List of pusher aircraft by configuration

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A pusher aircraft is a type of aircraft using propellers placed behind the engines.
Pushers may be classified according to technical characteristics:

  • Lifting surfaces layout (conventional, 3 surfaces, canard, joined wing, tailless, rotorcraft),
  • engine /propeller location and drive.

Push-pull configuration

  • Some aircraft named push-pull are both tractor and pusher. The following list includes push-pull aircraft even if the pushing engine is just added to a conventional layout (engines inside the wings or above the wing for example).

Conventional layout[edit]

The conventional layout of an aircraft has wings placed ahead of a separated tailplane, but Pusher aircraft address several issues with this model:

  • A suitable center of gravity (CG) location, not too far aft. Aircraft of this type may present a short fuselage with an aftward extension (upper boom, lower boom, twin-boomers, aft framework) or a long fuselage with an above location of the engine (axial pod) or a lateral location of engines (on wings or lateral pods) or a central location of the engine inside the fuselage.
  • The aft propeller/tail conflict. Aircraft of this type may present a short fuselage with aftward boom(s), mainly direct drive, or a long fuselage with a drive shaft.
  • The propeller ground clearance at takeoff. Aircraft of this type may include one or more of the following : high thrust line, small propeller diameter, either free [note 1] or shrouded,[note 2] skid,[note 3] ventral fin.[note 4]
  • The propeller water clearance at takeoff (flying boats) : high thrust line (following aircraft : nacelle above wing, above fuselage, axial pod, upward tilting propeller shaft).

Propeller close to the engine (direct drive)[edit]

Prop ahead of the tail[edit]

