List of rulers of Bengal

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This is a list of rulers of Bengal. For much of its history, Bengal was split up into several independent kingdoms, completely unifying only several times. In ancient times, Bengal consisted of the kingdoms of Pundra, Suhma, Anga, Vanga, Samatata and Harikela. Along with Bihar, parts of northwestern Bengal were also incorporated into the kingdom of Magadha.

Under the Mauryas, much of Bengal was conquered save for the far eastern Bengali kingdoms which continued to exist as tributary states before succumbing to the Guptas. With the fall of the Gupta Empire, Bengal was united under a single local ruler, Shashanka, for the first time. With the collapse of his kingdom, Bengal split up into petty kingdoms once more.

With the rise of Gopala, Bengal was united once more under the Pala Empire, Chandra dynasty, Sena dynasty and deva dynasty. After them, Bengal was ruled by the Muslim dynasties followed by the British. In 1947, Bengal was partitioned, making West Bengal part of India and the East Bengal part of Pakistan. East Bengal then became an independent country, Bangladesh, following the Bangladesh Liberation War.

Contents

Legendary kings of Magadha: Brihadratha Dynasty (c. 1700–799 BC)[edit]

Pradyota Dynasty (799–684 BC)[edit]

Shishunaga Dynasty (684–424 BC)[edit]

Nanda Dynasty (424–321 BC)[edit]

Maurya Dynasty (324–185 BC)[edit]

Mahameghavahana Dynasty (c. 250 BC–400 AD)[edit]

  • Mahamegha Vahana (?)
  • Kharavela (c.193–179 BC)
  • Vakadeva (or Vakradeva) (?)

Shunga Dynasty (185–73 BC)[edit]

Kanva Dynasty (73–43 BC)[edit]

Gupta Empire (c. AD 240–550 )[edit]

Gauda Kingdom[edit]

Khadga kingdom[edit]

Pala Empire[edit]

Based on their different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, the various historians estimate the Pala chronology as follows:[1]:32-37

RC Majumdar (1971)[2] AM Chowdhury (1967)[3] BP Sinha (1977)[4] DC Sircar (1975-76)[5]
Gopala I 750–770 756-781 755-783 750-775
Dharmapala 770-810 781-821 783-820 775-812
Devapala 810-c. 850 821-861 820-860 812-850
Mahendrapala NA (Mahendrapala's existence was conclusively established through a copper-plate charter discovered later.)
Shurapala I 850-853 861-866 860-865 850-858
Vigrahapala I 858-60
Narayanapala 854-908 866-920 865-920 860-917
Rajyapala 908-940 920-952 920-952 917-952
Gopala II 940-957 952-969 952-967 952-972
Vigrahapala II 960-c. 986 969-995 967-980 972-977
Mahipala I 988-c. 1036 995-1043 980-1035 977-1027
Nayapala 1038-1053 1043-1058 1035-1050 1027-1043
Vigrahapala III 1054-1072 1058-1075 1050-1076 1043-1070
Mahipala II 1072-1075 1075-1080 1076-1078/9 1070-1071
Shurapala 1075-1077 1080-1082 1071-1072
Ramapala 1077-1130 1082-1124 1078/9-1132 1072-1126
Kumarapala 1130-1125 1124-1129 1132-1136 1126-1128
Gopala III 1140-1144 1129-1143 1136-1144 1128-1143
Madanapala 1144-1162 1143-1162 1144-1161/62 1143-1161
Govindapala 1155-1159 NA 1162-1176 or 1158-1162 1161-1165
Palapala NA NA NA 1165-1199

Note:[1]

  • Earlier historians believed that Vigrahapala I and Shurapala I were the two names of the same person. Now, it is known that these two were cousins; they either ruled simultaneously (perhaps over different territories) or in rapid succession.
  • AM Chowdhury rejects Govindapala and his successor Palapala as the members of the imperial Pala dynasty.
  • According to BP Sinha, the Gaya inscription can be read as either the "14th year of Govindapala's reign" or "14th year after Govindapala's reign". Thus, two sets of dates are possible.

