List of republics

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This is a list of republics. For Antiquity (or later in the case of societies that did not refer to a Western terminology to qualify their form of government) the assessment of whether a state organisation is a republic is based on retrospective analysis by historians and political theorists. For more recent systems of government, worldwide organisations with a broad political acceptance (such as the United Nations), can provide information on whether or not a sovereign state is referred to as a republic.

List of republics by period[edit]

Antiquity[edit]

Middle Ages and Renaissance[edit]

Early modern[edit]

19th century[edit]

20th century[edit]

21st century and later[edit]

List of republics by type[edit]

In modern usage, a republican form of government is applied loosely to any state which claims this designation.[10] So for example the Dominican Republic under Rafael Trujillo is considered a republic, as is the Republic of Iraq under Saddam Hussein and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics under Joseph Stalin. The Kingdom of Sweden (which in 2006 ranked highest in the Economist's index of democracy) [11] is not a republic, but the Democratic People's Republic of North Korea (which ranks lowest in the same survey) is.

Unitary republics[edit]

Unitary republics are unitary states which are governed constitutionally as one single unit, with a single constitutionally created legislature.

Federal republics[edit]

Federal republics are federal states in which the administrative divisions (states or provinces) theoretically retain a degree of autonomy which is constitutionally protected, and cannot be revoked unilaterally by the national government.

Confederal republics[edit]

Confederal republics are associations of sovereign states, usually having power over critical common issues such as defense and foreign affairs:

Arab Republics[edit]

Islamic Republics[edit]

Republics governed in accordance with Islamic law:

Democratic Republics[edit]

These are republics that use the word "democratic" in their official name. Their actual political systems can vary considerably.

Socialist Republics[edit]

These are republics that use the word "socialist" in their official name.

People's Republics[edit]

People's republics were meant to be governed by the people, but the name is most often (but not always) used by communist states.

Former People's Republics:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jagdish P. Sharma, Republics in ancient India, c. 1500 B.C.– 500 B.C., Brill Publishers, 1968, p. 82.
  2. ^ Sharma (1968): p. 104: "[...] 7.707 was the number of the Licchavi Khattiyas, all calling themselves rājās, who formed the General Assembly. They normally met once a year for important and grave public business."
  3. ^ "Brief history of Novgorod". WayToRussia.Net. Retrieved 2007-12-26. 
  4. ^ a b Carrington, Dorothy, "The Corsican Constitution of Pasquale Paoli (1755-1769)," The English Historical Review, July 1973, pp 481-503
  5. ^ a b Van de Water, Frederic Franklyn (1974). The Reluctant Republic: Vermont 1724–1791. The Countryman Press. ISBN 0-914378-02-3. 
  6. ^ Comité de Salud Pública en Motril durante la Revolución Cantonalde 1873. Actas de Creación. Motril, 1989.
  7. ^ a b "Wee, Small Republics: A Few Examples of Popular Government," Hawaiian Gazette, Nov 1, 1895, p. 1.
  8. ^ Joseph Lee, Ireland, 1912–1985: Politics and Society, Cambridge University Press, 1989, p. 300.
  9. ^ Henry St. Amant Bradsher, Afghanistan and the Soviet Union, Duke University Press, 1983.
  10. ^ Republic, Oxford English Dictionary, SECOND EDITION 1989
  11. ^ Laza Kekic, The Economist Intelligence Units Index of democracy, The Economist: The World in 2007
  12. ^ Shapiro, Allan E. "Taking Space Seriously, Law, Space and Society in Contemporary Israel" 2004. <http://www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/rosen-zvi904.htm> (accessed May 19, 2008).
  13. ^ Quartermaine, Luisa (2000). Mussolini's last republic: propaganda and politics in the Italian Social Republic (R.S.I.) 1943-45. Intellect Books. p. 21ff. ISBN 9781902454085. 
  14. ^ Corpus Juris, 1897 Biac-na-Bato Constitution, December 27, 2008
  15. ^ Corpus Juris, 1935 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, December 27, 2008
  16. ^ Corpus Juris, 1943 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, December 27, 2008
  17. ^ Kirschbaum, Stanislav J. (1996). A History of Slovakia: The Struggle for Survival. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 201, and others. ISBN 9780312161255. 
  18. ^ "The Republic of Texas",'Handbook of Texas',http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/RR/mzr2.html
  19. ^ Is found in Article 1 of their Constitution
  20. ^ ___."The Formation of the Brazilian Republic in 1889." <http://faculty.fullerton.edu/nfitch/history110b/brarep.html> (accessed May 19, 2008).
  21. ^ "Mexico". The World Factbook. CIA. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  22. ^ "Nepal declared republican state - Gorkhapatra Sansthan - State Owned Newspaper". 
  23. ^ Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR approved the Law of the RSFSR #2094-I of December 25, 1991 "Name Change for the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic" // News of the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian SFSR and Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR. – 1992. – № 2. – Art. 62
  24. ^ Article 1 of the Russian Constitution
  25. ^ "United States". The World Factbook. CIA. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  26. ^ "Algeria". The World Factbook. CIA. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  27. ^ "Bangladesh". The World Factbook. CIA. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  28. ^ "China". The World Factbook. CIA. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  29. ^ "Laos". The World Factbook. CIA. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  30. ^ "Korea, North". The World Factbook. CIA. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Republics at Wikimedia Commons