List of recipients of the Pour le Mérite for Sciences and Arts

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This is a list of recipients of the Pour le Mérite for Sciences and Arts (Pour le Mérite für Wissenschaften und Künste), a German and formerly Prussian honor given since 1842 for achievement in the humanities, sciences, or arts.

Date of award Name Description
1900 Max Joseph von Pettenkofer Hygienicist and chemist
1901 Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns Composer
1901 Rudolph Virchow Pathologist
1901 Julius Wellhausen Historian and orientalist
1902 Alexander Emanuel Agassiz Zoologist
1902 John Lubbock, Lord Avebury Biologist and archaeologist
1902 Luigi Antonio Gaudenzio Cremona Mathematician
1902 Carl Gegenbaur Anatomist
1902 Adolf von Harnack Theologian and church historian
1902 Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker Botanist
1902 Carl Justi Church historian
1902 Gaston Paris Scholar of Romance literature
1902 Peter Petrowitsch von Semjonow-Tienschanski Geographer
1903 Adolf Mussafia Romanist
1903 John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh Physicist
1903 Theodor Ritter von Sickel Historian
1904 Hermann Emil Fischer Chemist
1904 François-Auguste Baron Gevaert Music historian and composer
1904 Adolf Kirchhoff Classical philologist
1904 Peter Ludwig Mejdell Sylow Mathematician
1905 Graziadio Isaia Ascoli Linguist
1905 Franz Jacob von Defregger Artist
1905 Simon Newcomb Astronomer
1906 Franz Bücheler Classical philologist
1906 Léopold Victor Delisle Historian
1906 Robert Koch Bacteriologist
1908 Max Bruch Composer
1908 James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce Historian and jurist
1908 Wilhelm Dilthey Philosoph
1908 Hendrik Antoon Lorentz Physicist
1908 Wilhelm Friedrich Philipp Pfeffer Plant physiologist and botanist
1908 Friedrich Wilhelm Radloff Linguist (Turkic studies)
1908 John Singer Sargent Artist
1908 Gabriel Ritter von Seidl Architect
1908 Johannes Vahlen Classical philologist
1908 Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff Classical philologist
1910 Sir David Gill Astronomer
1910 Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin Aeronaut
1911 Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz Military theorist
1911 Karl Ewald Konstantin Hering Physiologist
1911 Andreas Heusler Jurist
1911 Otto Lessing Sculptor
1911 Sir William Ramsay Chemist
1911 Gustaf Magnus Retzius Histologist
1911 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Physicist
1911 Gustav Schönleber Artist
1911 Vilhelm Ludwig Peter Thomsen Orientalist
1912 Julius Ferdinand von Hann Meteorologist
1912 Reinhold Koser Historian
1912 August Louis Tuaillon Sculptor
1912 Sir William Turner Anatomist
1912 Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt Psychologist and philosopher
1913 Léon Joseph Florentin Bonnat Artist
1913 Hermann Diels Classical philologist
1913 Ernst Emil Ludwig Hoffmann Architect
1914 Camillo Golgi Physician and histologist
1914 Hans Grässel Architect
1915 Heinrich von Angeli Artist
1915 Otto Friedrich von Gierke Jurist
1915 Jacobus Cornelius Kapteyn Astronomer
1915 Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck Physicist
1915 Santiago Ramón y Cajal Physician and histologist
1915 Hugo Ritter von Seeliger Astronomer
1916 Hugo Freiherr von Freytag-Loringhoven Military theorist
1916 Rudolph Sohm Jurist
1917 Max Klinger Printmaker and Sculptor
1917 Walther Hermann Nernst Physicist
1917 Hans Thoma Artist and Designer
1918 Adolf Erman Egyptologist
1918 Georg Friedrich Knapp Economist and political theorist
