocation to this region is far less compared to its contribution and population.

The demand was raised in 1975,1980,1990,1995,2000 and 2004. The voice for separate state is an emotive issue as the region is culturally different, spoken Kannada language is different from Kannada language spoken in Mysore/Bangalore region. Bangalore Capital of Karnataka is 650 km away from North Karnataka(Bidar). It takes 15 hours to reach the Capital City.

Vindhya Pradesh[edit]

The former state of Vindhya Pradesh

Vindhya Pradesh (Hindi: विंध्य प्रदेश) was a former state in central India, named after the Vindhya Range. The state covered an area of 61,130 km2 (23,600 sq mi) and was created in 1948 by the merger of 34 princely states in the eastern part of the former Central India Agency.[39] It was merged into Madhya Pradesh in 1956, following the States Reorganization Act.[40] In 2000, Sriniwas Tiwari, ex-speaker of the Madhya Pradesh assembly, called for nine districts to be separated from Madhya Pradesh to create a new state of Vindhya Pradesh, although this was rejected by the Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh.[41]

Kukiland[edit]

The Kuki Hills was an independent hill country during the pre-British colonial period. It was merged by the colonial power into Manipur. The Kuki people under the leadership of Kuki State Demand Committee[42] demand statehood for the Kuki areas in Manipur, i.e. Sadar Hills, Chandel, Churachandpur districts and some parts of Ukhrul, Tamenglong districts to be formed as Kukiland.[43]

Kutch and Saurashtra[edit]

Saurashtra was formed by union of different princely states and Kutch was a separate princely state which became border state after independence of India. Saurashtra and Kutch were Part-B and Part-C states of India respectively. Both were separate states till 1956 and later merged with Bombay state following the States Reorganization Act.[40] They became part of Gujarat state after bifurcation of Bombay state on May 1, 1960 following Mahagujarat Movement. Some people demand return of statehood to Saurashtra and Kutch citing slow development of the regions.[44]

Others[edit]

