List of rogue waves

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The Draupner wave, a single giant wave measured on New Year's Day 1995, finally confirmed the existence of freak waves, which had previously been considered near-mythical.

This list of rogue waves compiles incidents of known and likely rogue waves – also known as freak waves, monster waves, killer waves, and extreme waves. These are relatively large and spontaneous ocean surface waves that occur in deep water, usually far out at sea, and are a threat even to large ships and ocean liners.

Background[edit]

Anecdotal evidence from mariners' testimonies and damages inflicted on ships have long suggested rogue waves occurred; however, their scientific measurement was only positively confirmed following measurements of the "Draupner wave", a rogue wave at the Draupner platform, in the North Sea on January 1, 1995. During this event, minor damage was inflicted on the platform, confirming that the reading was valid.

In modern oceanography, rogue waves are defined not as the biggest possible waves at sea, but instead as extreme sized waves for a given sea state.

It should be noted that many of these encounters are only reported in the media, and are not examples of open ocean rogue waves. Often a huge wave is loosely denoted as a rogue wave, when it is not. Claims in the media are also commonly sensationalized.[citation needed]

Freak waves have been cited in the media as a likely source of the sudden, inexplicable disappearance of many ocean-going vessels. However, although this is a credible explanation for unexplained losses, there is to date little clear evidence supporting this hypothesis nor any cases where the cause has been confirmed, and the claim is contradicted by information held by Lloyd's Register.[1][2] One of the very few cases in which evidence exists that may indicate a freak wave incident is the 1978 loss of the freighter München.

Known or suspected rogue wave incidents[edit]

Before 1950[edit]

  • On 11 March 1861 at midday the lighthouse on Eagle Island,[3] off the west coast of Ireland was struck by a large wave that smashed 23 panes, washing some of the lamps down the stairs, and damaging beyond repair the reflectors with broken glass. In order to damage the uppermost portion of the lighthouse, water would have had to surmount a seaside cliff measuring 40 m (133 ft) and a further 26 m (87 ft) of lighthouse structure.
  • On 15 December 1900, three lighthouse keepers mysteriously disappeared from the Flannan Isles Lighthouse in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland during a storm. Although there were no surviving witnesses, a rogue wave that hit the west side of the island has been hypothesized to be responsible.
  • On 10 October 1903, the British passenger liner RMS Etruria was only four hours out of New York City when, at 2:30 p.m., a freak wave struck her. The wave was reported to be at least 50 feet (15 m) high and struck the ship on the port side. The wave carried away part of the fore bridge and smashed the guardrail stanchions. There were a number of first-class passengers sitting in deck chairs close to the bridge and they caught the full force of the water. One passenger was fatally injured and several other passengers were hurt.
  • The Blue Anchor Line luxury steamer SS Waratah, an Australian ship of 16,000 gross tons, disappeared without trace south of Durban, South Africa, in July 1909 with 211 passengers and crew aboard. No survivors and no wreckage of any kind was found. The most plausible theory for her disappearance is that she encountered a rogue wave which either caused her to capsize or flooded her cargo holds, sinking her almost instantly.
  • On 7 November 1915 at 2:27 a.m., the British battleship HMS Albemarle suffered severe damage during a storm in the Pentland Firth when two large waves struck her in rapid succession. Water rose as high as the bottom of her lower foretop, filling it with water, sweeping her forward deck clear, smashing her forebridge – much of which was found in pieces on her upper deck – wrecking her chart house, shifting the roof of her conning tower, and flooding her forward main gun turret, mess decks, and flats. Five of her crew died, and 17 others suffered serious injuries.[4][5][6]
  • At midnight on 5–6 May 1916 the British polar explorer Ernest Shackleton was at the tiller of the small sailboat James Caird in the Southern Ocean during a storm when he thought he saw the bad weather clearing ahead. He then realized that what he thought was a line of white clouds above a clear dark sky ahead was actually the crest of a single enormous wave that struck and nearly swamped the boat. Shackleton reported that the wave was larger than any he had ever seen before in his 26 years of seafaring.[7][3][8]
  • On 29 August 1916 at about 4:40 p.m., the United States Navy armored cruiser USS Memphis was wrecked in Santo Domingo harbor in the Dominican Republic when struck in rapid succession by three waves of up to 70 feet (21 meters) in height, losing 40 men killed and 204 injured. The waves also damaged and nearly capsized the U.S. Navy gunboat USS Castine, which also was in the harbor. Once described as a tsunami, the waves have more recently been assessed as exceptionally large, freak wind-driven waves generated by passing hurricanes.[9][10][11]
  • In February 1926 in the North Atlantic a massive wave hit the British passenger liner RMS Olympic, smashing four of the bridge's nine glass windows and doing some other damage.[12]
  • In 1933 in the North Pacific, the U.S. Navy oiler USS Ramapo (AO-12) encountered a huge wave. The crew triangulated its height at 112 feet (34 m).[13]
  • In 1934 in the North Atlantic an enormous wave smashed over the bridge of the British passenger liner RMS Majestic, injuring the first officer and the White Star Line's final commodore, Edgar J. Trant, who was hospitalised for a month and never sailed again.[12][14]
  • In 1942 while operating as a troopship and carrying 16,082 United States Army troops, the British passenger liner RMS Queen Mary was broadsided during a gale by a 92-foot (28 m) wave 608 nautical miles (700 mi; 1,126 km) from Scotland and nearly capsized. Queen Mary listed briefly about 52 degrees before slowly righting herself.