Chandra Dynasty[edit]

Sen Dynasty[edit]

Deva Dynasty[edit]

Khilji dynasty (1204-1227)[edit]

Main article: Khilji dynasty
Name Reign Notes
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji 1204–1206
Muhammad Shiran Khilji 1206–1208
Ghiyasuddin Iwaj Shah 1208–1210
Ali Mardan Khilji 1210–1212
Ghiyasuddin Iwaj Shah 1212–1227 second term as Husamuddin Iwaj Khilji

Governors of Bengal under Mamluk Sultanate (1227-1281)[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Nasiruddin Mahmud 1227–1229
Alauddin Daulat Shah Khalji 1229–1230[6]
Malik Balkha Khilji 1230–1231
Alauddin Jani 1232–1233
Saifuddin Aibak 1233–1236
Awor Khan Aibak 1236
Tughral Tughan Khan 1236–1246
Tughlaq Tamar Khan 1246–1247
Jalaluddin Masud Jani 1247–1251
Malik Ikhtiyaruddin Iuzbak 1251–1257
Ijjauddin Balban Iuzbaki 1257–1259
Tatar Khan 1259–1268
Sher Khan 1268–1272
Amin Khan 1272–1272
Tughral Tughan Khan 1272–1281 Second term as Mughisuddin Tughral

Balban dynasty (1281-1324)[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Nasiruddin Bughra Khan 1281 –1291 As governor of Lakhnauti in 1281–1287 and as independent Sultan in 1287–1291.
Rukunuddin Kaikaus 1291–1300 First Muslim ruler to conquer Satgaon kingdom. Divided Bengal into two parts – Bihar and Lakhnauti.
Shamsuddin Firoz Shah 1300–1322 First Muslim ruler to conquer Sonargaon region.
Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah 1322–1324 Lost independence of Bengal to Delhi Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.

Governors of Bengal under Tughlaq Sultanate (1324-1339)[edit]

Name Region Reign Notes
Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah Sonargaon 1324–1328
Bahram Khan Sonargaon 1328–1338
Qadar Khan Lakhnauti 1328–1336
Mukhlis Lakhnauti 1336–1339
Azam Khan Satgaon 1324–1328
Izzuddin Yahya Satgaon 1328–1339

Independent Sultans of Bengal during Tughlaq Sultanate (1338-1352)[edit]

Name Region Reign Notes
Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah Sonargaon 1338–1349
Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah Sonargaon 1349–1352
Ilyas Shah Satgaon 1339–1342
Alauddin Ali Shah Lakhnauti 1339–1342
Ilyas Shah Lakhnauti and Satgaon 1342–1352

Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1352-1414)[edit]

Main article: Ilyas Shahi dynasty
Name Reign Notes
Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah 1352–1358 Became the first sole ruler of whole Bengal comprising Sonargaon, Satgaon and Lakhnauti.
Sikandar Shah 1358–1390 Assassinated by his son and successor, Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah
Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah 1390–1411
Saifuddin Hamza Shah 1411–1412
Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah 1412–1414

House of Raja Ganesha (1414-1435)[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Raja Ganesha 1414–1415
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah 1415–1416 Son of Raja Ganesha and converted into Islam
Raja Ganesha 1416–1418 Second Phase
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah 1418–1433 Second Phase
Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah 1433–1435

Restored Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1435-1487)[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah 1435–1459
Rukunuddin Barbak Shah 1459–1474
Shamsuddin Yusuf Shah 1474–1481
Sikandar Shah II 1481
Jalaaluddin Fateh Shah 1481–1487

Habshi rule (1487-1494)[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Shahzada Barbak 1487
Saifuddin Firuz Shah 1487–1489
Mahmud Shah II 1489–1490
Shamsuddin Muzaffar Shah 1490–1494

Hussain Shahi dynasty (1494-1538)[edit]

Main article: Hussain Shahi dynasty
Name Reign Notes
Alauddin Hussain Shah 1494–1518
Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah 1518–1533
Alauddin Firuz Shah 1533
Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah 1533–1538

Governors of Bengal under Suri Empire (1532-1555)[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Sher Shah Suri 1532–1538 Defeated Mughals and became the ruler of Delhi in 1540.
Khidr Khan 1538–1541
Qazi Fazilat 1541–1545
Muhammad Khan Sur 1545–1554
Shahbaz Khan 1555

Muhammad Shah dynasty (1554-1564)[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Muhammad Khan Sur 1554–1555 Declared independence and styled himself as Shamsuddin Muhammad Shah
Khizr Khan Suri 1555–1561
Ghiyasuddin Jalal Shah 1561–1564
Ghiyasuddin Shah III

Karrani dynasty (1564-1576)[edit]

Main article: Karrani dynasty
Name Reign Notes
Taj Khan Karrani 1564–1566
Sulaiman Khan Karrani 1566–1572
Bayazid Khan Karrani 1572
Daud Khan Karrani 1572–1576

Mughal Subahdars of Bengal Subah (1565–1717)[edit]