  • In line with the fuselage, inside the aft framework
Curtiss Model D, biplane, 1 seat, 40 hp, 1911
Farman MF.11, biplane, 1 seat, 80 hp, 1913
Voisin III, Voisin V and other models, military, 2 seats, 120 hp and more, 1914, about 3200 built [1]
Breguet Bre.5, military biplane, 2 seats, 220 hp, 1915
Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2, military biplane, 2 seats, 120-160 hp, 1915, 1939 built
Airco DH.2, biplane fighter, 1 seat, 100 hp, 1915, 453 built
Vickers Type 161, experimental fighter, 1 seat, 530 hp, 1931, 1 built
Brditschka HB-3, motorglider, 2 seats, 100 hp, 1971
RFB Fanliner, 2 seats, 150 hp, 1974 [2]
RFB Fantrainer, 2 seats, 650 hp, 1977, 47 built
  • On nacelle(s) between wings (biplane)
Supermarine Walrus, military flying boat, 4 seats, 680 hp, 1933, 740 built
Short Singapore, military flying boat, 6 seats, 2 nacelles, push-pull, 4 × 675 hp, 1934, 37 built
  • On nacelle(s) above the wing (monoplane)
Dornier Do X, flying boat, more than 100 seats, 6 nacelles, push-pull, 12 × 610 hp, 1929, 3 built
Dornier Do 12, amphibian, 4 seats, 240 hp, 1932
Tupolev ANT-22, twin hull military monoplane flying boat, 8 seats, 3 nacelles, push-pull, 6 × 820 hp, 1934
RFB Lippisch X-114, experimental WIG flying boat, 6 seats, 200 hp ducted fan, 1977 [3]
RFB Airfish 1-2-3, experimental WIG flying boats, 1-2 seats, ducted fans, 1987-1990 [4]
  • In line with the fuselage, coaxially on rear fuselage or tail boom
Gallaudet D-4, experimental seaplane, 2 seats, 360 hp, 1918, 2 built
Austria Krähe, motorglider, 1 seat, propeller rotating around the tail boom tube, 1960
Buselec 2, experimental project, 2 seats, electric engine 27 hp, 2010 [5]
  • In line with the fuselage, below tail boom
AmEagle American Eaglet, UL motorglider, 1 seat, 15 hp, 1975, 12 built
Jean St-Germain Raz-Mut, ultralight, 1 seat, 44 hp engine below the wing (no fuselage), 1976, 7 built
Alpaero Sirius, UL motorglider, 1 seat, 24 hp, 1984, 20 built
  • Above the fuselage at wing level or higher
Dornier Do 18, monoplane flying boat, 4 seats, 2 × 605 hp (push-pull), 1935, 170 built
Republic RC-3 Seabee, amphibious sportsplane, 4 seats, 215 hp, 1945
Taylor Coot, homebuilt amphibian, 2 seats, 180 hp, 1969, 70 built
Rhein Flugzeugbau Sirius 1,[6] 2 seats, 2 × 20 hp, 1969
Spencer Air Car, amphibious sportsplane, 4 seats, 180-260 hp, 1970
Janowski J-1, experimental, 1 seat, 25 hp, 1970 [7]
SZD-45 Ogar, motorglider, 2 seats, 68 hp, 1973 N>60
Taylor Bird, homebuilt, 2 seats, 65 hp, 1980 [8]
Neukom AN-20B, UL motorglider, 1 seat, 22 hp, 1981 [9][10]
Aérostructure Lutin 80, UL motorglider, 1 seat, 32 hp, 1983, 2 built [11]
Janowski "Marco J-5", UL motorglider, low wing, 1 seat, 30 hp, 1983 [7]
Quad City Challenger, ultralight, 2 seats, 64 hp, 1983, N>3000
Funk FK6, UL motorglider, 1 seat, 22 hp, 1985 [12]
Advanced Aeromarine Buccaneer, amphibious biplane, 2 seats, 80 hp, 1988
Technoflug "Piccolo", UL motorglider, 1 seat, 23 hp, 1989 [13]
AAC SeaStar, amphibious biplane, 2 seats, 80 hp, 1998
Airmax Sea Max, amphibious biplane, 2 seats, 100 hp, 2005
CZAW Mermaid, amphibious biplane, 2 seats, 120 hp, 2005
  • On axial pod, mainly amphibians and flying boats
Volmer VJ-22 Sportsman, homebuilt amphibian, 2 seats, 90 hp, 1958, N>100
Lake Buccaneer, amphibian, 4 seats, 200 hp, 1959
Taylor Coot, 2 seats, 180 hp, 1969, 70 built
Osprey Osprey 2, 2 seats, 150 hp, 1973
Ken Rand KR-3, experimental amphibian, 2 seats, VW engine, 1977 [14]
P300 Equator, 6 seats, 300 hp, 1990 ? [15]
Rida-Pony, amphibian, 1 seat, 80 hp, 1994[16]
  • Between tail booms
AGO C.II, reconnaissance biplane, 2 seats, 217 hp, 1915, 15 built
Hanriot H.110, fighter prototype, 1 seat, 650 hp, 1933
Abrams P-1 Explorer, 365 hp, 1937
De Schelde S.21, fighter prototype, 1 seat, 1085 hp, 1940 (unflown)[1]
General Aircraft GAL.47, air observation prototype, 2 seats, 90 hp, 1940
Saab 21, fighter, 1 seat, 1,450 hp, 1943,
Vultee XP-54, experimental fighter, 1 seat, 2,300 hp, 1943, 2 built
SECAN Courlis, 4 seats, 190 hp, 1946,
Fokker F.25, 4 seats, 190 hp, 1946, 200 built
Alaparma Baldo, 1 seat, 75 hp, 1949
Sud-Ouest SO 8000 Narval, experimental naval fighter, 1 seat, 2250 hp, 1949, 2 built
Anderson Greenwood AG-14, 2 seats, 100 hp, 1950, 6 built
Potez 75, military prototype, 2 seats, 450 hp, 1953, 1 built
SIAI-Marchetti FN.333 Riviera, amphibian, 4 seats, 250 hp, 1962,
Cessna Skymaster, push-pull, 6 seats, 2 × 210 hp, 1963, 2993 built
Akaflieg Stuttgart FS-26 Moseppl, powered sailplane, 1 seat, 26 hp, 1970
Cessna XMC, research aircraft, 2 seats, 100 hp, 1971
Edgley Optica, observation aircraft, 3 seats, ducted fan 200 hp, 1979, 21 built
ADI Condor, motorglider, 2 seats, 65 hp, 1981
Acapella 200, experimental BD-5 modified, 1 seat, 200 hp, 1982 [17]
Applebay Zia, UL motorglider, 1 seat, 28 hp, short drive shaft, 1982, 4 built
Sparrow Hawk MKII, kitbuilt, 2 seats, 65 hp, 1984 [18]
Schweizer RU-38 Twin Condor, push-pull, 2 seats, reconnaissance aircraft, 1995, 5 built
HFL Stratos 300, UL motorglider, 1 seat, 24 hp, 1996 [19]
Adam A500, push-pull, 5 seats, 2 × 350 hp, 2002, 7 built
Armstechno NITI, UAV, span 5.78 m, 10 hp,
Alenia Aeronautica Sky-Y, UAV, span 9.94 m, 170 hp, 2006
Northrop-Grumman "Firebird", experimental UAV, span 65 ft, 2010 [20]
AHRLAC, reconnaissance and light attack , 2 seat, Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-66

