List of queens regnant

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A list of all known queens regnant.

The following is a list of some queens who are well known from popular writings, although many ancient and poorly documented ruling queens (such as those from Africa and Oceania) are omitted.

Contents

Queens regnant[edit]

Africa[edit]

North Africa[edit]

Algeria[edit]
Jarawa[edit]
Touggourt[edit]
Egypt[edit]
Indigenous dynasties[edit]
Cleopatra VII
Ptolemaic dynasties[edit]

Ptolemy II instituted a new practice of brother-sister marriage when he married his full sister, Arsinoe II. They became, in effect, co-rulers, and both took the epithet Philadelphus ("Brother-Loving" and "Sister-Loving"). Because of this custom many of the kings ruled jointly with their spouses, who were also of the royal house. The only Ptolemaic Queens to officially rule on their own were Berenice III and Berenice IV. Cleopatra VI did co-rule, but it was with another female, Berenice IV. Cleopatra VII officially co-ruled with Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator, Ptolemy XIV, and Ptolemy XV, but effectively, she ruled Egypt alone

Ayyubid dynasty[edit]
Libya[edit]
Cyrene[edit]
  • Cleopatra Selene II (ruled 34–30 BC) - also Known as Cleopatra VIII. In 75 BC, Cyrene became part of a Roman province, but it was restored to the Ptolemies by Mark Antony in 37 BC. In 34 BC Cleopatra VII and Antony's daughter, Cleopatra Selene II, was made Queen of Cyrene, but the city returned to Rome following Augustus' conquest of Egypt in 30 BC
Sudan[edit]

Kandake was a title for queens, queen mothers, and queens consort in Nubia, but ruling Kandakes may have included:

Lovedu[edit]

West Africa[edit]

Benin[edit]
Hogbonu[edit]
  • Hude (ruled 1746–1752)
The Gambia[edit]
Ghana[edit]
Akan state of Denkyira[edit]
Akan state of Dwaben[edit]
Côte d'Ivoire[edit]
Baoule[edit]
  • Pokou (ruled c. 1730-1750) - Queen and founder of the Baoule tribe
Niger[edit]
Azna[edit]
Nigeria[edit]
Igodomigodo[edit]
Ondo Kingdom[edit]
Zazzau[edit]
  • Amina - There is controversy among scholars as to the date of her reign, one school placing her in the mid-15th century, and a second placing her reign in the mid to late 16th century
Senegal[edit]
Sine[edit]
Waalo[edit]
Sierra Leone[edit]
Koya[edit]

Central Africa[edit]

Angola[edit]
Jaga[edit]
Matamba[edit]
Nzinga, warrior queen of Ndongo and Matamba
Mbunda Kingdom[edit]
Ndongo[edit]
Cameroon[edit]
Bamum[edit]
  • Ngoungoure (ruled 1865), her rule lasted 30 minutes

East Africa[edit]

Comoros[edit]
Ndzuwani (Anjouan)[edit]
  • Alimah III (ruled 1676–1711) - first known ruler and female ruler of Anjouan; at least two more women had ruled Anjouan before her: Alimah I and Alimah II
  • Alimah IV (ruled 1788–1792) - she was the de facto ruler of Anjouan with sultan Abdallah I during his reigns in 1782-1788 and 1792-1796
Bamboa[edit]
Itsandra[edit]
Bajini[edit]
Mwali[edit]
Zewditu I, Empress of Ethiopia
Ethiopia[edit]
Gibe state of Gera[edit]
Kenya[edit]
Madagascar[edit]
Boina Kingdom[edit]
Mauritius[edit]
Seychelles[edit]
Tanzania[edit]
Uganda[edit]
Bunyoro[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Botswana[edit]
Malawi[edit]
South Africa[edit]
Balobedu[edit]

The Modjadji or Rain Queen is the hereditary queen of Balobedu, the people of the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The succession to the position of Rain Queen is matrilineal, meaning that the Queen's eldest daughter is the heir, and that males are not entitled to inherit the throne at all. The Rain Queen is believed to have special powers, including the ability to control the clouds and rainfall.