During the reign of Akbar[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Munim Khan 1574–1575 Khan-i-Khanan
Hussain Quli Khan 1575–1578
Muzaffar Khan Turbati 1579–1580
Mirza Aziz Koka 1582–1583
Wazir Khan Tajik 1583-1583
Shahbaz Khan Kamboh 1583–1585
Sadiq Khan 1585–1586
Wazir Khan Tajik 1586–1587
Sa'id Khan 1587–1594
Raja Man Singh I 1597 – 1606[8]

During the reign of Jahangir[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Qutubuddin Koka Sep 2, 1606 – 1607 killed in a battle against Sher Afghan. (Local history of Burdwan, West Bengal, India says that Qutub-ud-din Kokah died in a battle against Ali Quli Istajlu alias Sher Afgan in 1610 AD. The tomb where both of them were burried is presently under the surveillance of Archeological Survey of India.)
Jahangir Quli Beg 1607–1608 In early life, a slave of Akbar's brother, Mirza Muhammad Hakim
Islam Khan Chishti 1608–1613 first governor to transfer the Bengal capital to Dhaka on April 1612
Qasim Khan Chishti 1613–1617 younger brother of Islam Khan Chishti
Ibrahim Khan Fath-i-Jang 1617–1624 died in an attack by Prince Shahjahan
Mahabat Khan 1625–1626
Mukarram Khan 1626–1627
Fidai Khan 1627–1628

During the reign of Shah Jahan[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Qasim Khan Juvayni 1628–1632
Mir Muhammad Baqir 1632–1635 Known as Azam Khan
Mir Abdus Salam 1635–1639 Known as Islam Khan Mashadi
Prince Shah Shuja 1639–1647 again 1652–1660

During the reign of Aurangzeb[edit]

Azim-us-Shan (r. 1697–1712) receiving the investiture of Khizr
Name Reign Notes
Mir Jumla II 1660–1663
Shaista Khan 1664–1678
Azam Khan Koka 1678-1678 Known as Fidai Khan II
Prince Muhammad Azam 20 July 1678 – 6 October 1679[6]
Shaista Khan 1680–1688
Ibrahim Khan II 1689–1697
Prince Azim-us-Shan 1697–1712

Post Aurangzeb Subahdars[edit]

Name Reign Notes
Khan-i-Alam 1712–1713
Farrukh Siyar 1713–1717
Murshid Quli Khan 1717–1727

The Nawabs of Bengal[edit]

Portrait Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Nasiri Dynasty
Murshid Quli Jafar Khan.jpg Ala ud-Daulah Murshid Quli Jafar Khan 1665 1717– 1727 30 June 1727
Sarfaraz Khan.jpg Mirza Asadullah Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur ? 1727-1727 April 1740
Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan.jpg Shuja ud-Daula Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan 1670 July 1727 – 26 August 1739 26 August 1739
Sarfaraz Khan.jpg Mirza Asadullah Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur ? 13 March 1739 – April 1740 April 1740
Afshar Dynasty
Allavardi Xán.jpg Husam ud-Daula Muhammad Alivardi Khan Bahadur 10 May 1671 29 April 1740 – 16 April 1756 16 April 1756
Siraj ud-Daulah.jpg Siraj ud-Daulah Mîrzâ Muhammad Sirâj-ud-Daulah 1733 April 1756 – 2 June 1757 2 July 1757
Najafi Dynasty
Mir Jafar (left) and Mir Miran (right).jpg Ja'afar 'Ali Khan Bahadur Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan 1691 June 1757 – October 1760 17 January 1765
Nawab Mir Qasim.jpg Itimad ud-Daulah Mir Kasim Ali Khan Bahadur ? 1760–1763 1764
Mir Jafar (left) and Mir Miran (right).jpg Ja'afar 'Ali Khan Bahadur Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan 1691 25 July 1763 – 17 January 1765 17 January 1765
Nazam ud-Daulah.jpg Nazam-ud-Daulah Najimuddin Ali Khan 1750 5 February 1765 – 8 May 1766 8 May 1766
Saif ud-Daulah.jpg Saif ud-Daulah Najabut Ali Khan 1749 22 May 1766 – 10 March 1770 10 March 1770
Mubaraq ud-Daulah.jpg Mubarak ud-Daulah Ashraf Ali Khan 1759 21 March 1770 – 6 September 1793 6 September 1793
Babar Ali.jpg Azud ud-Daulah Babar Ali Khan Bahadur ? 1793 – 28 April 1810 28 April 1810
Ali Jah.jpg Ali Jah Zain-ud-Din Ali Khan ? 5 June 1810 – 6 August 1821 6 August 1821
Walla Jah.jpg Walla Jah Ahmad Ali Khan ? 1810 – 30 October 1824 30 October 1824
Nawab Nazim Humayun Jah.jpg Humayun Jah Mubarak Ali Khan 29 September 1810 1824 – 3 October 1838 3 October 1838
Feradun Jah.jpg Feradun Jah Mansur Ali Khan 29 October 1830 29 October 1838 –1881 (abdicated) 5 November 1884