Second half of the 20th century[edit]

  • In December 1951 as SS Flying Enterprise, a 6,711 ton ship, en route from England to the United States, she encountered a severe North Atlantic storm, suffered hull cracks and took on a heavy list to port. For nearly two weeks thereafter, Flying Enterprise's Master, Captain Henrik Kurt Carlsen, remained aboard his ship as efforts were made to tow her to port. He was finally forced to abandon her when the list increased to a fatal degree on 10 January 1952, only about 40 miles away from Falmouth, England. The ordeal of the Flying Enterprise and Captain Carlsen was worldwide news at the time and remains one of the great stories of endurance and courage at sea.[15][16]
  • In 1966, the Italian liner Michelangelo was steaming toward New York City when a giant wave tore a hole in its superstructure, smashed heavy glass 80 feet (24 m) above the waterline, and killed a crewman and two passengers.[13]
  • The Wilstar, a Norwegian tanker, suffered structural damage from a rogue wave in 1974.[13]
  • SS Edmund Fitzgerald was a lake freighter that sank suddenly during a gale storm on November 10, 1975, while on Lake Superior, on the Canada–United States border. The ship went down without a distress signal in Canadian waters about 15 nautical miles (17 mi; 28 km) from the entrance to Whitefish Bay (at 46°59.9′N 85°6.6′W / 46.9983°N 85.1100°W / 46.9983; -85.1100). At the location of the wreck the water is 530 feet (160 m) deep. All 29 members of the crew perished. A Coast Guard report blamed water entry to the hatches, which gradually filled the hold, or alternatively errors in navigation or charting causing damage from running onto shoals. However, another nearby ship, the SS Arthur M. Anderson, was hit at a similar time by two rogue waves, and this appeared to coincide with the sinking around ten minutes later — or at least contributed to the sinking if the Edmund Fitzgerald was already in trouble as suggested. A Discovery Channel reconstruction pointed towards freak waves as the cause.[citation needed]
  • In October 1977, the tanker MS Stolt Surf ran into a rogue wave on a voyage across the Pacific from Singapore to Portland, and the engineer took photos of a wave higher than the 72-foot (22 m) bridge deck.[17]
  • The six-year-old, 37,134-ton barge carrier MS München was lost at sea in 1978. At 3 a.m. on 12 December 1978 she sent out a garbled mayday message from the mid-Atlantic, but rescuers found only "a few bits of wreckage." This included an unlaunched lifeboat, stowed 66 feet (20 m) above the water line, which had one of its attachment pins "twisted as though hit by an extreme force." The Maritime Court concluded that "bad weather had caused an unusual event." It is thought that a large wave knocked out the ship's controls (the bridge was sited forward), causing the ship to shift side-on to heavy seas, which eventually overwhelmed it. Although more than one wave was probably involved, this remains the most likely sinking due to a freak wave.[18]
  • The MV Derbyshire, which sank with all hands off Japan in 1980, is the largest British vessel ever lost at sea. Some now believe it to have been sunk by a rogue wave.[citation needed]
  • The Ocean Ranger (North Atlantic, 1981), a semi-submersible mobile offshore drilling unit sank with all hands in storm seas of 55 feet (17 m) to 65 feet (20 m) after a wave higher than 28 feet (8.5m) flooded the platform's ballast control room, although there has been no official suggestion that it was caused by a rogue wave.[citation needed]
  • On July 3, 1992, a 27-mile- (43.5-kilometer-) long rogue wave hit the Volusia County beaches in Florida. The wave's range was from Ormond Beach in the north to New Smyrna Beach on the south. The crest was 18 feet (5.5 meters) high and centered at Daytona Beach. Sailboats crashed ashore onto cars and many people suffered cuts and bruises from glass and debris. Two people required hospitalization and 200 vehicles were damaged. Seventy-five injuries were reported. The prevailing theory is that an underwater landslide caused the rogue wave, making this wave into a type of tsunami, although others have theorized that it was a wind-driven rogue wave resulting from a squall line.[19][20]
  • Draupner wave (North Sea, 1995): The freak wave first confirmed with scientific evidence, it had a maximum height of 25.6 metres (84 ft).[citation needed]
  • RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (North Atlantic, September 1995), 29 metres (95 ft), during Hurricane Luis in the North Atlantic.
The Master said it "came out of the darkness" and "looked like the White Cliffs of Dover." [21] Newspaper reports at the time described the cruise liner as attempting to "surf" the near-vertical wave in order not to be sunk.
  • In February 2000, a British oceanographic research vessel, the RRS Discovery, sailing in the Rockall Trough west of Scotland encountered the largest waves ever recorded by scientific instruments in the open ocean, with a SWH of 18.5 metres (61 ft) and individual waves up to 29.1 metres (95 ft).[22]
  • On November 4, 2000, Channel Islands Sanctuary research vessel R/V Ballena was hit by a rogue wave and capsized near Point Conception in Santa Barbara, California. The ship was 56 feet (17 m) long, and the wave estimated at 20 feet (6.1 m) high. Although the two USGS crew members were trapped briefly inside the ship, they were rescued by the captain and all three managed to swim to shore. The Ballena, operated by NOAA at the time, was a total loss and later sank.[23][24]