  • Bangic Land, Mizoram: People from Chakma Autonomous District Council (CADC) of Mizoram are demanding for a new Union Territory Bangic Land.
  • Garoland, Meghalaya: People from Garo regions of Meghalaya are demanding for a new state Garoland.
  • Gondwana, which would include portions of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra.[citation needed]
  • Hyderabad State, which would comprise two districts (Hyderabad and Ranga Reddy).[45]
  • Kongu Nadu, People of Tamilnadu have demanded Kongadesam, the ancient Chera Kingdom to be divided
  • Karaikal district (Tamil: காரைக்கால் மாவட்டம்) is one of the four districts of the Puducherry Union Territory, lying 150 km (93 mi) south of the Pondicherry district. There is a movement to transform Karaikal district into a separate union territory because of a perceived lack of development compared to the rest of Puducherry.[46]
  • Frontier nagaland, covers four eastern districts of Nagaland. The aspiring state accuses the other ethnic groups in the rest of nagaland of social and economic discrimination.[citation needed]
  • Konkan, comprising the Konkani-speaking areas of Raigad, Ratnagiri, Thane, Mumbai, Navi Mumbai and Sindhudurg districts in Maharashtra.[47][48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "First Schedule of the Constitution of India". Government of India. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  2. ^ "Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution of India". Government of India. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  3. ^ J.C. Aggarwal and S.P. Agrawal, editors, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future (New Delhi: Concept Publishing, 1995), p89-90
  4. ^ Nagaland History & Geography-Source india.gov.in
  5. ^ The Punjab Reorganization Act 1966
  6. ^ "State map of India". Travel India guide. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  7. ^ Statehood Himachal Pradesh
  8. ^ Snapshot of North Eastern States
  9. ^ Sikkim joins Indian Union
  10. ^ Goa Chronology
  11. ^ "Chhattisgarh state - History". Cg.gov.in. 1979-12-19. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  12. ^ Chopra, Jasi Kiran (2 January 2007). "Uttaranchal is Uttarakhand, BJP cries foul". TNN. The Time of India. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  13. ^ "About Us: Uttarakhand Government Portal, India". Uk.gov.in. 2000-11-09. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  14. ^ "Official Website of Government of Jharkhand". Jharkhand.gov.in. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  15. ^ "Urban agglomerations/cities having population 1 million and above" (PDF). Provisional population totals, census of India 2011. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  16. ^ "World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 Revision Population Database". United Nations. 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  17. ^ "Bill on statehood for Delhi cleared". The Hindu. 12 August 2003. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  18. ^ Dharamsing Teron, "Opium Curse - A Forgotten Chapter", unpublished.
  19. ^ J. I. Kathar (IAS Retd), "1971 Aningkan Kilik Kehai Un:e....", Thekar (5 February 2013); available from http://thekararnivang.com/2013/02/05/1971-aningkan-kilik-kehai-un-e-karbi-asongja-atum-karbi-atum-aphan-autonomous-state-kapelong-aphurkimo-2/
  20. ^ "Demand for separate 'Braj Pradesh' gains momentum". The Hindu. 26 December 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  21. ^ 'Braj Pradesh' State Demand Intensifies – Indiaserver.com
  22. ^ "Congressmen demand separate Purvanchal, Bundelkhand States". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 7 March 2005. 
  23. ^ "Maya challenges Pranab over statehood". timesnow.tv. 13 December 2009. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  24. ^ Sailen Debnath, The Dooars in Historical Transition, ISBN 9788186860441
  25. ^ "Why Gorkhaland". Gorkha Janmukti Morcha. Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  26. ^ "The Parliament is the supreme and ultimate authority of India". Darjeeling Times. 23 November 2010. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  27. ^ "Demand for Gorkhaland raised again". The Hindu. 16 November 2007. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  28. ^ "‘Gorkhaland Territorial Administration’ it is". The Statesman (Kolkata, India). 8 July 2011. 
  29. ^ "Factions merge for Kamtapur fight". Calcutta: The Telegraph. 14 October 2010. Retrieved 17 May 2013. 
  30. ^ "The Hindu : Assam: accord and discord". Hinduonnet.com. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  31. ^ "Memorandum of Settlement on Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC)". Satp.org. 10 February 2003. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  32. ^ "Mahillary sworn in Bodoland council chief". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 4 June 2005. 
  33. ^ "Demand for separate state of Dimaraji in North East - Oneindia News". News.oneindia.in. 2011-01-28. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  34. ^ "Tulu Nadu movement gaining momentum". The Hindu (Mangalore, India). 13 August 2006. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  35. ^ "Samithi seeks separate Tulu state". Deccan Herald (Mangalore, India). 21 October 2006. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  36. ^ "Tulu academy urged to publish Machendranath’s selected dramas". The Hindu (Mangalore, India). 13 April 2003. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  37. ^ "Tulu organisations to meet soon". The Hindu (Mangalore, India). 6 March 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  38. ^ "News headlines". Dajiworld. 21 October 2006. Retrieved 19 May 2013. 
  39. ^ Pranab Kumar Bhattacharyya (1977). Historical Geography of Madhya Pradesh from Early Records. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 54–5. ISBN 084269091. 
  40. ^ a b "States Reorganisation Act, 1956". India Code Updated Acts. Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. 31 August 1956. pp. section 9. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  41. ^ "No more division of State: Digvijay". The Hindu. 10 September 2000. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  42. ^ http://www.tehelka.com/ksdc-announces-quit-kuki-land-protest-in-manipur-from-24-january/
  43. ^ http://samaw.com/kukiland-state-map/6023
  44. ^ http://daily.bhaskar.com/article/GUJ-AHD-clamour-for-separate-srashtra-bhilistan-to-get-louder-4336147-NOR.html
  45. ^ "Now, demand for Hyderabad state". The Hindu. 18 January 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  46. ^ "Union Territory status sought for Karaikal". Times of India. 9 June 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2013. 
  47. ^ http://news.webindia123.com/news/articles/India/20101217/1650700.html
  48. ^ http://news.oneindia.in/2006/09/29/agri-kunbi-sena-demand-separate-konkan-state-1159553012.html OneIndia News. 29 September 2006

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