List of rulers of Illyria

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This is a list of rulers of Illyria, a geographical region of the Western Balkans in classical antiquity. In the archaic period most parts of the region were ruled by loosely related tribes that often were part of larger tribal conglomerations like the Dalmatae. In the late 5th and the early 4th century BC, the first proto-kingdoms of the area would be created as exemplified by Bardyllis's Dardanian kingdom. In the course of the 4th century parts of the southernmost and easternmost regions of Illyria fell under the Kingdom of Macedon. The most powerful state of the area, the Ardiaean kingdom, emerged in the 2nd century BC during the rule of Agron and Teuta. It was defeated and conquered by the Roman Republic, which maintained a system of direct rule and client states before the final incorporation of the area to the Roman state after the Third Illyrian War.

Mythological[edit]

Depiction of Polyphemus, father of Illyrius on a proto-Attic amphora, c. 660 BC, museum of Eleusis)
  • Cadmus: helped the Enchelae against the other Illyrians around Lyncestia.[2]
  • Harmonia: consort of the Phoenician Cadmus; later turned into a serpent with her husband by her grandfather Zeus.[3]
  • Hyllus: the son of the Greek demigod Heracles, was claimed to be the earliest "Illyrian" king whom they claim to have supposedly died in 1225 BS.[4]
  • Heracles: ruled a share of Dyrrhachus' territory after aiding him in battle.[5]
  • Ionius: mythological/historical ruler of Issa; son of Dyrrhachus, eponym of the Ionian Sea.[1]
  • Asteropaios: second leader of the Trojan-allied Peonians; killed by Achilles.[7]
  • Illyrius: ruled Illyria and became the eponymous ancestor of the Illyrians; son of Cadmus or Polyphemus.[9] Illyrius had six sons and three daughters whose names were associated with specific tribes:

Sons[edit]

  • Encheleus (Εγχελαίος) of the Enchelae
  • Autarieus (Αυταριαίος) of the Autariatae
  • Dardanus (Δάρδανος) of the Dardani
  • Maedus (Μαίδος) of the Maedes
  • Taulas (Ταύλας) of the Taulantii
  • Perrhaebus (Περραιβός) of the Perrhaebi

Daughters[edit]

  • Partho (Πάρθω) of the Partheni
  • Daortho (Δαορθώ) of the Daors
  • Dassaro (Δασσαρώ) of the Dassaretae

Grandsons[edit]

  • Pannonius or Paeon (son of Autarieus) of the Pannonians or Paeonians

Greatgrandsons[edit]

  • Scordiscus (son of Pannonius) of the Scordisci
  • Triballus (son of Pannonius) of the Triballi

Illyrian Kingdom[edit]

Illyrian rulers wore bronze torques around their necks.[10]

  • Sirras: challenged Macedonia in 423 BC over the Lyncestian case.[11]
  • Grabos: enters Athenian alliance to resist Philips power in 356 BC.[13]
  • Pleuratus I: in a losing effort in 344 BC, tried to thwart Philip's advances in Illyria.[14]
  • Bardyllis II: managed in 290 BC to re-create the state of his grandfather in the region of Dassaretia to the west of the Lyncestian lakes.[16]

Ardiaean dynasty[edit]

King Gentius (Gent) depicted on the obverse of the 2000 Lekë banknote
  • Pleuratus II: reigned in a time of peace and prosperity for the Illyrian kingdom.,[18] ruled B.C 260~B.C 250
  • Agron: in 231 BC, possessed the most powerful land army and navy, of any of the kings who had reigned before him; extended the kingdoms borders in the north and south.,[19] ruled B.C 250~B.C 230
  • Teuta (regent for Pinnes) : forced to come to terms with the Romans in 227 BC.[20]
  • Demetrius of Pharos: surrenders to the Romans at Pharos in 218 BC and flees to Macedonia.,[21] ruled B.C 222~B.C 219
  • Scerdilaidas: allied with Rome to defeat Macedonia in 208 BC.,[22] ruled B.C 218~B.C 206
  • Pinnes: too young to become king; ruled under the regency of Teuta,Demetrius and Scerdilaidas.,[23] ruled B.C 230~B.C 217
  • Pleuratus III: rewarded by the Romans in 196 BC, with lands annexed by the Macedonians.,[24] ruled B.C 205~B.C 181
  • Gentius: defeated by the Romans in 168 BC during the Third Illyrian War; Illyrian kingdom ceased to exist while the king was taken prisoner.,[25] ruled B.C 181~B.C 168