1918 Johannes Adolf von Kries Physiologist
1918 Carl Ritter von Linde Engineer
1918 Eduard Meyer Historian and orientalist
1923 Albert Einstein Physicist
1923 Gerhart Hauptmann Poet
1923 Felix Klein Mathematician
1923 Hugo Lederer Sculptor
1923 Max Liebermann Artist
1924 Georg Gottfried Julius Dehio Art historian
1924 Richard von Hertwig Zoologist
1924 Hermann von Kuhl Military writer
1924 Heinrich Lüders Indologist
1924 Hans Erich Pfitzner Composer
1924 Eduard Schwartz Classical philologist
1924 Max Slevogt Artist and printmaker
1924 Richard Georg Strauss Composer
1924 Richard Willstätter Chemist
1925 Hugo von Habermann Artist
1925 Ludolf von Krehl Physician
1926 David Hilbert Mathematician
1926 Leopold Karl Walter Graf von Kalckreuth Artist and printmaker
1926 Albrecht Penck Geographer
1926 Karl Vossler Romanist
1929 Wilhelm von Bode Art historian and museum director
1929 Gustav Heinrich Ernst Martin Wilhelm Furtwängler Musician
1929 Käthe Kollwitz Artist and printmaker
1929 Carl Stumpf Physiologist and philosopher
1931 Enno Littmann Orientalist
1931 Wilhelm Schulze Indogermanist
1931 Theodor Wiegand Archaeologist
1932 Paul Fridolin Kehr Historian
1933 Ernst Heinrich Barlach Sculptor, printmaker and poet
1933 Heinrich Wölfflin Art historian
1952 Paul Bonatz Architect
1952 Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe Physicist
1952 Ernst Robert Curtius Romanist
1952 Ludwig Curtius Archaeologist
1959 Gerhard Domagk Physician
1952 Karl Ritter von Frisch Zoologist
1952 Erich Haenisch Sinologist
1952 Otto Hahn Chemist
1952 Max Hartmann Biologist
1952 Paul Hindemith Composer
1952 Karl Hofer Artist and printmaker
1952 Erich Kaufmann Jurist
1952 Max Theodor Felix von Laue Physicist
1952 Theodor Litt Philosopher
1952 Gerhard Marcks Sculptor
1952 Friedrich Meinecke Historian
1952 Emil Nolde Artist and Printmaker
1952 Karl Reinhardt Classical philologist
1952 Otto Renner Botanist
1952 Paul Schmitthenner Architect
1952 Reinhold Schneider Writer and poet
1952 Rudolf Alexander Schröder Poet
1952 Renée Sintenis Artist and Printmaker
1952 Eduard Spranger Philosopher
1952 Otto Warburg Biochemist
1952 Heinrich Wieland Chemist
1952 Adolf Windaus Chemist
1954 Niels Henrik David Bohr Physicist
1954 Carl Jacob Burckhardt Historian
1954 Arthur H. Compton Physicist
1954 George Peabody Gooch Historian
1954 Hermann Hesse Writer
1954 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Philosopher of religion
1954 Albert Schweitzer Philosopher, theologian and music historian
1954 Alfred Weber Sociologist
1955 Sir Henry Hallett Dale Physiologist
1955 Étienne Gilson Philosopher
1955 Werner Jaeger Classical philologist
1955 Klas Bernhard Johannes Karlgren Sinologist
1955 Oskar Kokoschka Artist, printmaker and writer
1955 Thomas Mann Writer
1955 Gilbert Murray Greek scholar
1955 Hans Purrmann Artist and printmaker
1956 Luigi Einaudi Economist
1956 Max Huber Jurist
1956 Lise Meitner Physicist
1956 Carl Orff Composer
1956 Karl Schmidt-Rottluff Artist
1956 Erwin Schrödinger Physicist
1956 Thornton Wilder Writer
1957 Werner Heisenberg Physicist
1957 George de Hevesy Chemist and physicist
1957 Charles B. Huggins Physician
1957 Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Architect
1957 Gerhard Ritter Historian
1958 Werner Bergengruen Writer
1958 Romano Guardini Philosopher
1958 Richard Kuhn Chemist and Biochemist
1958 Percy Ernst Schramm Historian
1959 Ernst Beutler Literary scholar
1959 Ernst Buschor Archaeologist
1959 Thomas Stearns Eliot Poet
1959 François Louis Ganshof Historian
1959 Pieter Catharinus Arie Geyl Historian
