List of restriction enzyme cutting sites: G–K

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Legend of nucleobases
Code Nucleotide represented
A Adenine (A)
C Cytosine (C)
G Guanine (G)
T Thymine (T)
N A, C, G or T
M A or C
R A or G
W A or T
Y C or T
S C or G
K G or T
H A, C or T
B C, G or T
V A, C or G
D A, G or T


This article contains a list of the most studied restriction enzymes whose names start with G to K inclusive. An approximated number of 90 enzymes has been included in the next tables.

The following information is given:

  • Enzyme: Accepted name of the molecule, according to the internationally adopted nomenclature[1][2], and bibliographical references. (Further reading: see the section "Nomenclature" in the article "Restriction enzyme".)
  • PDB code: Code used to identify the structure of a protein in the PDB database of protein structures. The 3D atomic structure of a protein provides highly valuable information to understand the intimate details of its mechanism of action[3][4].
  • Source: Organism that naturally produces the enzyme.
  • Recognition sequence: Sequence of DNA recognized by the enzyme and to which it specifically binds.
  • Cut: Cutting site and DNA products of the cut. The recognition sequence and the cutting site usually match, but sometimes the cutting site can be dozens of nucleotides away from the recognition site[5][6].
  • Isoschizomers and neoschizomers: An isoschizomer is an enzyme that recognizes the same sequence as another. A neoschizomer is a special type of isoschizomer that recognizes the same sequence as another, but cuts in a different manner. A maximum number of 8-10 most common isoschizomers are indicated for every enzyme but there may be many more. Neoschizomers are shown in bold and green color font (e.g.: BamHI). When "None on date" is indicated, that means that there were no registered isoschizomers in the databases on that date with a clearly defined cutting site. Isoschizomers indicated in white font and grey background correspond to enzymes not listed in the current lists:
as in this not listed enzyme:  EcoR70I 


Whole list navigation[edit]

Restriction enzymes[edit]

G[edit]

Enzyme PDB code Source Recognition sequence Cut Isoschizomers
GalI Gluconobacter albidus 5' CCGCGG
3' GGCGCC
5' ---CCGC   GG--- 3'
3' ---GG   CGCC--- 5'
GceI Gluconobacter cerinus 5' CCGCGG
3' GGCGCC
5' ---CCGC   GG--- 3'
3' ---GG   CGCC--- 5'
GceGLI Gluconobacter cerinus 5' CCGCGG
3' GGCGCC
5' ---CCGC   GG--- 3'
3' ---GG   CGCC--- 5'
GdiI Gluconobacter dioxyacetonicus 5' AGGCCT
3' TCCGGA
5' ---AGG   CCT--- 3'
3' ---TCC   GGA--- 5'
AatI, AspMI, Eco147I, PceI, SarI, Sru30DI, SseBI, SteI, StuI
GdiII Gluconobacter dioxyacetonicus 5' CGGCCR
3' GCCGGY
5' ---C   GGCCR--- 3'
3' ---GCCGG   Y--- 5'
GstI Geobacillus stearothermophilus 5' GGATCC
3' CCTAGG
5' ---G   GATCC--- 3'
3' ---CCTAG   G--- 5'
GsuI Gluconobacter suboxydans H-15T 5' CTGGAG
3' GACCTC
5' ---CTGGAGN12NNNN   --- 3'
3' ---GACCTCN12NN   NN--- 5'

H[edit]

