List of public and civic buildings by Alfred Waterhouse

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Town hall, market hall and clock tower, Darlington

Alfred Waterhouse (1830–1905) was a prolific English architect who worked in the second half of the 19th century. His buildings were largely in Victorian Gothic Revival style. Waterhouse's biographer, Colin Cunningham, states that between about 1865 and about 1885 he was "the most widely employed British architect".[1] He worked in many fields, designing commercial, public, educational, domestic, and ecclesiastical buildings.[1]

Waterhouse was born in Liverpool of Quaker parents. After being articled to P. B. Alley in Manchester, he took a ten-month tour of the Continent, then established his own practice in Manchester. Many of his early commissions came from Quakers and other nonconformist patrons. He came to national recognition when he won success in a competition for the design of Manchester assize courts. His next major public commissions in Manchester were for Strangeways Gaol and Manchester Town Hall. In 1865 he opened an office in London, which was followed by his first major commission in London, the Natural History Museum. Meanwhile he was also designing country houses. Here his major work was the rebuilding of Eaton Hall in Cheshire for the 1st Duke of Westminster, which was "the most expensive country house of the [19th] century".[1] He also designed educational buildings including schools and works for the universities of Cambridge, Oxford, Manchester, and Liverpool. In the commercial field, he designed banks, and offices for insurance and assurance companies, especially the Prudential Assurance Company, for whom he built 27 buildings.[1]

Waterhouse's success came from "a thoroughly professional approach rather than on brilliance or innovation as a stylist".[1] He paid particular attention to detail and, although he designed many major buildings, he still accepted smaller commissions.[1] Although most of his work was in the Gothic Revival style, he also employed other styles, including Romanesque and French Renaissance.[2] He used many building materials, but is noted for his use of red brick and terracotta. The use of these materials for many university buildings in the north of England is a major factor in their being termed "red brick universities".[1][3] In addition to his design work as an architect, Waterhouse was an assessor for about 60 architectural competitions. He was awarded the Royal Gold Medal of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1878 for his design for Manchester Town Hall, and was president of that institution from 1888 to 1891. He was gained international diplomas, and in 1895 was awarded an honorary LL.D by Manchester University. Waterhouse was also a painter, exhibiting 80 watercolours at the Royal Academy. He suffered a stroke in 1901, and died in his home at Yattendon, Berkshire, in 1905. His practice was continued by his son Paul, followed by his grandson, Michael, and his great-grandson. His estate at death amounted to over £215,000 (£20,140,000 as of 2014).[1][4]

This is a list of the more notable civic and public buildings designed by Waterhouse, and includes such structures as town halls, clock towers, hospitals, a prison, hotels, a market hall, a museum, and a library.

Key[edit]

Grade
(England and Wales)
Criteria[5]
Grade I Buildings of exceptional interest, sometimes considered to be internationally important.
Grade II* Particularly important buildings of more than special interest.
Grade II Buildings of national importance and special interest.
Category
(Scotland)
Criteria[6]
Category A Buildings of national or international importance, either architectural or historic, or fine little-altered examples of some particular period, style or building type.
Category B Buildings of regional or more than local importance, or major examples of some particular period, style or building type which may have been altered.
Category C(S) Buildings of local importance, lesser examples of any period, style, or building type, as originally constructed or moderately altered; and simple traditional buildings which group well with others in categories A and B.
"—" denotes a work that is not graded.