Propeller behind the tail[edit]

Moynet Jupiter, H-tail, 5 seats, 2 × 200 hp engines in push-pull configuration, 1963, 2 built
Aero Design DG-1, racer prototype, cruciform tail, 1 seat, push-pull 2 × 330 hp, 1977
Prescott Pusher, kit plane, T-tail, 4 seats, 180 hp, 1985, about 30 built
General Atomics GNAT, UAV, inverted V-tail, 65 hp, 1989
Air Quest Nova 21, experimental, 2 seats, 90 hp, 1992[21]
General Atomics MQ-1 Predator, UAV, inverted V-tail, 1994
General Atomics MQ-9 Reaper, UAV, Y-tail, 2001

Engines and props on wings[edit]

Bell YFM-1 Airacuda, military, 5 seats, 2 × 1090 hp on the wings, 1937, 13 built
Dornier Do 26, flying boat, 4 seats, push-pull, 4 × 600 hp, 1939, 6 built
Praga E-211, touring aircraft prototype, 4–5 seats, 2 × 105 hp, H-tail with 3 fins, 1947[22]
Baumann Brigadier, 4 seats, 2 × 145 hp, 1947
Nord 2100 Norazur, civil transport prototype, 12 seats, 2 × 420 hp, 1947
Piaggio P.136, amphibian, 5 seats, 2 × 340 hp, 1948
Convair B-36, strategic bomber, 6 engines 3000 hp, 1949
Piaggio P.166, twin , 8 pax, 2 × Lycoming IGSO-540-A1C 1957, later 2 × 615 shp (459 kW) Pratt & Whitney PT6A-121 turboprops
AAC Angel, twin 7 pax, 2 × 300 hp, 1984
EM-11 Orka, 4 seats, 2 × 160 hp, 2003
OMA SUD Skycar, 5 seats, 2 × 200 hp, 2007

Engines and props on lateral pods[edit]

Embraer/FMA CBA 123 Vector, transport, 2 + 19 seats, 2 × 1,300 hp, 1990 [23]
NAL Saras, transport aircraft, 16 seats, 2 × 2,150 hp, 2004
BAE Systems Mantis, Unmanned combat air vehicle demonstrator, 2 × 420 hp, 2009

Engines and props behind the pilot[edit]

Ultralight trike or Flexwing
Paramotor or Powered paraglider
Powered parachute

Engine to propeller transmission by drive shaft, belt or chain[edit]

This class usually has a single engine.

Propeller ahead of the tail[edit]