1960 Hans Kienle Astronomer
1961 Hans Rothfels Historian
1961 Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker Physicist and philosopher
1962 Adolf Butenandt Biochemist
1962 Albert Defant Geophysicist
1962 Franz Dölger Byzantinist
1962 Wolfgang Schadewaldt Classical philologist
1963 André-Jean Festugière Historian
1963 André Grabar Art historian
1963 Gerhard von Rad Theologian
1963 Carl Ludwig Siegel Mathematician
1963 Walther von Wartburg Romanist
1964 Rudolf Hillebrecht Architect and town planner
1964 Karl Jaspers Philosopher
1964 Alfred Kühn Zoologist
1966 Sir James Chadwick Physicist
1966 Annette Kolb Writer
1966 Georg Ostrogorsky Byzantinist
1966 Emil Staiger Literary historian
1966 Alexander Lord Todd Chemist
1966 Wieland Wagner Opera director and stage designer
1966 Hans Wimmer Sculptor
1967 Kurt Bittel Archaeologist
1967 Erich Heckel Artist and printmaker
1967 Peter Huchel Writer
1967 Marie Luise von Kaschnitz Writer
1967 Otto Klemperer Director
1967 Gyula Moravcsik Byzantinist
1967 Erwin Panofsky Art historian
1967 Hideki Yukawa Physicist
1967 Carl Zuckmayer Writer
1968 Theodor Eschenburg Political scientist and journalist
1968 Marino Marini Sculptor and printmaker
1968 Kurt Mothes Plant physiologist
1969 Alvar Aalto Architect
1969 Sir Cecil Maurice Bowra Classical philologist
1969 Rudolf Bultmann Theologian
1969 Hugo Friedrich Romanist
1969 Stephan Kuttner Canonist and legal historian
1969 Konrad Lorenz Zoologist
1969 Franz Wieacker Legal historian
1969 Karl Waldemar Ziegler Chemist
1970 Egon Eiermann Architect
1970 Walther Gerlach Physicist
1970 Fritz Kortner Actor and director
1970 Karl Rahner Theologian
1971 Hans-Georg Gadamer Philosopher
1971 Rolf Gutbrod Architect
1971 Albin Lesky Classical philologist
1971 Feodor Lynen Biochemist
1971 Theodor Schieder Historian
1971 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Biochemist
1972 Andreas Alföldi Historian
1972 Sir Hans Adolf Krebs Biochemist
1972 Henry Moore Sculptor
1972 Walter Rossow Garden designer and landscape architect
1972 Fritz Winter Artist
1973 Raymond Aron Sociologist
1973 Helmut Coing Jurist
1973 Manfred Eigen Physical chemist
1973 Golo Mann Historian, journalist and writer
1973 Hans Erich Nossack Writer
1973 Bartel Leendert van der Waerden Mathematician
1973 Maria Wimmer Actor
1974 Wolfgang Gentner Physicist
1974 Thrasybulos Georgiades Musicologist
1974 Fritz Albert Lipmann Biochemist
1974 Sir Ronald Syme Historian
1975 Pierre Boulez Composer and director
1975 Richard Ettinghausen Art historian
1975 Emil Karl Frey Surgeon
1975 György Ligeti Composer
1975 Kenzo Tange Architect
1976 George F. Kennan Historian and diplomat
1976 Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Physicist
1977 Hansjochem Autrum Zoologist
1977 Sir Ernst Gombrich Art historian
1977 Hans Hartung Artist
1977 Friedrich August von Hayek Economist
1977 Bruno Snell Classical philologist
1978 Gerhard Rudolf Edmund Meyer-Schwickerath Ophthalmologist
1978 Victor Friedrich Weisskopf Physicist
1979 Felix Bloch Physicist
1979 Elias Canetti Writer
1979 Fritz Schalk Romanist
1980 Wolfgang Paul Physicist
1980 Sir Karl Popper Philosopher of science
1980 Werner Reichardt Physiologist
1980 Leopold Reidemeister Art historian
1981 Wolfgang Clemen Anglicist
1981 Felix Gilbert Historian
1981 Gershom Scholem Philosopher
1981 Emil Schumacher Artist
1981 Rudolf Serkin Pianist
1981 Hans Georg Zachau Molecular biologist
1982 Hendrik B. G. Casimir Physicist
1982 Sir Bernhard Katz Physiologist
1982 Ernst Kitzinger Art historian
1983 Carl Dahlhaus Musicologist
1983 Jean Gaudemet Jurist