Buildings[edit]

Name Location Photograph Date Notes Grade
Assize Courts Manchester
1859–65 Won in a competition, this was Waterhouse's first major commission, It was praised by Ruskin, and it was the stepping stone to further work, but has since been demolished.[1][7][8][9]
Market Hall Darlington,
County Durham
54°31′29″N 1°33′18″W / 54.5246°N 1.5550°W / 54.5246; -1.5550 (Market Hall, Darlington)
Darlington Market Hall - geograph.org.uk - 877670.jpg 1863 A two-storey five bay building with a cast iron framework.[7][10] II
Old Town Hall Darlington,
County Durham
54°31′28″N 1°33′19″W / 54.5244°N 1.5552°W / 54.5244; -1.5552 (Old Town Hall, Darlington)
Darlington Old Town Hall, Market Hall and Clock Tower - geograph.org.uk - 1326207.jpg 1863–64 A two-storey building in brick with a slate roof. The frontage is in five bays, the projecting central bay being canted with a balcony between the storeys.[1][7][11] II
Clock Tower Darlington,
County Durham
54°31′30″N 1°33′18″W / 54.5249°N 1.5551°W / 54.5249; -1.5551 (Clock Tower, Darlington)
Darlington Market Hall.jpg
1864 A seven-stage tower in brick with stone bands. The top stage contains clock faces with turrets at the corners, surmounted by a slate spire with lucarnes.[12] II
Boys' Prison Block, Strangeways Gaol Manchester
53°29′37″N 2°14′42″W / 53.4935°N 2.2449°W / 53.4935; -2.2449 (Boys Block, Strangeways Gaol, Manchester)
1866–68 Built as a women's prison. Cruciform plan with a central concourse and radiating wings.[13][14] II
Gatehouse, Strangeways Gaol Manchester
53°29′32″N 2°14′45″W / 53.4922°N 2.2457°W / 53.4922; -2.2457 (Gatehouse, Strangeways Gaol, Manchester)
Strangeways Prison.jpg 1866–68 Built in brick with sandstone dressings and a slate roof in French Gothic style. It has a central archway flanked by semi-octagonal turrets.[13][15] II
Main Block, Strangeways Gaol Manchester
53°29′37″N 2°14′42″W / 53.4935°N 2.2449°W / 53.4935; -2.2449 (Main Block, Strangeways Gaol, Manchester)
Strangeways.jpg 1866–68 Built in brick with stone dressings in Romanesque style. Consists of a central concourse with six radiating wings.[1][7][13][16] II
Tower,
Strangeways Gaol
Manchester
53°29′37″N 2°14′42″W / 53.4935°N 2.2449°W / 53.4935; -2.2449 (Main Block, Strangeways Gaol, Manchester)
Strangeways watchtower.jpg
1866–68 This originally had the dual function of an observation and a water tower. It is built in brick with stone dressings and has an octagonal plan, in the style of a minaret. It is about 365 feet (111 m) high.[13][17] II
Great North Western Hotel Lime Street, Liverpool, Merseyside
53°24′29″N 2°58′44″W / 53.4081°N 2.9789°W / 53.4081; -2.9789 (Great North Western Hotel, Liverpool)
North Western Hotel - geograph.org.uk - 1000304.jpg 1868–71 Originally the station hotel for Liverpool Lime Street Station, it was later used for offices, then converted into a student hall of residence. It is a stone building in French Renaissance style, with a frontage of 21 bays and is in five storeys plus basement and attic. There are towers on the corners and flanking the three projecting central bays.[1][18][19] II
Town Hall Albert Square,
Manchester
53°28′45″N 2°14′39″W / 53.4792°N 2.2442°W / 53.4792; -2.2442 (Manchester Town Hall)