Batlokwa[edit]
Makololo[edit]
Zambia[edit]
Zimbabwe[edit]

America[edit]

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]

Central America[edit]

Antigua and Barbuda[edit]
Bahamas[edit]
Barbados[edit]
Belize[edit]
Dominica[edit]
Dominican Republic[edit]
Grenada[edit]
Guatemala[edit]
Naranjo[edit]
Tikal[edit]
Jamaica[edit]
Mexico[edit]
Ecatepec[edit]
Palenque[edit]
Tepetlaoztoc[edit]
  • Azcasuch (ruled late 15th-early 16th century)
Yaxchilan[edit]
Saint Kitts and Nevis[edit]
Saint Lucia[edit]
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[edit]

South America[edit]

Brazil[edit]
Guyana[edit]
Suriname[edit]
Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

Asia[edit]

East and Central Asia[edit]

China[edit]

There have been many powerful empress consorts or empress dowagers, some of whom effectively ruled. Powerful empress consorts or empress dowagers were de facto rulers, but not de jure empress regnants. A concubine who gave birth to a crown prince also could become empress consort (皇后), although her status still was a little lower than an empress dowager who had been the former empress consort which will be known as 太后.[citation needed]

  • Wu Zetian (Chinese: 武則天; ruled 684–705, reigned 690–705) - the sole official Chinese Empress Regnant, the empress consort of Tang Gaozong, the mother of Tang Zhongzong and Tang Ruizong, she established the Zhou Dynasty (also known as Wu Zhou 武周) after dismissing her sons and becoming the Empress Regnant

Although Wu Zetian is the only undisputed empress regnant in Chinese history, there is one documented case of a woman holding the title of "Emperor":

Japan[edit]
Korea[edit]
Silla[edit]

South Asia[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]
India[edit]
Alupa dynasty[edit]
Arakkal dynasty[edit]
British Raj[edit]
  • Victoria (ruled 1876–1901) - Empress of India
Holkar dynasty[edit]
Jhansi[edit]
Kakatiya dynasty[edit]
Kashmir[edit]
  • Sugandha (ruled in the 10th century)
  • Didda (ruled 980–1003), she ruled first as a Regent for her son Abhimanyu and thereafter as sole ruler in her own right
  • Kota Rani (ruled 1338–1339)
Keladi Nayaka dynasty[edit]
Kittur[edit]
Mamluk dynasty[edit]
Princely States[edit]
Bhopal State[edit]
  • Qudsia Begum (ruled 1819–1837) - in 1819, 18-year-old Qudsia Begum (also known as Gohar Begum) took over the reins after the assassination of her husband, Nawab Muiz Muhammad Khan Bahadur. She was the first female ruler of Bhopal. She declared that her 2-year-old daughter Sikander would follow her as the ruler; none of the male family members dared to challenge her decision. She ruled till 1837, when she died having adequately prepared her daughter for ruling the state.
  • Begum Sultan Shah Jehan (ruled 1844–1860 and 1868–1901) - Shahjahan was the only surviving child of Sikandar Begum, sometime Nawab of Bhopal by correct title, and her husband Jahangir Mohammed Khan. She was recognised as ruler of Bhopal in 1844 at the age of six; her mother wielded power as regent during her minority. However, in 1860, her mother Sikandar Begum was recognised by the British as ruler of Bhopal in her own right, and Shahjahan was set aside.
  • Begum Nawab Sikandar (ruled 1860–1868)
  • Begum Kaikhusrau Jahan (ruled 1901–1926)
Ullal[edit]
Maldives[edit]
  • Damahaar (ruled before 990) - Damahaar, a Ranin (Queen) of the Aadeetta (Sun) Dynasty, is mentioned by al-Idrisi as having reigned over the Maldives at some time before the semi-legendary King Koimala; there are several other mentions by foreign travelers, mainly Arabs, of queens ruling over the Maldives at various times; these are not always named and their reigns cannot be precisely dated
  • Khadijah (ruled 1347–1363, 1364–1374 and 1376–1380) - She is one of the earliest female rulers in a Muslim nation.
  • Raadhafathi (ruled 1380)
  • Dhaain (ruled 1385–1388)
  • Kuda Kala Kamanafa’anu (ruled 1607–1609)
  • Amina (ruled 1757 – 1759)
  • Elizabeth II (ruled 1952 – 1965)
Pakistan[edit]
Sindh[edit]
Sri Lanka[edit]

Southeast Asia[edit]