Enzyme PDB code Source Recognition sequence Cut Isoschizomers
HacI Halococcus acetoinfaciens 5' GATC
3' CTAG
5' ---   GATC--- 3'
3' ---CTAG   --- 5'
Bme12I, Bsp67I, BstENII, CcyI, FnuEI, MgoI, NphI, Sau3AI
HaeI Haemophilus aegyptius 5' WGGCCW
3' WCCGGW
5' ---WGG   CCW--- 3'
3' ---WCC   GGW--- 5'
HaeII Haemophilus aegypticus 5' RGCGCY
3' YCGCGR
5' ---RGCGC   Y--- 3'
3' ---Y   CGCGR--- 5'
AccB2I,  BfoI,  Bme142I,
Bsp143II, BstH2I, LpnI
HaeIII Haemophilus aegypticus 5' GGCC
3' CCGG
5' ---GG   CC--- 3'
3' ---CC   GG--- 5'
BsuRI
HaeIV Haemophilus aegyptius 5' GAYN5RTC
3' CTRN5YAG
5' ---GAYN5RTCN8NNNNNN   --- 3'
3' ---CTRN5YAGN8N   NNNNN--- 5'
HalI Hafnia alvei B6 5' GAATTC
3' CTTAAG
5' ---G   AATTC--- 3'
3' ---CTTAA   G--- 5'
HalII Hafnia alvei B6 5' CTGCAG
3' GACGTC
5' ---CTGCA   G--- 3'
3' ---G   ACGTC--- 5'
AjoI, AliAJI, Bsp63I, CfrA4I, CfuII, CstI, PstI, SflI, Srl5DI, Sst12I
HapII Haemophilus aphrophilus 5' CCGG
3' GGCC
5' ---C   CGG--- 3'
3' ---GGC   C--- 5'
HgaI [7] Haemophilus gallinarum 5' GACGC
3' CTGCG
5' ---GACGCN4N   NNNNN--- 3'
3' ---CTGCGN4NNNNNN   --- 5'
HgiI Herpetosiphon giganteus 3303 5' GRCGYC
3' CYGCRG
5' ---GR   CGYC--- 3'
3' ---CYGC   RG--- 5'
AcyI, AsuIII, BbiII, BstACI, HgiGI, HgiHII, Hin1I, PamII
HgiAI Herpetosiphon giganteus HP1023 5' GWGCWC
3' CWCGWG
5' ---GWGCW   C--- 3'
3' ---C   WCGWG--- 5'
Alw21I, AspHI, Bsh45I, BsiHKAI,
 Bsm6I, HpyF46II,  MspV281I
HgiBI Herpetosiphon giganteus Hpg5 5' GGWCC
3' CCWGG
5' ---G   GWCC--- 3'
3' ---CCWG   G--- 5'
Bme18I, BthAI, DsaIV, ErpI, FspMSI, HgiEI, Psp03I, VpaK11AI
HgiCI Herpetosiphon giganteus Hpg9 5' GGYRCC
3' CCRYGG
5' ---G   GYRCC--- 3'
3' ---CCRYG   G--- 5'
AccB1I, BanI, BspT107I, BshNI, Eco64I, HgiHI, MspB4I, PfaAI
HgiCII Herpetosiphon giganteus Hpg9 5' GGWCC
3' CCWGG
5' ---G   GWCC--- 3'
3' ---CCWG   G--- 5'
Bme18I, BthAI, DsaIV, FspMSI, HgiHIII, Psp03I, VpaK11AI
HgiCIII Herpetosiphon giganteus Hpg9 5' GTCGAC
3' CAGCTG
5' ---G   TCGAC--- 3'
3' ---CAGCT   G--- 5'
HgiDI Herpetosiphon giganteus Hpa2 5' GRCGYC
3' CYGCRG
5' ---GR   CGYC--- 3'
3' ---CYGC   RG--- 5'
AcyI, AsuIII, BbiII, BstACI, HgiGI, HgiI, Hin1I, PamII
HgiDII Herpetosiphon giganteus Hpa2 5' GTCGAC
3' CAGCTG
5' ---G   TCGAC--- 3'
3' ---CAGCT   G--- 5'
HgiEI Herpetosiphon giganteus Hpg24 5' GGWCC
3' CCWGG
5' ---G   GWCC--- 3'
3' ---CCWG   G--- 5'
Bme216I, BthAI, DsaIV, ErpI, FspMSI, HgiHIII, VpaK11AI
HgiGI Herpetosiphon giganteus Hpa1 5' GRCGYC
3' CYGCRG
5' ---GR   CGYC--- 3'
3' ---CYGC   RG--- 5'
AcyI, AosII, BbiII, BstACI, HgiI, HgiGI, Msp17I, PamII