Town Hall Manchester.jpg 1868–78 A large building with a triangular plan, containing a great hall and offices. Constructed in sandstone in Gothic Revival style. Contains murals by Ford Madox Brown. It cost £775,000.[20][21][22] I
Town Hall Knutsford, Cheshire
53°18′12″N 2°22′27″W / 53.3032°N 2.3741°W / 53.3032; -2.3741 (Former Town Hall, Knutsford)
Knutsford - Town Hall.jpg 1871 A brick building in two storeys plus an attic. The ground floor has a five-bay arcade. Later converted for commercial use.[23][24] II
Newsham Park Hospital Liverpool, Merseyside
53°25′17″N 2°56′06″W / 53.4213°N 2.9349°W / 53.4213; -2.9349 (Newsham Park Hospital, Liverpool)
Newsham park hospital.jpg 1871–74 Built as the Seamen's Orphanage, it is in brick with stone dressings, and has a slate roof. It has three storeys, and a symmetrical front of 19 bays. To the south is a five-story tower.[1][25][26] II
Building to the south of Newsham Park Hospital Liverpool, Merseyside
53°25′15″N 2°56′01″W / 53.4209°N 2.9337°W / 53.4209; -2.9337 (Building, Newsham Park Hospital, Liverpool)
1871–74 The building is connected to the hospital by a later corridor. It is constructed in brick with stone dressings and a slate roof. It is in three storeys with an attic, and incorporates dormer windows.[27] II
Town council chamber and offices Reading, Berkshire
51°27′24″N 0°58′11″W / 51.4567°N 0.9698°W / 51.4567; -0.9698 (Town council chamber, Reading)
Reading Town Hall.jpg
1872–75 The building is constructed in red and grey brick with decorations in terracotta. It is in two storeys with an attic and an attached five-storey tower.[1][28] II*
Natural History Museum Cromwell Road, Kensington and Chelsea, Greater London
51°29′46″N 0°10′35″W / 51.4962°N 0.1764°W / 51.4962; -0.1764 (Natural History Museum, London)
Natural History Museum 001.jpg
1873–81 This is the first building to be completely faced in terracotta. It is constructed with an ion frame and has slate roofs. The main front is in 27 bays, the central three of which protrude forward to form a centrepiece. The terracotta is decorated with features such as animals.[1][29][30] I
Gates to Natural History Museum Cromwell Road, Kensington and Chelsea, Greater London
51°29′44″N 0°10′35″W / 51.4956°N 0.1763°W / 51.4956; -0.1763 (Gates and piers to Natural History Museum, London)
1873–81 Gates, gatepiers and railings to museum. The railings are in wrought iron, gate piers in Portland stone, some of which are topped by lions.[31] I
Well house Yattendon, Berkshire
51°28′00″N 1°12′23″W / 51.4668°N 1.2064°W / 51.4668; -1.2064 (Bus shelter, Yattendon)
Yattendon bus shelter - geograph.org.uk - 987229.jpg 1876 This was built as a well house, and is now used as a bus shelter. It is timber-framed with a tiled roof, and stands on a brick plinth.[32] II
Public library Wigan,
Greater Manchester
53°32′39″N 2°37′47″W / 53.5442°N 2.6297°W / 53.5442; -2.6297 (Wigan History Shop)
The History Shop - formerly Wigan Library - geograph.org.uk - 932788.jpg 1877 Built as a free library, later a shop and office, and then a museum. It is constructed in red brick with sandstone dressings and a slate roof. It has a T-shaped plan in Elizabethan Revival style with some Gothic features.[33][34][35] II
Shire Hall Bedford
52°08′06″N 0°28′03″W / 52.1349°N 0.4676°W / 52.1349; -0.4676 (Shire Hall, Bedford)