Cambodia[edit]
  • Jayavedi (ruled 681–713) - during her rule, She was faulted in leadership which led The Chenla kingdom to break into two individual states, but then it record the period to be female-dominated dynasty with the wide range of female successors, totally driving the entire kingdom
  • Ang Mey (1835–1841 and 1844–1845) - also known as Queen Ba-cong-chua or Ksat Trey, she was proclaimed on the death of her father by the Vietnamese faction at court with the title of My-lam-quan-chua in January 1835. She was famous as puppet queen to Annam
Indonesia[edit]
Aceh[edit]
Bali[edit]
Kalingga[edit]
Majapahit[edit]
The statue of Tribhuwanottungadewi, queen of Majapahit, depicted as Parvati
Medang[edit]
Mengwi[edit]
Sonbai Kecil[edit]
  • Bi Sonbai (ruled 1672–1717), in western Timor
Laos[edit]
Lan Xang[edit]
  • Nang Keo Phimpha (ruled 1438) - after her nephew Lan Kham Deng died, she seized control of Lan Xang and the next four kings were under her control. She only reigned for a few months in 1438 at age of 95; she was deposed and killed
Malaysia[edit]
Johor[edit]
  • Engku Puteri Raja Hamidah binti Raja Haji of Johor (dowager 1812-19)
Kelantan[edit]
Myanmar[edit]
Hanthawaddy[edit]
Philippines[edit]
Namayan and Tondo[edit]
Sulu[edit]
Thailand[edit]
Hariphunchai[edit]
Pattani[edit]
  • Raja Hijau, 'the Green Queen' (ruled 1584–1616)
  • Raja Biru, 'the Blue Queen' (ruled 1616–1624)
  • Raja Ungu, 'the Purple Queen' (ruled 1624–1635)
  • Raja Kuning, 'the Yellow Queen' (ruled 1635–1649/88), controversy surrounds the exact date of the end of her reign
  • Raja Emas Kelantan (ruled 1670–1698 or 1690–1704) - thought by A. Teeuw & Wyatt to be a king, but claimed by al-Fatani to be a queen, the widow of Raja Bakal and mother of the succeeding queen
  • Raja Emas Chayam (ruled 1698–1702 or 1704–1707 and 1716–1718)
Lanna[edit]
Vietnam[edit]
  • Trưng Sisters (ruled 40–43) - the Trưng sisters (Vietnamese: Hai Bà Trưng; literally: two ladies Trưng) were leaders who rebelled against Chinese rule for three years, and are regarded as national heroines of Vietnam. Their names are Trưng Trắc and Trưng Nhị
  • Lý Chiêu Hoàng (ruled 1224–1225)
Champa[edit]

West Asia[edit]

Armenia[edit]
Cyprus[edit]
Georgia[edit]
Tamar, King of Kings and Queen of Queens of the Georgians
Iran[edit]
  • Musa of Parthia (Parthian queen regnant of Iran, ruled 2 BC–4 AD)
  • Borandukht (In Persian: Pourandokht, Sassanid queen regnant and Daughter of Khosrow Parviz, ruled 629-630 and 631-632)
  • Azarmidokht (Sassanid queen regnant, sister of Borandukht and daughter of Khosrow Parviz, ruled 630–631)
Elymais[edit]
  • Anzaze (ruled about 82/81 to 75 BC, following dates on the coins), she appears on coins together with king Kamnaskires III; they perhaps ruled together as on the coins she is called βασιλίσσης (the Genitive case of queen, βασίλισσα - basílissa)
Il Khanate[edit]
Salghurids[edit]
Iraq[edit]
Adiabene[edit]
Seleucid Empire[edit]
Israel[edit]
Judah[edit]
Hasmonean dynasty[edit]
Herodian dynasty[edit]
Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem[edit]
Jordan[edit]
Nabatea[edit]
Kazahkstan[edit]
Massagetae[edit]
Saudi Arabia[edit]
Qedarite[edit]
  • Zabibe (ruled c. 750–735 BC)
  • Samsi (ruled c. 735–710 BC)
  • Yatie (ruled c. 710–695 BC)
  • Te'elkhunu (ruled c. 695–690 BC)
  • Tabua (ruled c. 678–675 BC)
Syria[edit]
Tanukhids[edit]
  • Mavia (ruled 375–425) - "The Queen of the Arabs"
Turkey[edit]
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia[edit]
  • Isabella (ruled 1219–1252) - she co-ruled with her husband Hethum I from 1226
Caria[edit]
Dardania[edit]
  • Tania (ruled 300's BCE) - queen of ancient Dardania according to Polyaenus
Heraclea Pontica[edit]
Pontus[edit]
Prusias ad Mare[edit]
Saltukid dynasty[edit]
Trebizond[edit]
United Arab Emirates[edit]
Uzbekistan[edit]
Khanate of Kokand[edit]
Yemen[edit]
Sulayhid dynasty[edit]
  • Arwa al-Sulayhi (ruled 1086–1138), she ruled Yemen firstly through her first two husbands and then as sole ruler; she was the greatest of the rulers of the Sulayhid Dynasty and was also the first woman to be accorded the prestigious title of hujja in Isma'ili branch of Shi'a Islam, signifying her as the closest living image of God's will in her lifetime