  • Inside the airframe
Fischer Fibo-2a, motorglider, 1 seat, 30 hp, 1954 [24]
Rhein Flugzeugbau RW 3 Multoplan, 2 seats, 75 hp, 1955, 27 built, precursor of RFB Fantrainer [25]
Rhein-Flugzeugbau Sirius II, motorglider, 2 seats, 2 × 30 hp, 1972 [6]
Jorg IV Skimmerfoil, ground-effect vehicle, 5 seats, 320 hp, 1981, 2 built [26]
  • Behind the wing
MEGONE biplane, experimental, 2 seats, 60 hp, chain drive, propeller rotating around a tail boom tube, 1913[27]
Carden-Baynes Bee, two seat tourer, 2 seats, 2 × 40 hp buried in wings, shaft drives, 1937
Kiceniuk Icarus HPA-1, experimental HPA, 1 seat, wing in ground effect, chain drive, 1975 [28]
Raab Krähe, motorglider, 1 seat, 27 hp, 1958, 30 built
Ultralight, 1 seat, propeller rotating around a tail boom tube, 1977
Brookfield BA1, project, 2/4 seats, ducted fan, winner of Royal Aeronautical Society design competition, 1978[29]
Eipper Quicksilver, ultralight, 1 seat, 40 hp, drive shaft and belt reduction drive, about 1980
Neukom AN-20C, UL motorglider, 1 seat, 22 hp, propeller rotating around the tail boom, 1983

Propeller inside the tail[edit]

  • Cruciform tail
Bede XBD-2, experimental boundary layer control aircraft, ducted fan, 4 seats, 2 × 145 hp, 1961 [30]
  • Ducted propeller as tail
Mississippi State University XAZ-1 Marvelette, experimental aircraft to test wing and ducted propeller for XV-11 Marvel, 2 seats, 95 hp, 1962
Mississippi State University XV-11 Marvel, experimental aircraft to test boundary layer control, 2 seats, 316 hp, 1965

Propeller behind the tail[edit]

  • Conventional tail
Aero-Torpille, (Aero-Torpedo) Paulhan-Tatin, experimental, 1 seat, 50 hp, 1911[31]
Bede BD-5, homebuilt, 1 seat, 55h to 100 hp, 1973, about 150 built
Cirrus VK-30, homebuilt, 4 seats, 300 hp, 1988
LH-10 Ellipse, kitbuild, 2 seats, 100 hp, 2007
  • T-tail
Grinvalds Orion, homebuilt, 4 seats, 200 hp, 1981, about 17 built
Miller JM-2 special, racer, 1 seat, O-200 engine, propeller below the tail, 1989 [note 5][32]
Grob GF 200, prototype, 4 seats, 310 hp, 1991
  • Inverted V-tail
Aerocar Mini-IMP, homebuild light aircraft, 1 seat, 60 to 100 hp, 1974 [33]
AmEagle American Eaglet, self-launching ultralight sailplane, 1 seat, 15 hp, 1975, 12 built
Lear Fan (see Y-tail below) early designs included an inverted V-tail, 1978 [34]
  • Y-tail
Acme Sierra, experimental, 1 seat, 85 hp, 1948
Aerocar, roadable aircraft, 1 seat, 143 hp, 1949, 6 built
LearAvia Lear Fan, prototypes, 2 + 6 seats, 2 × 650 hp turboprops driving single propeller, 1981, 3 built
  • Cruciform tail
Göppingen Gö 9, experimental aircraft to test pusher configuration with long drive shaft, 1 seat, 80 hp, 1941
Dornier Do 335, fighter, single seat, 2 × 1,750 hp engines in push-pull configuration first flown in 1943, 38 built
Dornier Do P.252, fighter project, 2 seats, 2 × 1750 hp in line, 2 contra-rotating props, 1943 [35]
Douglas XB-42 Mixmaster, experimental high speed bomber design, 3 seats, 2 × 1,325 hp, 1944, two built
Lockheed Big Dipper, experimental, 2 seats, 100 hp, 1945, one built [36]
Douglas Cloudster II, experimental civil, 5 seats, 2 × 250 hp, 1947, one built,
HPA Toucan, Human Powered Aircraft, 2 pilots, 1972 [37]
Vmax PROBE, experimental racer, 1 seat, 100 hp, 1997 [38]
Star Kraft SK-700, executive prototype, 8 seats, 2 × 350 hp engines in push-pull configuration, 1994[39]
  • H tail (2 fins)
Dornier Do 212, experimental amphibian, [note 6] 4 seats, upward tiltable shaft, 444 hp, 1942, 1 built
Ryson STP-1 Swallow, experimental motorglider, 2 seats, 67 hp, 1972

Propeller above fuselage[edit]

Schleicher ASH 26, single seat glider, retractable belt driven propeller, 50 hp, 1995, 234 built

Three surface layout : foreplane, wing(s) and tailplane[edit]

The foreplane or "canard" serves as control or lifting surface or both.