HgiHI Herpetosiphon giganteus HP1049 5' GGYRCC
3' CCRYGG
5' ---G   GYRCC--- 3'
3' ---CCRYG   G--- 5'
AccB1I, BanI, BspT107I, BshNI, Eco64I, HgiCI, MspB4I, PfaAI
HgiHII Herpetosiphon giganteus HP1049 5' GRCGYC
3' CYGCRG
5' ---GR   CGYC--- 3'
3' ---CYGC   RG--- 5'
AosII, AsuIII, BsaHI, BstACI, HgiGI, HgiHII, Msp17I, PamII
HgiHIII Herpetosiphon giganteus HP1049 5' GGWCC
3' CCWGG
5' ---G   GWCC--- 3'
3' ---CCWG   G--- 5'
Bme216I, DsaIV, ErpI, HgiBI, Psp03I, VpaK11AI, VpaK11BI
HgiJI Herpetosiphon giganteus HFS101 5' GGWCC
3' CCWGG
5' ---G   GWCC--- 3'
3' ---CCWG   G--- 5'
Bme216I, CauI, DsaIV, FdiI, HgiBI, HgiHIII, Psp03I, VpaK11AI
HgiJII Herpetosiphon giganteus HFS101 5' GRGCYC
3' CYCGRG
5' ---GRGCY   C--- 3'
3' ---C   YCGRG--- 5'
HgiS22I Herpetosiphon giganteus 5' CCSGG
3' GGSCC
5' ---CC   SGG--- 3'
3' ---GGS   CC--- 5'
AhaI, AseII, AsuC2I, BcnI, CauII, Eco1831I, EcoHI, Kpn49kII
HhaI Haemophilus haemolyticus 5' GCGC
3' CGCG
5' ---GCG   C--- 3'
3' ---C   GCG--- 5'
AspLEI, BspLAI, BstHHI, CfoI, FnuDIII, Hin6I, HinP1I, SciNI
HhaII Haemophilus haemolyticus 5' GANTC
3' CTNAG
5' ---G   ANTC--- 3'
3' ---CTNA   G--- 5'
Hin1I Haemophilus influenzae RFL1 5' GRCGYC
3' CYGCRG
5' ---GR   CGYC--- 3'
3' ---CYGC   RG--- 5'
AcyI, AhaII, AosII, AstWI, AsuIII, HgiI, HgiDI, HgiDI, Hsp92I
Hin1II Haemophilus influenzae RFL1 5' CATG
3' GTAC
5' ---CATG   --- 3'
3' ---   GTAC--- 5'
Hin2I Haemophilus influenzae RFL2 5' CCGG
3' GGCC
5' ---C   CGG--- 3'
3' ---GGC   C--- 5'
Hin4I Haemophilus influenzae RFL4 5' GAYN5VTC
3' CTRN5BAG
5' ---GAYN5VTCN7NNNNNN   --- 3'
3' ---CTRN5BAGN7N   NNNNN--- 5'
Hin6I Haemophilus influenzae RFL6 5' GCGC
3' CGCG
5' ---G   CGC--- 3'
3' ---CGC   G--- 5'
AspLEI, BspLAI, BstHHI, CfoI, FnuDIII, HhaI, HsoI, HspAI, SciNI
HinJCI Haemophilus influenzae JC9 5' GTYRAC
3' CARYTG
5' ---GTY   RAC--- 3'
3' ---CAR   YTG--- 5'
HinP1I 2FL3 Search PDBe Haemophilus influenzae P1 5' GCGC
3' CGCG
5' ---G   CGC--- 3'
3' ---CGC   G--- 5'
BspLAI, BstHHI, CfoI, FnuDIII, HhaI, Hin6I, HsoI, HspAI, SciNI
HincII 2AUD Search PDBe Haemophilus influenzae Rc 5' GTYRAC
3' CARYTG
5' ---GTY   RAC--- 3'
3' ---CAR   YTG--- 5'
HindII Haemophilus influenzae Rd 5' GTYRAC
3' CARYTG
5' ---GTY   RAC--- 3'
3' ---CAR   YTG--- 5'
HindIII 2E52, Search PDBe Haemophilus influenzae Rd 5' AAGCTT
3' TTCGAA
5' ---A   AGCTT--- 3'
3' ---TTCGA   A--- 5'
HinfI Haemophilus influenzae Rf 5' GANTC
3' CTNAG
5' ---G   ANTC--- 3'
3' ---CTNA   G--- 5'
HjaI Hyphomonas jannaschiana 5' GATATC
3' CTATAG
5' ---GAT   ATC--- 3'
3' ---CTA   TAG--- 5'
HpaI Haemophilus parainfluenzae 5' GTTAAC