Europe[edit]

Maria Theresa, Queen regnant of Hungary, Bohemia[1] and the Holy Roman Empress

Albania[edit]

Shishman Dynasty[edit]

Andorra[edit]

Austria[edit]

Marcomanni[edit]

Bosnia[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

Odrysian kingdom of Thrace[edit]

Croatia[edit]

Czech[edit]

  • Maria Theresa (ruled 1740–1780) - she was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma. In some of the Habsburg dominions (such as Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia and Lodomeria and Galicia), she held the title of queen. By marriage, she was also Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress (all as consort).

Denmark[edit]

  • Margaret I (ruled 1387–1412) - she was founder of the Kalmar Union, which united the Scandinavian countries for over a century. Margaret is known in Denmark as "Margrethe I" to distinguish her from the current queen. Denmark did not have a tradition of allowing women to rule, so when her son died, she was titled "All-powerful Lady and Mistress (Regent) of the Kingdom of Denmark". She only styled herself Queen of Denmark in 1375, usually referring to herself as "Margaret, by the grace of God, daughter of Valdemar King of Denmark" and "Denmark's rightful heir" when referring to her position in Denmark. Others simply referred to her as the "Lady Queen", without specifying what she was queen of, but not so Pope Boniface IX, who in his letters styled her "our beloved daughter in Christ, Margaret, most excellent queen of Denmark, Sweden and Norway"
  • Margaret II (ruled 1972–present)

Estonia[edit]

Finland[edit]

Greece[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
  • Irene (ruled 797–802) - she normally referred to herself as basilissa (empress), although there are three instances of the title basileus (emperor) being used by her
  • Zoe (ruled 1028–1041 and 1042–1050) - she ruled with her consorts Romanos III and Michael IV between 1028 and 1041; she ruled with her sister Theodora and her third husband Constantine IX from 1042 to 1050
  • Theodora (ruled 1042–1056) - she ruled from 1042 jointly with her sister Zoe and Zoe's third husband Constantine IX; she ruled from 1055 until her own death as sole monarch.
Epirus[edit]
Aeacid dynasty[edit]

Hungary[edit]

  • Mary (ruled 1382–1385 and 1386-1395) - she was crowned as King of Hungary to emphasize that she was a monarch in her own right; she co-ruled with her husband Sigismund of Luxembourg from 1387
  • Maria Theresa (ruled 1740–1780)

Iceland[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Umaill[edit]
Kingdom of Ireland[edit]

Italy[edit]

Naples[edit]
Sardinia[edit]
Sicily[edit]

Luxembourg[edit]

Malta[edit]

Monaco[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

  • Wilhelmina (ruled 23 November 1890 – 4 September 1948)
  • Juliana (ruled 4 September 1948 – 30 April 1980)
  • Beatrix (ruled 30 April 1980 – 30 April 2013)

Norway[edit]

Agder[edit]
  • Åsa (ruled 815–834/38)

Poland[edit]

  • Hedwig (ruled 1384–1399) - she was crowned as King of Poland to emphasize that she was a monarch in her own right; she co-ruled with her husband Władysław II Jagiełło from 1386
  • Anna (ruled 1575–1586) - she was crowned as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania to emphasize that she was a monarch in her own right; she co-ruled with her husband Stephen Báthory

Portugal[edit]

Romania[edit]

Transylvania[edit]

Russia[edit]

Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus[edit]
  • Dynamis (ruled in 47 BC, 44-17 BC and 16-14 BC) - she co-ruled with her first husband Asander in 47 BC and from 44 BC until 17 BC; then she co-ruled with her second husband Polemon I from 16 BC until her death
  • Gepaepyris (ruled 38–45) - she ruled in association with her son Mithridates III
Khanate of Qasim[edit]

Spain[edit]

