List of rulers of Iceland

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This is a list of rulers of Iceland, ruling from 1262 to 1944.

Iceland was settled in the late 9th and early 10th centuries, principally by people of Norwegian and other Scandinavian origin. In 930, the ruling chiefs established a republican constitution and an assembly called the Althing - the oldest parliament in the world. Iceland remained independent until 1262, when it entered into a treaty which established a union with the Norwegian monarchy. In the late 14th century Norway and Denmark entered into a union. The union between Denmark and Norway, ignoring some shorter periods, lasted until 1814, when Norway briefly gained independence, and Iceland became an integral part of Denmark until 1918, when Iceland was recognised as a fully sovereign state united with Denmark under a common monarch, on 1 December that same year.

Following a constitutional referendum between 20 to 23 May 1944, Iceland formally became an independent republic on 17 June 1944. Since Denmark was still occupied by Germany, many Danes felt offended that the step should have been taken at the time. Still, the King of Denmark, Christian X, sent a message of congratulations to the Icelandic people.

Possession of Norway (1262–1814)[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Haakon IV
  • the Old
(1204-04-01)1 April 1204 – 16 December 1263(1263-12-16) (aged 59) 1262 16 December 1263 Son of Haakon III Fairhair Haakon IV of Norway
Magnus VI
  • the Law-mender
(1238-05-01)1 May 1238 – 9 May 1280(1280-05-09) (aged 42) 16 December 1263 9 May 1280 Son of Haakon IV Fairhair Magnus VI of Norway
Eric II
1268 – 15 July 1299(1299-07-15) 9 May 1280 15 July 1299 Son of Magnus VI Fairhair Eric II of Norway
Haakon V
1270 – 8 May 1319(1319-05-08) 15 July 1299 8 May 1319 Son of Magnus VI Fairhair Haakon V of Norway
Magnus VII
1316 – 1 December 1374(1374-12-01) 1319 15 August 1343 Grandson of Haakon V Bjelbo Magnus VII of Norway
Haakon VI
1340 – 11 September 1380(1380-09-11) 15 August 1343 11 September 1380 Son of Magnus VII Bjelbo Haakon VI of Norway
Olaf IV
1370 – 23 August 1387(1387-08-23) 29 July 1380 23 August 1387 Son of Haakon VI Bjelbo Olaf IV of Norway
Margaret I
c. 1353 – 28 October 1412(1412-10-28) 1388 28 October 1412 Mother of Olaf IV Estridsen Margaret I of Norway
Eric III
c. 1381 – 3 May 1459(1459-05-03) 28 October 1412 1442 Son of Wartislaw VII, Duke of Pomerania Griffins Eric III of Norway
Christopher I
(1416-02-26)26 February 1416 – 5 January 1448(1448-01-05) (aged 31) 1442 5 January 1448 Son of John, Count Palatine of Neumarkt Palatinate-Neumarkt Christopher I of Norway
Charles I
(1409-10-05)5 October 1409 – 14 May 1470(1470-05-14) (aged 60) 20 November 1449 1450 Son of Knut Tordsson Bonde Bonde Charles I of Norway
Christian I
1426 – 21 May 1481(1481-05-21) 1450 21 May 1481 Son of Dietrich, Count of Oldenburg Oldenburg Christian I of Norway
John I
(1455-02-02)2 February 1455 – 20 February 1513(1513-02-20) (aged 58) 1483 20 February 1513 Son of Christian I Oldenburg John I of Norway
Christian II
(1481-07-01)1 July 1481 – 25 January 1559(1559-01-25) (aged 77) 22 July 1513 20 January 1523 Son of John I Oldenburg Christian II of Norway
Frederick I
(1471-10-07)7 October 1471 – 10 April 1533(1533-04-10) (aged 61) 1523 10 April 1533 Son of Christian I Oldenburg Frederick I of Norway
Christian III
(1503-08-12)12 August 1503 – 1 January 1559(1559-01-01) (aged 55) 1537 1 January 1559 Son of Frederick I Oldenburg Christian III of Norway
Frederick II
(1534-07-01)1 July 1534 – 4 April 1588(1588-04-04) (aged 53) 1 January 1559 4 April 1588 Son of Christian III Oldenburg Frederick II of Norway
Christian IV
(1577-04-12)12 April 1577 – 28 February 1648(1648-02-28) (aged 70) 4 April 1588 28 February 1648 Son of Frederick II Oldenburg Christian IV of Norway
Frederick III
(1609-03-18)18 March 1609 – 9 February 1670(1670-02-09) (aged 60) 1 May 1648 9 February 1670 Son of Christian IV Oldenburg Frederick III of Norway
Christian V
(1646-04-15)15 April 1646 – 25 August 1699(1699-08-25) (aged 53) 9 February 1670 25 August 1699 Son of Frederick III Oldenburg Christian V of Norway
Frederick IV
(1671-10-11)11 October 1671 – 12 October 1730(1730-10-12) (aged 59) 25 August 1699 12 October 1730 Son of Christian V Oldenburg Frederick IV of Norway
Christian VI
(1699-11-30)30 November 1699 – 6 August 1746(1746-08-06) (aged 46) 12 October 1730 6 August 1746 Son of Frederick IV Oldenburg Christian VI of Norway
Frederick V
(1723-03-31)31 March 1723 – 14 January 1766(1766-01-14) (aged 42) 6 August 1746 14 January 1766 Son of Christian VI Oldenburg Frederick V of Norway
Christian VII
(1749-01-29)29 January 1749 – 13 March 1808(1808-03-13) (aged 59) 14 January 1766 13 March 1808 Son of Frederick V Oldenburg Christian VII of Norway
Frederick VI
(1768-01-28)28 January 1768 – 3 December 1839(1839-12-03) (aged 71) 13 March 1808 7 February 1814 Son of Christian VII Oldenburg Frederick VI of Norway

Possession of Denmark (1814–1918)[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Frederick VI
(1768-01-28)28 January 1768 – 3 December 1839(1839-12-03) (aged 71) 7 February 1814 3 December 1839 Son of Christian VII Oldenburg Frederick VI of Denmark
Christian VIII
(1786-09-18)18 September 1786 – 20 January 1848(1848-01-20) (aged 61) 3 December 1839 20 January 1848 Son of Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Denmark Oldenburg Christian VIII of Denmark
Frederick VII
(1808-10-06)6 October 1808 – 15 November 1863(1863-11-15) (aged 55) 20 January 1848 15 November 1863 Son of Christian VIII Oldenburg Frederick VII of Denmark
Christian IX
(1818-04-08)8 April 1818 – 29 January 1906(1906-01-29) (aged 87) 15 November 1863 29 January 1906 Son of Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Glücksburg Christian IX of Denmark
Frederick VIII
(1843-06-03)3 June 1843 – 14 May 1912(1912-05-14) (aged 68) 29 January 1906 14 May 1912 Son of Christian IX Glücksburg Frederick VIII of Denmark
Christian X
(1870-09-26)26 September 1870 – 20 April 1947(1947-04-20) (aged 76) 14 May 1912 1 December 1918 Son of Frederick VIII Glücksburg Christian X of Denmark

Kingdom of Iceland (1918–1944)[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Christian X
[1]
(1870-09-26)26 September 1870 – 20 April 1947(1947-04-20) (aged 76) 1 December 1918 17 June 1944 Son of Frederick VIII Glücksburg Christian X of Denmark

Republic of Iceland (1944—)[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sveinn Björnsson, ruled as Regent from 1941 to 1944.