21st century[edit]

  • The Bahamian-registered cruise ships MS Bremen and MS Caledonian Star encountered 30-meter (98 ft) freak waves in the South Atlantic in 2001. Bridge windows on both ships were smashed, and all power and instrumentation lost.
  • Naval Research Laboratory ocean-floor pressure sensors detected a freak wave caused by Hurricane Ivan in the Gulf of Mexico in 2004. The wave was around 27.7 meters (91 ft) high from peak to trough, and around 200 meters (660 ft) long.[25]
  • Norwegian Dawn, (three waves in succession, off the coast of Georgia, 16 April 2005)
    "The sea had actually calmed down when the 21-metre (69 ft) wave seemed to come out of thin air… Our captain, who has 20 years on the job, said he never saw anything like it."[26]
    "The water exerted enough force to shear off the welds for the aluminum rail supports on the [ninth and tenth level] balconies of two cabins, allowing the teak balcony rails to break loose and crash into the cabin windows. The broken glass filling the drains compounded the water damage by allowing a large amount of water to enter the two cabins and damage the carpets in 61 other cabins. The ship’s operating at reduced speed when the waves hit probably limited the damage."[27]
  • Aleutian Ballad, (Bering Sea, 2005)
    Footage of a rogue wave appears in an episode of Deadliest Catch from Season 2, Episode 4 "Finish Line" (Original airdate: April 28, 2006). While sailing through rough seas during a night time storm, a "freak wave", believed to be around 60 feet (18 meters) high, violently hits the fishing vessel's starbord side. The wave cripples the vessel, causing the boat to tip onto its side at a 30 degree angle. The boat manages to right itself; some of the crew suffer minor injuries. One of the few video recordings of (what might be) a rogue wave.[28]
  • Norwegian Spirit, (off the coast of Tortola, January 2006)
  • Brittany Ferries' MV Pont-Aven was struck by a wave estimated at between 40 feet (12 m) and 50 feet (15 m) in height during a Force 9 gale in the Bay of Biscay on 21 May 2006.
  • On February 1, 2007, Holland America's cruise ship MS Prinsendam was hit by two 12-meter (39 ft) tall rogue waves near Cape Horn. There were around 40 injuries, with some requiring hospitalization.[29]
  • 5 February 2008 The ferry Riverdance was struck and disabled by a rogue wave in the Irish Sea on its journey from Northern Ireland to Heysham in Lancashire.[30]
  • 14 April 2008, half a nautical mile off Kleinbaai, near Gansbaai, South Africa – freak wave hit tourists diving to see sharks. The shark diving boat capsized. Three tourists died, two were seriously injured and a number treated for shock. Multiple other shark boats witnessed the wave.[31][32][33][34][35][36]
  • 3 March 2010, off Marseille, the Cypriot liner Louis Majesty was hit by a 26-foot (8-meter) wave which killed two people on board. The height of the wave was reported to be abnormally high with respect to the sea state at the time of the incident.[37]
  • It has also been suggested that these types of waves may be responsible for the loss of several low-flying aircraft, namely U.S. Coast Guard helicopters on Search and Rescue missions.[38]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ The story that "200 large ships lost to freak waves in the past two decades" was published in The Times (May 2006). The earliest reference seems to be in the press release by the European Space Agency (cited at the page bottom), and first quoted as "200 large ships of 600ft long or more in the past two decades sunk without trace". At the time the claim was made, there had only been 142 ships of that size lost at sea in the time frame, all with clear, known causes (source: Lloyd's Register - Fairplay). The main culprits were the Iranian and Iraqi air forces in the 1980s (See: Iran-Iraq war).