  • Urraca of León and Castile (ruled 1109–1126) - also styled as Empress of all Spain (totius Hispaniae imperatrix). Her use of the imperial styling was limited, much more so than that of her predecessor and successor (it is possible that the imperial style had connotations too strongly masculine). Urraca did employ instead the title Queen of Spain on several occasions from the very beginning of her reign until the end
  • Petronila of Aragon (ruled 1137–1164)
  • Berenguela of Castile the Great (ruled 1217)
  • Sancha of León (ruled de jure 1230) - she ruled jointly with her sister Dulce. After the death of Sancha's brother, Alfonso IX named his second son, also Ferdinand, his heir, bestowing on him the title infante. In 1217, Ferdinand's mother, Berengaria, inherited the Kingdom of Castile, but ceded it to her son. With his heir out of the kingdom and ruling in another place, Alfonso attempted to make his eldest daughters his joint heirs. In the Treaty of Boronal concluded with Portugal in 1219, Alfonso expressly states that if he should die, Portugal should respect the agreement with his daughters.[2] Alfonso also attempted to secure his eldest daughter's rights by marrying Sancha to John of Brienne, the former King of Jerusalem, but his wife Berengaria blocked this action in order to advance her son.[3] After this fiasco, Alfonso declared Sancha and Dulce his heirs, but upon his death on 24 September 1230, the people of León, who had pledged for Ferdinand in 1206, refused to recognise his daughters, and they in turn ceded their rights to his kingdom to their half-brother
  • Dulce of León (ruled de jure 1230) - she ruled jointly with her sister Sancha
  • Isabella I of Castile the Catholic (ruled 1474–1504) - After a struggle to claim her right to the throne, she reorganised the governmental system, brought the crime rate to the lowest it had been in years, and unburdened the kingdom of the enormous debt her brother had left behind. Her marriage with Ferdinand II of Aragon brought stability to the kingdoms that became the basis for the political unification of Spain. Her reforms and those she made with her husband had an influence that extended well beyond the borders of their united kingdoms. Isabella and Ferdinand are known for completing the Reconquista, ordering conversion or exile of their Muslim and Jewish subjects in the Spanish Inquisition, and for supporting and financing Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage that led to the opening of the New World.
  • Joanna of Castile and Aragon the Mad (ruled 1504–1555) - successor of the previous. After his husband's death she was deemed mentally ill and was confined to a nunnery for the rest of her life. Her father, Ferdinand II of Aragon, was regent until his death, when she inherited his kingdom as well.
  • Isabella II of Spain (ruled 1833–1868)
Navarre[edit]

Sweden[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Kingdoms of the Britons[edit]
  • Cartimandua (ruled c. 43–69), queen of the Brigantes, a Celtic people in what is now Northern England - she came to power around the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, and formed a large tribal agglomeration that became loyal to Rome; she is known exclusively from the work of a single Roman historian, Tacitus, though she appears to have been widely influential in early Roman Britain
  • Boudica (ruled c. 60–61), queen of the Brythonic Celtic Iceni, people of Norfolk, in Eastern Britain - in 61 AD, led a major uprising of the tribes against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire
Anglo-Saxon kingdoms[edit]
Kingdom of England[edit]
  • Matilda of England (ruled 7 April – 1 November 1141) - she was England's first de facto female ruler, holding the title of Lady of the English (she planned to assume the title of queen upon her coronation). She was declared heir presumptive by her father, Henry I, and acknowledged as such by the barons; however, upon the death of her father in 1135, Matilda was usurped to the throne by her rival and cousin Stephen of Blois. The Anarchy followed, with Matilda's being a de facto ruler for a few months in 1141, but she was never crowned and failed to consolidate her rule (legally and politically)
  • Jane Grey (ruled 1553) - her cousin Edward VI of England nominated Jane as successor to the Crown in his will and excluded his half sisters, Mary and Elizabeth. However, this was disputed following Edward's death and Jane was queen for only nine days (10–19 July) before Edward's half-sister, Mary, was proclaimed Queen. Jane is nicknamed The Nine Days' Queen
  • Mary I of England (ruled 1553–1558)
  • Elizabeth I of England (ruled 1558–1603)
Kingdom of Scotland[edit]
  • Margaret of Scotland (ruled 25 November 1286 – 26 September 1290) - also known as Margaret, Maid of Norway. She was daughter of Eric II of Norway and Margaret of Scotland and was named "domina and right heir" of the Kingdom of Scotland by her grandfather, Alexander III. Her death while en route to Scotland sparked off the disputed succession, which led to the Wars of Scottish Independence. As Margaret was never crowned or otherwise inaugurated, and never set foot on what was then Scottish soil during her lifetime, there is some doubt about whether she should be regarded as a Queen of Scots; this could ultimately be a matter of interpretation. Most lists of the monarchs of Scotland do include her, but a few do not.
  • Mary I of Scotland (ruled 1542–1567) - better known as Mary, Queen of Scots; she was executed in England in 1587
Kingdoms of England and Scotland / Kingdom of Great Britain[edit]
United Kingdom[edit]
  • Victoria (ruled 1837–1901) - longest reigning monarch in Britain. She was the first monarch to hold the title of Empress of India.
  • Elizabeth II (ruling 1952–present) - head of state of 32 sovereign states.

