List of provinces of Balhae

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The Balhae kingdom controlled most of the historical region of Manchuria within the Amur River until the sea. Similar to the workings of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, the administration system of the Balhae kingdom was composed of:

  • 5 capitals: a Supreme capital with four secondary capitals
  • 15 provinces; and
  • 62 prefectures.

Table of provinces[edit]

Former State Province Capitals/Ancient name Prefectures level 속주(屬州)
Hanja Hangul RR, Pinyin Hanja Hangul RR, Pinyin Modern location
Sushen
숙신
肅愼
龍泉府 용천부 Yongcheon
Longquan
上京/龍州 상경/용주 Sanggyeong/Yongju
Shangjing/Longzhou
Ning'an (寧安市)
(Manchu: Ninguta 寧古塔)
용주(龍州)
호주(湖州)=宁安县西南
발주(渤州)=牡丹江市城区南
Sushen
숙신
肅愼
顯德府 현덕부 Hyundeok
Xiande
中京/顯州 중경/현주 Junggyeong/Hyeonju
Zhongjing/Xianzhou
Helong/Dunhua
(和龍市/敦化市)
노주(盧州)=安图县
현주(顯州)
철주(鐵州)
탕주(湯州)=灵峰县
영주(榮州)
흥주(興州)=Baihe
Yemaek
예맥
濊貊
龍原府 용원부 Yongwon
Longyuan
東京/慶州 동경/경주 Donggyeong/Gyeongju
Dongjing/Qingzhou
Hunchun
경주(慶州)
염주(鹽州)=Zarubino
목주(穆州)
하주(賀州)
Okjeo
옥저
沃沮
南海府 남해부 Namhae
Nanhai
南京/沃州 남경/옥주 Namgyeong/Okju
Nanjing/Wozhou
Hamheung
옥주(沃州)
정주(睛州)
초주(椒州)
Goguryeo
고구려
高句麗
鴨綠府 압록부 Amnok
Yalü
西京/神州 서경/신주 Seogyeong/Sinju
Xijing/Shenzhou
Linjiang 신주(神州)
환주(桓州)=Jian
풍주(豊州)=Hyesan
정주(正州)=Tonghua
Goguryeo
고구려
高句麗
長嶺府 장령부 Jangnyeong
Changling
瑕州 하주 Haju
Xiazhou
Jingyu
(靖宇县)
하주(瑕州)
하주(河州)
Buyeo
부여
夫餘
夫餘府 부여부 Buyeo
Fuyu
扶州 부주 Buju
Fuzhou
Kaiyuan 부주(扶州)· 선주(仙州)= Caoshi
Buyeo
부여
夫餘
鄚頡府 막힐부 Makhil
Moxie
鄚州 막주 Makju
Mozhou
Acheng
(阿城)
막주(鄚州)
고주(高州;鳥河郷)=Niǎohé
읍루
揖婁/우루부말갈
虞婁部靺鞨
定理府 정리부 Jeongni
Dingli
定州 정주 Jeongju/Dingzhou Partizansk 정주(定州)
반주(潘州)
읍루
揖婁/우루부말갈
虞婁部靺鞨
安邊府 안변부 Anbyeon
Anbian
安州 안주 Anju
Anzhou
Olga 안주(安州)
경주(瓊州)
솔빈
率賓
率賓府 솔빈부 Solbin
Shuaibin
華州 화주 Hwaju
Huazhou
Ussuriysk/Shuaibin 화주(華州)
익주(益州)
건주(建州)=Tongning
불열
拂涅
東平府 동평부 Dongpyeong
Dongping
伊州 이주 Iju
Yizhou
Dangbi
(密山市/当壁鎮)
이주(伊州)
몽주(蒙州)
타주(沱州)=Troitskoye[disambiguation needed]
흑주(黑州)
비주(比州)
철리
鐵利
鐵利府 철리부 Cheolli
Tieli
德理鎮 덕리진 Deongnijin/Delizhen Yilan
(依蘭郷)
광주(廣州)
분주(汾州)
포주(蒲州)
해주(海州)
귀주(歸州)
월희
越喜
懷遠府 회원부 Hoewon
Huaiyuan
達州 달주 Dalju Tongjiang
(同江市)
달주(達州)
월주(越州)
회주(懷州)
기주(紀州)
부주(富州)
미주(美州)
복주(福州)
사주(邪州)
지주(芝州)
월희
越喜
安遠府 안원부 Anyuan
Anwon
寧州 영주 Yeongju
Ningzhou
Dalnerechensk 영주(寧州)
미주(郿州)=Spassk-Dalny
모주(慕州)
상주(常州)

Former Balhae provinces[edit]

Administrative map of Balhae

Manzhou Yuanliu Gao provides records which show that the Balhae had occupied the Bisa Fortress at the southern tip of the Liaodong Peninsula. The History of Liao records that the Balhae established provinces at the Sin Fortress, Gaemo Fortress, Baegam Fortress, Yodong Fortress and Ansi Fortress area in Liaodong, as well as a substantial portion of the Liaoxi area. The Balhae sovereign’s message to Yamato Kingdom in 796 states that it has recovered the entire old Goguryeo territory and its ruler’s authority now shines beyond the Liao River. The Balhae came to occupy almost the whole of Manchuria, including the Songhua and Ussuri basins as well as the whole adjoining coastal zone along the Sea of Japan (East Sea).

  • 약홀주(若忽州) present-day Dandong
  • 목저주(木底州) ( 요동성 태자하 (太子河)근방)/법고현 섭무대(法庫縣葉武臺)
  • 현도주 (玄兎州) (현재 만주의 무순 근방)

Correspondence[edit]

  • Balhae Provinces coming from Andong protectorate :
    • Namhae province is corresponding to former Qusu (Hangul: 거소주 Hanja/Hanzi :去素州), Qudan (Hangul: 거단주 Hanja/Hanzi :去旦州), 식리주(識利州)
    • Wolhui province is corresponding to former Yuexi (Hangul: 월희주 Hanja/Hanzi :越喜州)
    • Dongpyeong is corresponding to former Funie 불열주(拂涅州)
    • Jangnyung is corresponding to former 제북주(諸北州)
    • Yalu is corresponding to former 안시주(安市州) and 창암주(倉巖州)
    • Hoewon is corresponding to former 연진주(延津州)
    • Hyeondeok is corresponding to former 여산주(黎山州)

See also[edit]

External links[edit]