  • Propeller inside the aft framework
  • Propeller behind the tail
  • Engines and props on wings
    • Piaggio P.180 Avanti, executive transport, 10 seats, 2 × 850 hp turboprops, direct drive, first flew 1986, N>200

Canard and tandem layouts[edit]

In a canard layout, there is a smaller wing ahead of the main wing. A tandem layout has both front and aft wings of similar dimensions.
As for conventional layout, the propeller to ground clearance at takeoff is a design issue, so aircraft of this type may include either taller main gear, a skid or ventral fin, a high thrust line, or a reduced propeller diameter.

Direct drive from the engine is the most common form:

Single engine[edit]

  • Chain drive
Langley Aerodrome Number 5, experimental unmanned model, tandem wing layout, 1 hp steam engine driving 2 propellers, first flight 1896[37]
Wright Flyer, experimental aircraft, 1 seat, one engine 12 hp, 2 propellers, first flight 1903
  • Direct drive
Ambrosini SS.2, concept test aircraft, 1 seat, 16 hp, 1935[note 7]
Ambrosini SS.4, prototype fighter, 1 seat, 960 hp, 1939
Miles M.35 "Libellula", fighter aircraft concept, tandem wing,[note 8] 1 seat, 130 hp, 1942
Curtiss-Wright XP-55 Ascender, prototype fighter aircraft, 1 seat, 1275 hp, 1943, 3 built
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-8, prototype, 3 seats, 110 hp, 1945
Lockspeiser LDA-01, research aircraft, 1 seat, 160 hp, 1971
Rutan VariEze, homebuilt, 2 seats, 100 hp, 1975, N>400
Rutan Long-EZ, homebuilt, 2 seats, 115 hp, 1979 N>800
OMAC Laser 300, prototype, 6 seats, 750 hp, 1981, 3 built
AASI Jetcruzer, executive prototypes, 6 seats, 850 hp, 1989, 3 built
Steve Wright Stagger-Ez, homebuilt, modified Cozy, 3 seats, 180 hp, 2003
  • Drive shaft
Kyūshū J7W, prototype fighter, 1 seat, 2130 hp, 1945, 2 built
Gossamer Condor, 1 seat, human powered, winner of Kremer prize, 1977
Dickey E-Racer, homebuilt, mid-fuselage automotive engine, 2 seats, 260 hp, first flight 1986 [40][41]

Two engines[edit]

  • symmetrical layout
Avtek 400, executive prototype, 8 seats, 2 × 680 hp above wing, 1984
Beechcraft Starship, executive, 8 seats, 2 × 1,200 hp, 1989, 53 built
  • In line layout (push-pull)
Rutan Defiant, homebuilt, 4 seats, 2 × 160 hp, 1978, 19 built
Rutan Voyager, prototype for long-distance record flight, 2 seats, 130 + 110 hp, 1984 [note 9]

Joined wing layout[edit]

(Ben) Brown Airplane, 2 seats, drive shaft, about 1932 [42]
Ligeti Stratos, 1 seat, 24 hp, 1985 [43]

Tailless aircraft and flying wing[edit]

Tailless aircraft lack a horizontal stabilizer, flying wings lack a distinct fuselage, with crew engines, payload etc. contained within the wing structure.

Rotorcraft, autogyro, gyrodyne[edit]

  • Propeller
Bensen autogyros
Wallis autogyros
CarterCopter
Fairey Jet Gyrodyne, experimental gyrodyne, 550 hp driving two propellers
McDonnell XV-1, experimental compound helicopter, 550 hp
  • Ducted fan
Avian Gyroplane, 2 seats, 200 hp, 1960