Oceania[edit]

American Samoa[edit]

Tui Manuʻa Matelita.

Australia[edit]

Fiji[edit]

French Polynesia[edit]

Bora Bora[edit]
Huahine[edit]
Raiatea[edit]
  • Tehauroarii (ruled 1881–1884)
  • Tuarii (ruled till 1897) - she reigned under a rebellion government against the French with the support of Teraupoo after Tamatoa VI abdicated.
Rimatara[edit]
Tahiti[edit]
  • Purea (ruled 18th century), queen of the Teva clan on the southern part of the island before unification
  • Pōmare IV (ruled 1871–1911)
Vaekehu
Taiohae[edit]

Hawaii[edit]

Ancient[edit]
Kingdom[edit]
  • Liliuokalani (ruled 1891–1893 and claimed status as queen until her death in 1917) - was one of many queens of Hawaii; however, she was the only queen regnant of the modern Kingdom of Hawaii established by Kamehameha I in the late eighteenth century

New Zealand[edit]

Rarotonga[edit]

Papua New Guinea[edit]

Solomon Islands[edit]

Tonga[edit]

Tuvalu[edit]

Uvea (Wallis)[edit]

Queens regent[edit]

Africa[edit]

Ashanti Empire[edit]

Dahomey[edit]

  • Hangbe (ruled 1716-1718), ruler of Dahomey for a short period of time between the death of Akaba and the rule of Agaja

Fatimids[edit]

Kongo Kingdom[edit]

Asia[edit]

Bithynia[edit]

China[edit]

Liao Dynasty[edit]

India[edit]

Bijapur, Ahmednagar[edit]
  • Chand Bibi (ruled 1580–90 in Bijapur, 1596–99 in Ahmednagar)
Gond[edit]
Maratha Empire[edit]

Kara-Khitan Khanate[edit]

Korea[edit]

Mongolia[edit]

Chagatai Khanate[edit]
Golden Horde[edit]

Neo-Assyrian Empire[edit]

Palmyrene Empire[edit]

Thailand[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

Europe anda Spanning Africa and Asia[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]

  • Ulpia Severina (ruled 275) - there is considerable numismatic evidence for Ulpia Severina ruling in her own right between the death of Aurelian and the election of Marcus Claudius Tacitus.[4] Sources mention an interregnum between Aurelian and Tacitus, and some of Ulpia's coins appear to have been minted after Aurelian's death.[5] As such she may have been the only woman to rule over the whole Roman Empire in her own power.

Europe and Spanning Asia[edit]

Latin Empire[edit]

Europe[edit]

Denmark[edit]

  • Margaret Fredkulla (ruled 1105-1130) - daughter of King Inge the Elder of Sweden. In 1105, she married King Niels of Denmark, described as a passive monarch who lacked the capacity to rule and who left the affairs of the state to her. With Niels' blessing, Margaret became the de facto Queen regnant of Denmark. The Danish coins printed during this period bears the inscription: Margareta-Nicalas ("Margaret-Niels").