Dardanian Kingdom[edit]

  • Longari: invaded northern borders of the Illyrian kingdom in 229 BC while Teuta was dealing with campaigns in Epirus.[26]

Taulantian Kingdom[edit]

Ballaios, 167-135 BC.
  • Galaurus: unsuccessfully invaded Macedonia between 678–640 BC.[29]
  • Grabus: laid siege to Epidamnos in 437 BC in alliance with Athens and Corcyra.[30]
  • Glaucias: mentioned as a Taulantii king in 335 BC who aided Cleitus at the Battle of Pelion.[31]

Paeonia kingdom[edit]

Other rulers[edit]

Autariatae[edit]

  • Pleurias: campaigned against Macedonia during 337/5 BC; one of the last Autariatae kings.[32]

Histria[edit]

  • Epulon: thwarted Roman advances in the Istrian peninsula until his death in 177 BC.[33]

Dalmatia[edit]

  • Verzi: took the city of Promona from the Liburni in order to ambush Octavian in 34 BC.[34]
  • Testimos: defeated by the Romans in 33 BC; Dalmatia incorporated into Roman Republic.[35]

Messapia[edit]

  • Opis: attacked by Taras in 460 BC at Hyria, in which he died.[36]

Breucia[edit]

  • Bato II: surrendered to Tiberius in 8 AD on the bank of the Bosna river.[38]

Pannonia[edit]

Daesiatia[edit]

Others[edit]

  • Ionios: ruled over Issa and the surrounding region in the first half of the 4th century BC, probably after the fall of Dionysius of Syracuse in 367 BC.[41]
  • Ballaios: ruled over the city of Rhizon and surrounding areas after Roman occupation, until 135 BC.[42]

Foreign rulers[edit]

Mirmidon[edit]