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ oldweather.com Log entries of HMS Albemarle.
  5. ^ naval-history.net Royal Navy Logbooks of the World War I Era: HMS ALBEMARLE - March 1915 to November 1916, 3rd BS, Grand Fleet, damaged in gale Nov 1915, North Russia (icebreaker)
  6. ^ Jackson Papers, National Museum of the Royal Navy, Portsmouth, U.K. 255/4/31.
  7. ^ Carol Fowl. Unplanned epics - Bligh's and Shackleton's small-boat voyages, website of the National Maritime Museum, first published in the magazine Sailing Today, Issue 75, July 2003.
  8. ^ Excerpt: The Voyage of the James Caird by Ernest Shackleton
  9. ^ *Smith, Craig B. Extreme Waves. Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press, 2006. ISBN 0-309-10062-3, pp. 68-69
  10. ^ "The Loss of the USS Memphis on 29 August 1916 – Was a Tsunami Responsible? Analysis of a Naval Disaster" by Dr. George Pararas-Carayannis
  11. ^ heinonline.org 4 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 520 (1935-1936) Annotations of Opinions of the Attorney General of the United States
  12. ^ a b Chirnside, Mark (2004). The Olympic-Class Ships. Tempus Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7524-2868-3. 
  13. ^ a b c Rogue Giants at Sea, Broad, William J, New York Times, July 11, 2006
  14. ^ Daniel Othfors. "The Great Ocean Liners: Bismarck/Majestic (II)". 
  15. ^ Chirnside, Mark (1957). Rescue Tug: The Story of the Flying Enterprise and the Salvage Tug Turmoil. Dutton. p. 187. ASIN B0007E5OVY. 
  16. ^ Rogue Waves, History Channel
  17. ^ The Storm: Stolt Surf in the North Pacific, 1977, Petersen, Karsten, December 8, 2003; retrieved July 11, 2006.
  18. ^ Freak Wave, BBC.co.uk programme summary for Horizon episode aired on 14 November 2002
  19. ^ NOAA, Florida Weather History: Volusia County
  20. ^ The Daytona Beach Wave of July 3-4, 1992: A Shallow Water Gravity Wave Forced by a Propagating Squall Line, January 1995
  21. ^ Freak waves PDF (1.07 MiB), Beacon #185, Skuld, June 2005[dead link]
  22. ^ Holliday, NP, MJ Yelland, RW Pascal, VR Swail, PK Taylor, CR Griffiths, and EC Kent (2006). Were extreme waves in the Rockall Trough the largest ever recorded? Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, L05613
  23. ^ National Marine Sanctuaries News, 19 November 2001. Accessed January 23, 2008
  24. ^ Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Hero[dead link]. Accessed January 23, 2008
  25. ^ Hurricane Ivan prompts rogue wave rethink, The Register, 5 August 2005
  26. ^ Freak wave pummels cruise ship, Sydney Morning Herald, April 18, 2005
  27. ^ NTSB Marine Accident Brief: Heavy-weather damage to Bahamas-flag passenger vessel Norwegian Dawn, National Transportation Safety Board, April 16, 2005, reference NTSB/MAB-05/03
  28. ^ Deadliest Catch Season 2, Episode 4 "Finish Line" Original airdate: April 28, 2006; approx time into episode: 0:40:00 - 0:42:00. Edited footage viewable online at Discovery.com
  29. ^ Liu, Paul C. (2007). "A Chronology of Freaque Wave Encounters". Geofizika 24 (1): 57–70. Retrieved October 8, 2012. 
  30. ^ "Beached: Amazing picture of the ferry that ran aground in Blackpool". Daily Mail (London). 5 February 2008. 
  31. ^ Cape Times. April 14, 2008. p. 1. 
  32. ^ The Australian. April 15, 2008. p. 9. 
  33. ^ "Tourists die when shark-diving boat capsizes". Mail & Guardian Online. April 13, 2008. Retrieved July 22, 2011. 
  34. ^ "Three shark-diving tourists die". IOL. April 14, 2008. Retrieved July 22, 2011. 
  35. ^ Leila Samodien & Murray Williams (April 14, 2008). "Freak wave caused shark-boat tragedy". IOL. Retrieved July 22, 2011. 
  36. ^ Brian Indrelunas (April 15, 2008). "Shark-diving industry mourns deaths". IOL. Retrieved July 22, 2011. 
  37. ^ "Giant Rogue Wave Slams Into Ship Off French Coast, Killing 2". Fox News. 2010-03-03. 
  38. ^ Monster waves threaten rescue helicopters PDF (35.7 KiB), U.S. Naval Institute, December 15, 2006