3' CAATTG
5' ---GTT   AAC--- 3'
3' ---CAA   TTG--- 5'
HpaII Haemophilus parainfluenzae 5' CCGG
3' GGCC
5' ---C   CGG--- 3'
3' ---GGC   C--- 5'
HphI Haemophilus parahaemolyticus 5' GGTGA
3' CCACT
5' ---GGTGAN6NN   --- 3'
3' ---CCACTN6N   N--- 5'
AsuHPI, SspD5I
Hpy8I Helicobacter pylori A 8-5 5' GTNNAC
3' CANNTG
5' ---GTN   NAC--- 3'
3' ---CAN   NTG--- 5'
Hpy51I Helicobacter pylori 51 5' GTSAC
3' CASTG
5' ---   GTSAC--- 3'
3' ---CASTG   --- 5'
Hpy99I 3GOX Helicobacter pylori J99 5' CGWCG
3' GCWGC
5' ---CGWCG   --- 3'
3' ---   GCWGC--- 5'
Hpy178III Helicobacter pylori J178 5' TCNNGA
3' AGNNCT
5' ---TC   NNGA--- 3'
3' ---AGNN   CT--- 5'
Hpy188I Helicobacter pylori J188 5' TCNGA
3' AGNCT
5' ---TCN   GA--- 3'
3' ---AG   NCT--- 5'
Hpy188III Helicobacter pylori J188 5' TCNNGA
3' AGNNCT
5' ---TC   NNGA--- 3'
3' ---AGNN   CT--- 5'
HpyAV Helicobacter pylori 26695 5' CCTTC
3' GGAAG
5' ---CCTTCN4NN   --- 3'
3' ---GGAAGN4N   N--- 5'
HpyBI Helicobacter pylori Roberts 5' GTAC
3' CATG
5' ---GT   AC--- 3'
3' ---CA   TG--- 5'
AfaI, Csp6I, CviQI, CviRII, PabI, PlaAII, RsaI, RsaNI
HpyBII Helicobacter pylori Roberts 5' GTNNAC
3' CANNTG
5' ---GTN   NAC--- 3'
3' ---CAN   NTG--- 5'
HpyCI Helicobacter pylori 5' GATATC
3' CTATAG
5' ---GAT   ATC--- 3'
3' ---CTA   TAG--- 5'
HpyC1I Helicobacter pylori 5' CCATC
3' GGTAG
5' ---CCATCNNNN   N--- 3'
3' ---GGTAGNNNNN   --- 5'
HpyCH4I Helicobacter pylori CH4 5' CATG
3' GTAC
5' ---CATG   --- 3'
3' ---   GTAC--- 5'
HpyCH4III Helicobacter pylori CH4 5' ACNGT
3' TGNCA
5' ---ACN   GT--- 3'
3' ---TG   NCA--- 5'
HpyCH4IV Helicobacter pylori CH4 5' ACGT
3' TGCA
5' ---A   CGT--- 3'
3' ---TGC   A--- 5'
HpyCH4V Helicobacter pylori CH4 5' TGCA
3' ACGT
5' ---TG   CA--- 3'
3' ---AC   GT--- 5'
HpyF10VI Helicobacter pylori RFL10 5' GCN7GC
3' CGN7CG
5' ---GCNNNNN   NNGC--- 3'
3' ---CGNN   NNNNNCG--- 5'
HpyF44III Helicobacter pylori RFL44 5' TGCA
3' ACGT
5' ---TG   CA--- 3'
3' ---AC   GT--- 5'
HsoI Haemophilus somnus 2336 5' GCGC
3' CGCG
5' ---G   CGC--- 3'
3' ---CGC   G--- 5'
AspLEI, BstHHI, CfoI, FnuDIII, Hin6I, HinP1I, HspAI, SciNI
Hsp92I Haemophilus sp. 92 5' GRCGYC
3' CYGCRG
5' ---GR   CGYC--- 3'
3' ---CYGC   RG--- 5'
AcyI, AhaII, AosII, AstWI, HgiI, HgiDI, HgiHII, Hin1I, Hsp92I
Hsp92II Haemophilus sp. 92 5' CATG
3' GTAC
5' ---CATG   --- 3'
3' ---   GTAC--- 5'
HspAI Haemophilus sp. A 5' GCGC
3' CGCG
5' ---G   CGC--- 3'
3' ---CGC   G--- 5'
AspLEI, BspLAI, BstHHI, FnuDIII, HhaI, Hin6I, HinP1I, HsoI, SciNI
HsuI Haemophilus suis 5' AAGCTT
3' TTCGAA
5' ---A   AGCTT--- 3'
3' ---TTCGA   A--- 5'

