List of regents

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Gustaf Mannerheim as regent of Finland (sitting) and his adjutants (from the left) Lt.Col. Lilius, Cap. Kekoni, Lt. Gallen-Kallela, Ensign Rosenbröijer.

A regent is a person selected to act as head of state (ruling or not) because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated.[1] Currently there are only two ruling Regencies in the world, sovereign Liechtenstein and the Malaysian constitutive state of Terengganu (see below). The following is a list of regents.

Regents in various current monarchies[edit]

It should be noted that those who held a regency briefly, for example during surgery, are not necessarily listed, particularly if they performed no official acts; this list is also not complete, presumably not even for all monarchies included. The list includes some figures who acted as regent, even if they did not themselves hold the title of regent.

Belgium[edit]

Japan[edit]

Jordan[edit]

  • Prince Nayeff bin Abdullah from the 20 July to 5 September 1951, due to the schizophrenia of King Talal, who was in a Swiss mental hospital.
    • A regency council (Ibrahim Hashim, Suleiman Toukan, Abdul Rahman Rusheidat and chairing Queen-mother Zein al-Sharaf) took over after the king's forced abdication (on 11 August) and remained in office from 4 June 1952 to 2 May 1953, until King Hussein came of age.
  • Crown Prince Hassan, from 4 July 1998 to 19 January 1999 while his brother King Hussein was undergoing cancer treatments.

Liechtenstein[edit]

Luxembourg[edit]

Malaysia and its constitutive monarchies[edit]

Terengganu[edit]

  • Tengku Muhammad Ismail (eight-years of age) co-reigns with the three-member Regency Advisory Council (Majlis Penasihat Pemangku Raja). His father, Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin the Sultan of Terengganu was elected as 13th King of Malaysia. The Malaysian constitution does not allow a simultaneous reign as both the King of Malaysia and as Monarch of the King's native state (deemed absent on the State throne). Sultan Mizan was crowned as King on 13 December 2006 and the prince as the Regent (Pemangku Raja) of Terengganu effective on the same date.

Monaco[edit]

Morocco[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

Norway[edit]

Oman[edit]

Qatar[edit]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Spain[edit]

Sweden[edit]

Thailand[edit]

United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth Realms, and its predecessor realms[edit]

Main article: Regency Acts

The Kingdom of Great Britain[edit]

The Kingdom of England[edit]

The Kingdom of Scotland[edit]

Regents in various former Monarchies[edit]

The same notes apply; inclusion in this list reflects the political reality, regardless of claims to the throne.

Afghan monarchies[edit]

Before the 1881 unification, there were essentially four rulers' capitals: Kabul, Herat, Qandahar and Peshawar (the last now in Pakistan); all their rulers belonged to the Abdali tribal group, whose name was changed to Dorrani with Ahmad Shah Abdali. They belong either to the Saddozay segment of the Popalzay clan (typically styled padshah, king) or to the Mohammadzay segment of the Barakzay clan (typically with the style Amir, in full Amir al-Mo´menin "Leader of the Faithful"). The Mohammadzay also furnished the Saddozay kings frequently with top counselors, who served occasionally as (Minister-)regents, identified with the epithet Mohammadzay.

Brazil[edit]

Maria Leopoldina as Regent of the Kingdom of Brazil, 1822
The Oath of the Princess Imperial Isabel, as Regent of the Empire of Brazil, circa 1870.

Bulgaria[edit]

  • Stefan Stambolov, during the absence of Prince Alexander Battenberg from the Bulgarian throne between 28 August 1886 and 3 September 1886 and the vacancy of the throne between 7 September 1886 and 14 August 1887.
  • Prince Kyril of Preslav, during the minority of his late brother (Boris III)'s son, Simeon II (1943–1944).

China[edit]

Egypt[edit]

Ethiopia[edit]

Finland[edit]

After the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia, the throne of the Grand Duke of Finland was vacant and according to the constitution of 1772, a regent was installed by the Finnish Parliament during the first two years of Finnish independence, before the country was declared a republic.

France[edit]

Greece[edit]

German monarchies[edit]

Anhalt[edit]

Baden[edit]

Bavaria[edit]

Brunswick[edit]

Hanover[edit]

Hesse-Kassel[edit]

Lippe[edit]

Mecklenburg-Schwerin[edit]

Mecklenburg-Strelitz[edit]

Prussia[edit]

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha[edit]

Saxe-Meiningen[edit]

Saxe-Weimar[edit]

Waldeck[edit]

Hawaii[edit]

Main article: Kuhina Nui
  • Queen Kaʻahumanu, between 1824–1832 during the rule of the infant Kamehameha III; she was also Kuhina Nui (co-ruler), regent, of Kamehameha II
  • Elizabeth Kīnaʻu, between 5 June 1832–17 March 1833 after Kaʻahumanu's death and before Kamehameha III became 20 years old[2]

Hungary[edit]

Iceland[edit]

India[edit]

Vakataka Kingdom[edit]

Madurai[edit]

Travancore[edit]

Both before and during the British raj (colonial rule), most of India was ruled by several hundred native princely houses, many of which have known regencies, under the raj subject to British approval

Iraq[edit]

In the short-lived Hashemite kingdom, there were three regencies in the reign of the third and last king Faysal II (b. 1935 – d. 1958; also Head of the 'Arab Union', a federation with the Hashemite sister-kingdom Jordan, from 14 February 1958) :

  • 4 April 1939 – 1 April 1941 Abdul Ilah (1st time) (b. 1913 – d. 1958)
  • 1 April 1941 – 1 June 1941 Sharaf ibn Rajih al-Fawwaz (b. 1880 – d. 1955)
  • 1 June 1941 – 2 May 1953 Abdul Ilah (2nd time)

Italian former principalities[edit]

Parma[edit]

Savoy[edit]

Korea[edit]

Mongolia[edit]

Portugal[edit]

Romania[edit]

Russia[edit]

Serbia[edit]

Serbian regents abroad[edit]

Tibetan Empire[edit]

Yugoslavia[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary defines the term as "A person appointed to administer a State because the Monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated."
  2. ^ "Kuhina Nui 1819–1864". Centennial Exhibit. State of Hawaii Department of Accounting and General Services. Retrieved 3 October 2009.