Bedford Magistrates Court, St Paul's Square - geograph.org.uk - 1377985.jpg 1879–81 A red brick building with terracotta dressings. It was extended in 1910.[36] II
Town Hall Hove, East Sussex
50°49′41″N 0°10′13″W / 50.8280°N 0.1704°W / 50.8280; -0.1704 (Town Hall, Hove)
1880–83 Destroyed by fire in 1974, and replaced.[1][37]
Turner Memorial Home Liverpool, Merseyside
53°22′50″N 2°57′23″W / 53.3805°N 2.9565°W / 53.3805; -2.9565 (Turner Memorial Home, Liverpool)
Turner Home.jpg 1881–83 Built to care for men who were ill and disadvantaged. It is a large, irregular building in sandstone with a tiled roof, including a chapel.[1][38][39] II
National Liberal Club Northumberland Avenue, Westminster,
Greater London
51°30′22″N 0°07′26″W / 51.5062°N 0.1239°W / 51.5062; -0.1239 (National Liberal Club, London)
National Liberal Club.JPG
1884–87 Built as a Liberal club with five and six storeys, in Portland stone with slate roofs.[1][40] II*
Rochdale Town Hall Rochdale,
Greater Manchester
53°36′56″N 2°09′34″W / 53.6156°N 2.1594°W / 53.6156; -2.1594 (Rochdale Town Hall)
Rochdale Town Hall.jpg
1885–87 The town hall was built in 1867–71 to a design by William Henry Crossland. Its tower was destroyed by fire in 1883, and Waterhouse designed a new, smaller tower, linked to the main building by an arch.[41][42] I
Liverpool Royal Infirmary Liverpool, Merseyside
53°24′28″N 2°58′04″W / 53.4079°N 2.9678°W / 53.4079; -2.9678 (Royal Infirmary, Liverpool)
Royal Liverpool Infirmary 1.jpg 1887–90 Built in brick with terracotta dressings and a slate roof, and incorporating a chapel.[1][43][44] II
Town Hall Alloa, Clackmannanshire, Scotland
56°07′00″N 3°47′43″W / 56.1166°N 3.7952°W / 56.1166; -3.7952 (Town Hall, Marshill, Clackmannanshire)
1888 A building in three storeys with a large projecting centre gable and a round-arched entrance in early Renaissance style.[45][46] C(S)
Metropole Hotel Brighton, East Sussex
50°49′17″N 0°08′56″W / 50.8215°N 0.1488°W / 50.8215; -0.1488 (Metropole Hotel, Brighton)
Metropole Hotel, King's Road, Brighton (from SSW).JPG 1890 [1][47][48]
Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine Chelsea Bridge Road, Westminster,
Greater London
51°29′11″N 0°09′00″W / 51.4863°N 0.1500°W / 51.4863; -0.1500 (Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, London)
Lister Hospital, Chelsea Bridge Road. - geograph.org.uk - 1554690.jpg 1894–98 Built in conjunction with his son, Paul, the building was extended in 1909–10. It has since been used as a private hospital named the Lister Hospital.[49][50] II
Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors Parliament Square, Westminster,
Greater London
51°30′04″N 0°07′41″W / 51.5010°N 0.1280°W / 51.5010; -0.1280 (Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, London)
1896–98 Additions were made by his son, Paul. It is in brick with stone dressings and slate roofs, and has three storeys.[51] II
University College Hospital Gower Street, Bloomsbury,
Greater London
51°31′27″N 0°08′07″W / 51.5241°N 0.1352°W / 51.5241; -0.1352 (University College Hospital, London)
The Cruciform Building - geograph.org.uk - 727084.jpg 1897–1906 Built in conjunction with his son, Paul, this is a building with a cruciform plan in red brick with terracotta bands and dressings.[1][52][53] II