  • Pyrrhus: extended his kingdom to southern Illyria in the time of Monunius.
  • Alexander II: extended his kingdom to southern Illyria in the time of Mitylus.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://www.academia.edu/489633/Cadmus_and_Harmonia_in_Illyria
  2. ^ The Dictionary of Classical Mythology by Pierre Grimal and A. R. Maxwell-Hyslop, ISBN 0-631-20102-5, 1996, p. 230, "Illyrius (Ιλλυριός) The youngest son of Cadmus and Harmonia. He was born during their expedition against the Illyrians..."
  3. ^ Grimal & Maxwell-Hyslop 1996, p. 230.
  4. ^ "Albanian Information- Albanian.com." Albanian.com, home of Albanians Online . Albanian.com, 2003. <http://www.albanian.com/main/history/illyrian.html>
  5. ^ a b Appian(Civil War 2.39)
  6. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
  7. ^ Homer, Iliad 21.140–160
  8. ^ a b Grimal & Maxwell-Hyslop 1996, p. 168.
  9. ^ Grimal & Maxwell-Hyslop 1996, p. 230
  10. ^ The Illyrians by J. J. Wilkes, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 223, "
  11. ^ The Illyrians to the Albanians - Neritan Ceka - 2005
  12. ^ Harding, Philip. From the End of the Peloponnesian War to the Battle of Ipsus, 1985, p. 93, ISBN 0-521-29949-7. Grabos became the most powerful Illyrian king after the death of Bardylis in 358.
  13. ^ "Grabus was a dynastic name from the royal house of Grabaei." Studies concerning Epirus and Macedonia before Alexander by Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond, p. 107. Grabus was "a descendant no doubt the of King Grabus, whith [sic?] whom Athens entered into alliance in 430 B.C."
  14. ^ The Illyrians by J. J. Wilkes, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 121, 156, 167, 170-174, 190
  15. ^ Wilkes 1995, page 120
  16. ^ (Plut. Pyrrh. 9.)
  17. ^ a b The Illyrians by J. J. Wilkes, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 129, "No Illyrian production of coins is known before King Monunius struck his coins at Dyrrhachium (see figure 11), followed by Mytilus around ten years later..."
  18. ^ Fanula Papazoglu, Les origines.... p.143
  19. ^ Studies concerning Epirus and Macedonia before Alexander by Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond, page 105, 250 died c. 230
  20. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, p. 120, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 158, "Illyrian success continued when command passed to Agron's widow Teuta, who granted individual ships a licence to universal plunder. In 231 AC the fleet and army attacked Ells and Messenia..."
  21. ^ A History of Rome to A.D. 565 - p. 111 by Arthur Edward Romilly Boak, William Gurnee Sinnigen,"The island of Pharos and some adjacent territory in Illyria were given to a Greek adventurer, Demetrius of Pharos"
  22. ^ Épire, Illyrie, Macédoine: mélanges offerts au professeur Pierre Cabanes by Danièle Berranger, Pierre Cabanes, Danièle Berranger-Auserve, page 137
  23. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 162, "...revival of Illyrian power under Demetrius of Pharos, who had succeeded Teuta and married Triteuta, mother of the infant King Pinnes."
  24. ^ The Illyrians by J. J. Wilkes, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, pages 121, 156, 167, 170-174, 190
  25. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 221, "Ardiaei from which intoxicated men were conveyed home by their women who had also participated to the overindulgence of their kings Agron and Gentius..."
  26. ^ The Illyrians by J. J. Wilkes, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 86, "...including the names of Dardanian rulers, Longarus, Bato, Monunius and Etuta, and those on later epitaphs, Epicadus, Scerviaedus, Tuta, Times and Cinna. Other Dardanian names are linked with..."
  27. ^ The Illyrians by J. J. Wilkes, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 85, "The recorded names of Dardanian leader during the Macedonian and the Roman wars, Longarus, Bato..."
  28. ^ Polybius 23.10
  29. ^ Μιμαλλόνες "imitators of men" Etym. Mag. (587.53) see Hesychius "mimelazein. mimeisthai" "mimelon. homoion"
  30. ^ The Cambridge ancient history: The fourth century B.C. Volume 6 of The Cambridge ancient history, Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen Edwards, ISBN 0-521-85073-8, ISBN 978-0-521-85073-5 Authors D. M. Lewis, John Boardman Editors D. M. Lewis, John Boardman Edition 2, illustrated, revised Publisher Cambridge University Press, 1994 ISBN 0-521-23348-8, ISBN 978-0-521-23348-4 Length 1097 pages p. 438
  31. ^ Neritan Ceka: Illlyrian to the Albanians, 2005, Migjeni
  32. ^ (Hamond, Kingdoms in Illyria)
  33. ^ Livy 41.11
  34. ^ Aleksandar Stipčević: Iliri: povijest, život, kultura, p. 67.
  35. ^ Aleksandar Stipčević: Iliri: povijest, život, kultura.
  36. ^ Pausanias (10.10.6.)
  37. ^ The emergence of state identities in Italy in the first millennium BC, pg.51
  38. ^ D. Dzino, Illyricum in Roman Politics 229 BC - AD 68 (Cambridge 2010), pp. 149–153.
  39. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69 (Volume 10) by Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott,1996,page 176: "... Daesitiates was soon matched by rebellion of the Breuci in Pannonia, headed by Pinnes and another Bato. ..."
  40. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 216, "Further east the formidable Daesitiates of central Bosnia retained their name. The great rebellion of All 6 had been led by their chief Bato, and their relatively low total of 103 decuriae likely reflects..."
  41. ^ http://books.google.ie/books?id=N1647OyYAqMC&pg=PA25&dq=ionios+issa&hl=en&sa=X&ei=jeHUULeGCIPQhAeL1IDABQ&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=ionios%20issa&f=false
  42. ^ Épire, Illyrie, Macédoine: mélanges offerts au professeur Pierre Cabanes by Danièle Berranger, Pierre Cabanes,Danièle Berranger-Auserve, page 145