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ BD-5, Prescott Pusher, Grinvalds Orion, Grob GF 200, Lear Fan
  2. ^ Bede XBD-2, RFB designs, Ligeti Stratos
  3. ^ Prescott Pusher
  4. ^ cruciform tail : Goppingen Go9 , Dornier Do 335, Douglas XB-42, VmaxProbe. Y-tail : Acme Sierra, Aerocar, Lear Fan. inverted V-tail : Mini-IMP, American Eaglet, UAVs
  5. ^ Drive shaft
  6. ^ Dornier 212, engine in fuselage with prop-shaft driving 4 bladed solid-pitch propeller, shaft and prop assembly tilting up for take-off/landing to protect prop from water-damage in Flight 1941,[page needed]
  7. ^ see Ambrosini SS.4#Development
  8. ^ Where the two wings are similar in size the configuration may be referred to as a tandem wing.
  9. ^ Extension shaft on aft engine. The tractor propeller was only used during take-off and initial flight
Citations
  1. ^ French Voisin III bomber - pusher biplane of WW1
  2. ^ RFB Fanliner mit dem EA871 Wankelmotor von NSU-Audi
  3. ^ http://www.se-technology.com/wig/html/main.php?open=showcraft&code=0&craft=71
  4. ^ History - Hoverwing WIG craft technology
  5. ^ The propeller spins, with the motor, around the tail boom
  6. ^ a b RFB Rhein Flugzeugbau
  7. ^ a b Janowski Aircraft Page
  8. ^ Popular Mechanics - Google Livres
  9. ^ Air-Britain : Neukom AN-20B Albatros
  10. ^ 1977 | 2478 | Flight Archive
  11. ^ http://www.caea.info/fr/coll/lutin.php
  12. ^ Fk History
  13. ^ Technoflug Piccolo 'GOQ
  14. ^ popular flying | flying association | flight international | 1977 | 2009 | Flight Archive
  15. ^ Equator Aircraft
  16. ^ "Pony" light amphibian by Rida
  17. ^ Aircraft N455CB, Barlow Carl D ACAPELLA C/N 0002
  18. ^ Air-Britain : Aero Dynamics Sparrow Hawk Mk.II
  19. ^ Aviation Photos & History: D-MSTB HFL Flugzeugbau Stratos 300
  20. ^ Northrop Grumman Unveil Manned-Unmanned Firebird UAV | HighTech EDGE
  21. ^ Air Quest Nova 21
  22. ^ Résultats Google Recherche d'images correspondant à http://www.airwar.ru/image/idop/cw1/e211/e211-1.gif
  23. ^ CBA 123 Vector photos on Airliners.net
  24. ^ J2mcL Planeurs - Fiche planeur n° 3047
  25. ^ Rhein Flugzeugbau RW 3 - Sportflugzeug
  26. ^ The South African Air Force Museum Website
  27. ^ Megone biplane
  28. ^ http://www.icarusengineering.com/HPA-first-flight1975web.JPG
  29. ^ The Design of the Aeroplane, Daroll Stinton, page 561
  30. ^ Photos: Bede XBD-2 Aircraft Pictures | Airliners.net
  31. ^ Paulhan, Tatin Aero-Torpille
  32. ^ Miller-Bohannon JM-2 Pushy Galore
  33. ^ Aerocar mini-IMP
  34. ^ Flashback to 1981: A Look Back at the Lear Fan | Flying Magazine
  35. ^ Dornier Do P.252
  36. ^ http://www.aerofiles.com/lock-dipper.jpg
  37. ^ a b FLYING MACHINES - Langley Aerodrome No. 5
  38. ^ VmaxProbe
  39. ^ Star Kraft SK-700
  40. ^ Alternative Engines, Volume1, Mick Myal
  41. ^ E-Racer in Stargazer database
  42. ^ Julian Wolkovitch AC A Industries, Inc., "The Joined Wing: An Overview", Journal of Aircraft: 176–177 
  43. ^ Ligeti Stratos History (archived)
  44. ^ "New Triangle Plane Is Tailless", December 1931, Popular Science article and photo of Delta I at bottom of page 65
  45. ^ Bridgman, Leonard (1952). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1948. London: Sampson, Low, Marston and Co. Ltd. p. 159c-160c.
  46. ^ Rohr 2-175
  47. ^ Image from nuricom.de
  48. ^ Horten Nurflugels
Bibliography