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Cunningham, Colin (2010) [2004], "Waterhouse, Alfred (1839–1905)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press), retrieved 29 January 2012  ((subscription or UK public library membership required))
  2. ^ Dixon & Muthesius 1985, p. 14.
  3. ^ Dixon & Muthesius 1985, p. 247.
  4. ^ UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2014), "What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  5. ^ Listed Buildings, English Heritage, retrieved 26 August 2011 
  6. ^ What is Listing?, Historic Scotland, retrieved 2 July 2012 
  7. ^ a b c d Cunningham & Waterhouse 1992, pp. 207–275.
  8. ^ Hartwell, Hyde & Pevsner 2004, p. 388.
  9. ^ Dixon & Muthesius 1985, p. 165.
  10. ^ English Heritage. "Old Town Hall, Darlington (1322944)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  11. ^ English Heritage. "The Market Building, Darlington (1121276)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  12. ^ English Heritage. "The Clock Tower, Darlington (1121224)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c d Hartwell, Hyde & Pevsner 2004, pp. 391–392.
  14. ^ English Heritage. "Boys Prison Block, Strangeways Gaol (1254635)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  15. ^ English Heritage. "Gatehouse of Strangeways Gaol (1254670)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  16. ^ English Heritage. "Main Prison Block of Strangeways Gaol (1254635)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  17. ^ English Heritage. "The tower of Strangeways Gaol (1254672)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  18. ^ Pollard & Pevsner 2006, p. 304.
  19. ^ English Heritage. "Lime Street Chambers (former North Western Hotel), Liverpool (1084209)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 May 2012. 
  20. ^ Dixon & Muthesius 1985, pp. 166–168.
  21. ^ Hartwell, Hyde & Pevsner 2004, pp. 278–286.
  22. ^ English Heritage. "Town Hall, Albert Square, Manchester (1207469)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 19 May 2012. 
  23. ^ Hartwell et al. 2011, p. 422.
  24. ^ English Heritage. "Former Town Hall, Knutsford, Cheshire (1378496)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 26 June 2012. 
  25. ^ Pollard & Pevsner 2006, p. 425.
  26. ^ English Heritage. "Park Hospital, Liverpool (1363057)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 26 June 2012. 
  27. ^ English Heritage. "Building to south of Newsham Park Hospital, Liverpool (1072982)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 May 2012. 
  28. ^ English Heritage. "Town council chamber and offices with clock tower, Reading (1113400)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  29. ^ Dixon & Muthesius 1985, pp. 174–175.
  30. ^ English Heritage. "Natural History Museum, Kensington and Chelsea (1080675)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 May 2012. 
  31. ^ English Heritage. "Gates, gatepiers and railings toNatural History Museum, Kensington and Chelsea (1358159)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 26 June 2012. 
  32. ^ English Heritage. "Bus shelter approximately 25 metres to south of the Royal Oak, Yattendon (1213727)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  33. ^ Pollard & Pevsner 2006, p. 667.
  34. ^ English Heritage. "Wigan History Shop and Careers Office (1384510)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  35. ^ Museum of Wigan Life, Wigan Leisure and Culture Trust, retrieved 29 June 2012 
  36. ^ English Heritage. "Shire Hall, Bedford (1114519)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  37. ^ Hove Town Hall, Fed Centre for Independent Living, retrieved 30 June 2012 
  38. ^ Pollard & Pevsner 2006, pp. 475–476.
  39. ^ English Heritage. "Turner Memorial Home, Liverpool (1068251)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 May 2012. 
  40. ^ English Heritage. "The National Liberal Club, City of Westminster (1066072)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 10 May 2012. 
  41. ^ Hartwell, Hyde & Pevsner 2004, pp. 594–596.
  42. ^ English Heritage. "Town Hall, Rochdale (1084275)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 May 2012. 
  43. ^ Pollard & Pevsner 2006, p. 365.
  44. ^ English Heritage. "Royal Infirmary (Waterhouse building only), Liverpool (1072993)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 May 2012. 
  45. ^ Town Hall, Marshill, Historic Scotland, retrieved 30 June 2012 
  46. ^ Alloa town Hall and Library, Marshill, Dictionary of Scottish Architects, retrieved 30 June 2012 
  47. ^ Dixon & Muthesius 1985, p. 81.
  48. ^ Metropole Hotel, Kings Road, My Brighton and Hove, retrieved 30 June 2012 
  49. ^ English Heritage. "Lister Institute of Preventative Medicine, City of Westminster (1066261)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 May 2012. 
  50. ^ The Lister Hospital celebrates 25 year milestone, The Lister Hospital, retrieved 11 May 2012 
  51. ^ English Heritage. "Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, London (1271137)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 26 June 2012. 
  52. ^ Dixon & Muthesius 1985, p. 113.
  53. ^ English Heritage. "University College Hospital general Block, Camden (1113059)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 

Bibliography