Nawabs of Murshidabad[edit]

Picture Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Najafi Dynasty
Young Hassan Ali.jpg Ali Kadir Hassan Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 25 August 1846 17 February 1882 – 25 December 1906 25 December 1906
Wasif Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur.jpg Amir ul-Omrah Wasif Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 7 January 1875 December 1906–23 October 1959 23 October 1959
Waris Ali.jpg Raes ud-Daulah Waris Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 14 November 1901 1959 – 20 November 1969 ( no clear successor-post/title in dispute) 20 November 1969

Hindu Raj[edit]

Maharaja Pratap-Aditya (Bengali: মহারাজা প্রতাপাদিত্য) (1561–1611 CE) was the Hindu King of Jessore and the most prominent of the Baro-Bhuyan of Bengal, who declared independence from the Mughals and established an independent Hindu state in Bengal. His kingdom at its zenith encompassed the districts of Nadia, North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas in West Bengal, as well as extending into modern-day Bangladesh from Kushtia district in north, Barisal in east and Sundarbans and Bay of Bengal to south. Pratapaditya's love for the Motherland, fierce spirit of Hindu independence from Muslim yoke, and epic battles against the Mughal imperialists made him the most famous legendary hero for the Hindus in Bengal. His bravery and heroism became the subject of many ballads, none grander than Annadamangal, the magnum opus of Bharat Chandra the greatest medieval poet of Bengal. In the final of the three-part epic, Bharat Chandra introduces Pratapaditya as excerpted below: " যশোর নগর ধাম, প্রতাপ আদিত্য নাম, মহারাজ বঙ্গজ কায়স্হ । নাহি মানে পাতশায়, কেহ নাহি আঁটে তায়, ভয়ে যত ভূপতি দ্বারস্হ ।। " Pratapaditya Roy has been recognized as a national hero in several narratives of Hindu Nationalism where he has been placed alongside Shivaji and Guru Govind Singh for his immortal deeds.

Maharajas of Bhurshut[edit]

Maharajas of Bankura[edit]

Maharajas of Koch kingdom[edit]

Maharajas of Midnapore[edit]

Maharajas of Jessore kingdom[edit]

Maharajas of Khulna[edit]

On the day of declaration of partition of Pakistan and India i.e. on 14-15 th August 1947 Murshidabad was in East Pakistan and Khulna was in India .It was on 16 August that Khulna was given to East Pakistan and Murshidabad given to India.

Maharajas of Sripur[edit]

Maharajas of Nadia[edit]

British Colonial Period[edit]

Chief Agents (1701–1756)[edit]

Governors (1757–1854)[edit]

Lieutenant-Governors (1854–1912)[edit]

Governors (1912–1947)[edit]

After Independence of India and Pakistan[edit]

British colonial period ended when India and Pakistan became independent nations in 1947. Bengal fell into two parts – one in India, named West Bengal and the other part in Pakistan as East Pakistan.

Governors of West Bengal[edit]

# Name Took Office Left Office
1 Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari 1947 1948
2 Kailash Nath Katju 1948 1951
3 Harendra Coomar Mookerjee 1951 1956
4 Phani Bhusan Chakraborty 1956 1956
5 Padmaja Naidu 1956 1967
6 Dharma Vira 1967 1969
7 Deep Narayan Sinha 1969 1969
8 Shanti Swaroop Dhavan 1969 1971
9 Anthony Lancelot Dias 1971 1979
10 Tribhuvana Narayana Singh 1979 1981
11 Bhairab Dutt Pande 1981 1983
12 Anant Prasad Sharma 1983 1984
13 Satish Chandra 1984 1984
14 Uma Shankar Dikshit 1984 1986
15 Nurul Hasan 1986 1989
16 T. V. Rajeshwar 1989 1990
17 Nurul Hasan 1990 1993
18 B. Satyanarayan Reddy 1993 1993
19 K.V. Raghunatha Reddy 1993 1998
20 A.R. Kidwai 1998 1999
21 Shyamal Kumar Sen 1999 1999
22 Viren J. Shah 1999 2004
23 Gopalkrishna Gandhi 2004 2009
24 Devanand Konwar 2009 2010
25 Mayankote Kelath Narayanan 2010 2014

Chief Ministers of West Bengal[edit]