1983 Eugène Ionesco Writer and designer
1983 Elisabeth Legge-Schwarzkopf Singer
1984 Hans Albrecht Bethe Physicist
1984 Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau Singer
1984 Hermann Paul Joseph Haken Physicist
1984 Kaii Higashiyama Landscape artist
1984 Otto Kratky Physical chemist
1984 Boris Borissowitsch Piotrowski Archaeologist
1985 Bernhard Bischoff Palaeographer, philologist and historian
1985 Erwin Neher Biophysicist
1986 Horst Fuhrmann Historian
1987 Eduardo Chillida Juantegui Sculptor
1987 Max F. Perutz Biophysicist
1988 Stig Fredrik Strömholm Jurist
1990 Gordon Alexander Craig Historian
1990 Carlos Kleiber Director
1990 Jean-Marie Lehn Chemist
1990 Albrecht Schöne Germanist
1991 Bernard Andreae Archaeologist
1991 Alfred Brendel Pianist and Writer
1991 Herbert Giersch Economist
1991 Friedrich Hirzebruch Mathematician
1992 Karl Dietrich Bracher Historian and political scientist
1992 Albert Eschenmoser Chemist
1992 Wolfgang Gerok Physician
1992 Eberhard Jüngel Theologian
1992 Giorgio Strehler Stage director
1992 Martin Walser Writer
1993 Gerhard Casper Jurist
1993 Sir Henry Chadwick Church historian
1993 Walter Gehring Biologist
1993 Robert Huber Chemist
1993 Witold Lutoslawski Composer
1993 Aribert Reimann Composer
1994 Albrecht Dihle classical philologist
1994 Ludwig Finscher musicologist
1994 Ernst-Joachim Mestmäcker jurist
1994 Fritz Stern historian
1995 Peter Busmann architect
1995 Erwin Neher biophysicist
1995 Hubertus von Pilgrim sculptor and printmaker
1995 Bert Sakmann neurobiologist
1995 Robert Merton Solow economist
1995 Andrzej Szczypiorski writer
1995 Jacques Tits mathematician
1995 Niklaus Wirth computer scientist
1996 Pina Bausch dancer and choreographer
1996 Peter von Matt Germanist
1996 Rudolf Ludwig Mößbauer physicist
1997 Eric R. Kandel neurobiologist
1997 Dani Karavan sculptor
1997 Jutta Lampe actor
1997 Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard biologist
1998 Hans Belting art historian
1998 Umberto Eco writer and semiotician
1998 Charles Weissmann molecular biologist
1999 Magdalena Abakanowicz sculptor
1999 Walter Burkert classicist
1999 Hans Magnus Enzensberger writer and poet
1999 Sofia Gubaidulina composer
1999 György Kurtág composer
1999 Robert Weinberg oncologist
1999 Rolf M. Zinkernagel immunologist
2000 Horst Albach business economist
2000 Paul B. Baltes psychologist and gerontologist
2000 Imre Kertész writer
2000 Günther Uecker painter and sculptor
2000 Anton Zeilinger physicist
2001 Günter Blobel cellular biologist
2001 Nikolaus Harnoncourt conductor and cellist
2002 Norman Foster architect
2002 Bronislaw Geremek historian and statesman
2002 Richard Serra artist
2003 Ralf Dahrendorf sociologist
2005 Wim Wenders film directory, author, and photographer
2006 Reinhard Selten economist
2006 James J. Sheehan historian
2006 Christian Tomuschat jurist
2007 Yuri Manin mathematician
2008 Durs Grünbein poet and writer
2008 Theodor W. Hänsch physicist
2008 Svante Pääbo geneticist and palaeontologist
2009 Lorraine Daston historian of science
2009 Josef van Ess scholar of Islam
2009 Rudolf Jaenisch molecular biologist
2010 Brigitte Fassbaender opera singer and director
2010 Anthony Thomas Grafton historian
2010 Barbara Klemm photographer
2010 Willem J. M. Levelt psycholinguist
2011 Hermann Parzinger prehistorian
2011 András Schiff musician
2011 Peter Stein theater, opera and film director
2011 Eric F. Wieschaus evolutionary biologist
2012 Caroline Walker Bynum medievalist
2012 Wolfgang Rihm composer

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