I[edit]

Enzyme PDB code Source Recognition sequence Cut Isoschizomers
ItaI Ilyobcater tartaricus 5' GCNGC
3' CGNCG
5' ---GC   NGC--- 3'
3' ---CGN   CG--- 5'

K[edit]

Enzyme PDB code Source Recognition sequence Cut Isoschizomers
KasI Kluyvera ascorbata 5' GGCGCC
3' CCGCGG
5' ---G   GCGCC--- 3'
3' ---CCGCG   G--- 5'
Kaz48kI Klebsiella azeanae 5' RGGNCCY
3' YCCNGGR
5' ---RGGNC   CY--- 3'
3' ---YC   CNGGR--- 5'
KoxII Klebsiella oxytoca 5' GRGCYC
3' CYCGRG
5' ---GRGCY   C--- 3'
3' ---C   YCGRG--- 5'
KpnI [8] Klebsiella pneumoniae OK8 5' GGTACC
3' CCATGG
5' ---GGTAC   C--- 3'
3' ---C   CATGG--- 5'
Acc65I, AhaB8I, Asp718I, SthI
Kpn2I Klebsiella pneumoniae RFL2 5' TCCGGA
3' AGGCCT
5' ---T   CCGGA--- 3'
3' ---AGGCC   T--- 5'
Aor13HI, BbvAIII, BseAI, BsiMI, BspEI, BspMII, CauB3I, MroI
Kpn378I Klebsiella pneumoniae 378 5' CCGCGG
3' GGCGCC
5' ---CCGC   GG--- 3'
3' ---GG   CGCC--- 5'
Kpn2kI Klebsiella pneumoniae 2k 5' CCNGG
3' GGNCC
5' ---   CCNGG--- 3'
3' ---GGNCC   --- 5'
Kpn49kI Klebsiella pneumoniae 49k 5' GAATTC
3' CTTAAG
5' ---G   AATTC--- 3'
3' ---CTTAA   G--- 5'
Kpn49kII Klebsiella pneumoniae 49k 5' CCSGG
3' GGSCC
5' ---   CCSGG--- 3'
3' ---GGSCC   --- 5'
AhaI, AsuC2I, BcnI, CauII, EcoHI, HgiS22I, Mgl14481I, NciI,
KspI Kluyvera sp. 5' CCGCGG
3' GGCGCC
5' ---CCGC   GG--- 3'
3' ---GG   CGCC--- 5'
Ksp22I Kurthia sp. 22 5' TGATCA
3' ACTAGT
5' ---T   GATCA--- 3'
3' ---ACTAG   T--- 5'
AbaI, BclI, BsiQI,
BspXII, BstT7I, FbaI,  ParI 
Ksp632I Kluyvera sp. 632 5' CTCTTC
3' GAGAAG
5' ---CTCTTCN   NNN--- 3'
3' ---GAGAAGNNNN   --- 5'
KspAI Kurthia sp. N88 5' GTTAAC
3' CAATTG
5' ---GTT   AAC--- 3'
3' ---CAA   TTG--- 5'
Kzo9I Kurthia zopfii 9 5' GATC
3' CTAG
5' ---   GATC--- 3'
3' ---CTAG   --- 5'
Bce243I, Bsp105I, BspFI, BstMBI, CpfI, LlaAI, NdeII, Sth368I
Kzo49I Kurthia zopfii 49 5' GGWCC
3' CCWGG
5' ---G   GWCC--- 3'
3' ---CCWG   G--- 5'
Bme216I, CauI, DsaIV, FdiI, HgiBI, HgiHIII, Psp03I, VpaK11AI