Key: INC
Indian National Congress
BC-UF
Bangla Congress
CPI(M)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
# Name Took Office Left Office Political Party
1 Prafulla Chandra Ghosh 15 August 1947 14 January 1948 Indian National Congress
2 Bidhan Chandra Roy 14 January 1948 1 July 1962 Indian National Congress
President's rule 1 July 1962 8 July 1962
3 Prafulla Chandra Sen 8 July 1962 15 March 1967 Indian National Congress
4 Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee 15 March 1967 2 November 1967 Bangla Congress in United Front
5 Prafulla Chandra Ghosh 2 November 1967 20 February 1968 Nonparty in Progressive Democratic Alliance Front
President's rule 20 February 1968 25 February 1969
6 Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee 25 February 1969 19 March 1970 Bangla Congress in United Front
President's rule 19 March 1970 2 April 1971
7 Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee 2 April 1971 28 June 1971 Indian National Congress in coalition
President's rule 28 June 1971 19 March 1972
8 Siddhartha Shankar Ray 19 March 1972 21 June 1977 Indian National Congress
9 Jyoti Basu 21 June 1977 6 November 2000 Communist Party of India (Marxist) in Left Front
10 Buddhadeb Bhattacharya 6 November 2000 13 May 2011 Communist Party of India (Marxist) in Left Front
11 Mamata Banerjee 20 May 2011 Incumbent All India Trinamool Congress

Governor of East Pakistan[edit]

Tenure Chief Minister of East Pakistan Political Party
August 1955 – September 1956 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
September 1956 – March 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League
March 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
March 1958 – 18 June 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League
18 June 1958 – 22 June 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
22 June 1958 – 25 August 1958 Governor's Rule
25 August 1958 – 7 October 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League

In 7 October 1958, the post of Governor of East Pakistan was abolished. And after the independence of Bangladesh in 16 December 1971, the Province of East Pakistan was dissolved.

After independence of Bangladesh[edit]

East Pakistan seceded from West Pakistan in 16 December 1971 and was named Bangladesh as an independent nation.

Prime Ministers of Bangladesh[edit]

Name Took Office Left Office Party
1 Tajuddin Ahmed 10 April 1971 13 January 1972 Awami League
2 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman 13 January 1972 26 January 1975 Awami League
3 Mohammad Mansoor Ali 26 January 1975 15 August 1975 Awami League
4 Shah Azizur Rahman 15 April 1979 24 March 1982 Bangladesh Nationalist Party
5 Ataur Rahman Khan 30 March 1984 9 July 1986 Jatiya Party
6 Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury 9 July 1986 27 March 1988 Jatiya Party
7 Moudud Ahmed 27 March 1988 12 August 1989 Jatiya Party
8 Kazi Zafar Ahmed 12 August 1989 6 December 1990 Jatiya Party
9 Khaleda Zia, 1st Term 20 March 1991 16 February 1996 Bangladesh Nationalist Party
10 Khaleda Zia, 2nd Term 16 March 1996 30 March 1996 Bangladesh Nationalist Party
11 Sheikh Hasina Wazed 1st Term 23 June 1996 15 July 2001 Awami League
12 Khaleda Zia, 3rd Term 10 October 2001 29 October 2006 Bangladesh Nationalist Party
13 Sheikh Hasina Wazed, 2nd Term 1 January 2009 5 January 2014 Awami League
14 Sheikh Hasina Wazed , 3rd term 5 January 2014 Incumbent Awami League

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Susan L. Huntington (1 January 1984). The "Påala-Sena" Schools of Sculpture. Brill Archive. ISBN 90-04-06856-2. 
  2. ^ History of Ancient Bengal, pp. 161-162, 1971
  3. ^ Abdul Momin Chowdhury (1967). Dynastic history of Bengal, c. 750-1200 CE. Asiatic Society of Pakistan. pp. 272–273. 
  4. ^ Bindeshwari Prasad Sinha (1 January 1977). Dynastic History of Magadha, Cir. 450-1200 A.D.. Abhinav Publications. pp. 253–. GGKEY:KR1EJ2EGCTJ. 
  5. ^ Dineshchandra Sircar (1975–76). "Indological Notes - R.C. Majumdar's Chronology of the Pala Kings". Journal of Indian History IX: 209–10. 
  6. ^ a b ABM Shamsuddin Ahmed, Iltutmish, Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 2012-02-18
  7. ^ Encyclopaedia Of Bangladesh (Set Of 30 Vols.) By Nagendra Kr. Singh
  8. ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1984, reprint 1994). A History of Jaipur, New Delhi: Orient Longman ISBN 81-250-0333-9, pp.86–87

External links[edit]