England[edit]

France[edit]

Illyrian Kingdom[edit]

  • Teuta (ruled 231–227 BC)
  • Etuta (ruled 169-168 BC)

Khazar[edit]

Kievan Rus'[edit]

  • Olga (ruled 945-962)

Lombards[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

Ostrogoths[edit]

Portugal[edit]

  • Teresa (ruled 1112–1128) - first ruler of independent Portugal. In recognizing her victory in defending Coimbra, she was called "Queen" by Pope Paschal II and in light of this recognition, she appears in her documents as "Daughter of Alphonso and elected by God", explicitly being called queen in an 1117 document, leading some to refer to her as the first monarch of Portugal
  • Leonor Telles de Meneses (ruled 1383-1385)
  • Eleanor of Aragon (ruled 1438-1439)
  • Catherine of Austria (ruled 1557-1562)
  • Luisa de Guzmán (ruled 1656-1662)

Russian Empire[edit]

Sarmatia[edit]

  • Amage (ruled 4th century BC)

Scotland[edit]

Spain[edit]

Sweden[edit]

  • Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp (ruled 1660-1672 and 1697-1699)
  • Ingeborg (ruled de facto 1318-1319) - in 1318-1319 she was Sweden's first de facto female ruler and from 1319 to 1326, she was Sweden's first de jure female regent; her position subsequently equalled that of an undeclared queen mother for over 40 years

Legendary Queens[edit]

Ahaggar[edit]

Amazons[edit]

  • Otrera, the daughter of Eurus (the east wind)
  • Hippolyta, the Amazonian queen who possessed a magical girdle
  • Penthesilea, the daughter of Ares and Otrera and the sister of Hippolyta, Antiope and Melanippe
  • Antianara, the daughter of Ares and Otrera and the sister of Hippolyta, Antiope and Melanippe
  • Eurypyle
  • Lampedo
  • Marpesia

Assyria[edit]

  • Semiramis, the legendary queen of king Ninus, succeeding him to the throne of Assyria

Bohemia[edit]

Bornu Empire[edit]

Champa[edit]

  • Lady Po Nagar, According to Cham legend, was the founder of the Cham nation

Carthage[edit]

  • Dido (ruled 814 – c. 760 BC) - also known as Alyssa. Founder of Carthage, according to tradition

China[edit]

Egypt[edit]

  • Merneith of the First Dynasty - was a consort and a regent of Ancient Egypt during the first dynasty. She may have been a ruler of Egypt in her own right. The possibility is based on several official records. Her rule occurred the 30th century B.C., for an undetermined period
  • Khentkaus of the Fourth Dynasty - Khentkaus appears to have served as a regent for Thampthis (considered by some historians her son) and may have even taken on kingly titles. Some of her titles are ambiguous and are apparently open to interpretation
  • Nitocris of the Sixth Dynasty - her historicity is questionable. She might have been an interregnum queen

Funan Kingdom[edit]

Gideons Dynasty[edit]

  • Gudit, (ruled c. 960 – c. 1000)

Britain[edit]

Harran[edit]

Ireland[edit]

  • Macha, (ruled 661–654 BC)

Connacht[edit]

  • Medb, Queen of Connacht

Italia[edit]

Japan[edit]

Kelantan[edit]

Lydia[edit]

Mongolia[edit]

  • Alan Gua, a mythical figure from the Secret History of the Mongols

Nubia[edit]

Rapa Nui[edit]

Poland[edit]

Puntland[edit]

  • Ati, a queen of the fabled Land of Punt in Africa

Sheba[edit]

Kish[edit]

  • Kubaba (ruled 25th century BC)

Titular Queens[edit]

Balete[edit]

  • Mosadi Seboko (ruled 2002-), the kgosikgolo[a] of the Balete people in Botswana

Māori[edit]

Mapuche[edit]

Naso[edit]

Chieftainess[edit]

Ancient Hawaii[edit]

Crow tribe[edit]

Giluts'aaw[edit]

Hispaniola[edit]

Israelite Tribes[edit]

Pamunkey[edit]

Puerto Rico[edit]

  • Doña Ines, mother of Caciques Agueybaná and Agüeybaná II
  • Doña María, daughter of Cacique Bagnamanay
  • Yuisa, Cacica in the region near Loíza, Puerto Rico

Rarotonga[edit]

Rewa, Burebasaga Confederacy[edit]

Sakonnet[edit]

Seneca tribe[edit]

Xhosa[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Sigismund (Holy Roman emperor)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica.com Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-29. 
  2. ^ Yáñez Neira, 54.
  3. ^ Salvador Martínez, 32–33.
  4. ^ Watson, Alaric (1999). Aurelian and the Third Century. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07248-4. 
  5. ^ Körner, Christian (December 23, 2008). "Aurelian (A.D. 270-275)". De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families. Retrieved January 6, 2011. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • L. Pierotti Cei, Madonna Costanza, Regina di Sicilia e d'Aragona, Mondadori, Milan 1995.
  • S. Runciman, I Vespri siciliani, Rizzoli, Milan 1975.

External links[edit]