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Smith HO, Nathans D (December 1973). "Letter: A suggested nomenclature for bacterial host modification and restriction systems and their enzymes". J. Mol. Biol. 81 (3): 419–23. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(73)90152-6. PMID 4588280. 
  2. ^ Roberts RJ, Belfort M, Bestor T, Bhagwat AS, Bickle TA, Bitinaite J, Blumenthal RM, Degtyarev SKh, Dryden DT, Dybvig K, Firman K, Gromova ES, Gumport RI, Halford SE, Hattman S, Heitman J, Hornby DP, Janulaitis A, Jeltsch A, Josephsen J, Kiss A, Klaenhammer TR, Kobayashi I, Kong H, Krüger DH, Lacks S, Marinus MG, Miyahara M, Morgan RD, Murray NE, Nagaraja V, Piekarowicz A, Pingoud A, Raleigh E, Rao DN, Reich N, Repin VE, Selker EU, Shaw PC, Stein DC, Stoddard BL, Szybalski W, Trautner TA, Van Etten JL, Vitor JM, Wilson GG, Xu SY (April 2003). "A nomenclature for restriction enzymes, DNA methyltransferases, homing endonucleases and their genes". Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (7): 1805–12. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg274. PMC 152790. PMID 12654995. 
  3. ^ Jeremy M. Berg, John L. Tymoczko, Lubert Stryer; Web content by Neil D. Clarke (2002). "3. Protein Structure and Function". Biochemistry. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-4684-0. 
  4. ^ Anfinsen C.B. (1973). "Principles that Govern the Folding of Protein Chains". Science 181 (4096): 223–30. doi:10.1126/science.181.4096.223. PMID 4124164. 
  5. ^ Kessler C, Manta V (August 1990). "Specificity of restriction endonucleases and DNA modification methyltransferases a review (Edition 3)". Gene 92 (1-2): 1–248. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(90)90486-B. PMID 2172084. 
  6. ^ Pingoud A, Jeltsch A (September 2001). "Structure and function of type II restriction endonucleases". Nucleic Acids Res. 29 (18): 3705–27. doi:10.1093/nar/29.18.3705. PMC 55916. PMID 11557805. 
  7. ^ R.J Roberts, 1988, Nucl Acids Res. 16(suppl):271 From p.213 Molecular Cell Biology 4th Edition by Lodish, Berk, Zipursky, Matsudaira, Baltimore and Darnell.
  8. ^ Monty Krieger; Matthew P Scott; Matsudaira, Paul T.; Lodish, Harvey F.; Darnell, James E.; Lawrence Zipursky; Kaiser, Chris; Arnold Berk (2004). Molecular Cell Biology (5th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-4366-3.