List of rulers of Pre-Achaemenid kingdoms of Iran

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Aratta kingdom, c. 2700 BC[edit]

Name Date Family Relations Note
Aratta kingdom,[1] c. 2700 BC
1 In-Su-Kush-Siranna c. 2700 BC  ? contemporary with Enmerkar king of Uruk

Elamite Empire, c. 2700 – 519 BC[edit]

The Elamites were a people located in southwestern Iran, in what is now Khuzestan, Ilam, Fars, Bushehr, Lorestan, Bakhtiari and Kohgiluyeh provinces. Their language was neither Semitic nor Indo-European, and they were the geographic precursors of the Persian/Median empire that later appeared. For a full list of Elamite kings and sub-kings see:

Western Kingdoms, c. 2550–c. 700 BC[edit]

Marhasi kingdom,[2][3] c. 2550–c. 1900 BC[edit]

Some scholars suggested that Warakhshe were located in southeastern Iran in modern Baluchistan

  1. Migirenlil (c. 2550 BC)
  2. Unnamed King (c. 2325 BC)
  3. Abalgamash (c. 2316 – 2312 BC)
  4. Hubshumkibi (c. 2270 BC contemporary with Naram-Sin king of Akkad)
  5. Unnamed King (c. 2080 BC)
  6. Hashibatal (c. 2070 BC contemporary with Shulgi king of Ur)
  7. Arvilukpi (c. 2050 BC contemporary with Amar-Sin king of Ur)
  8. Pariashum (c. 2045 BC contemporary with Amar-Sin king of Ur)
  9. Libanugshabash (2044–c. 2033 BC)
  10. Mashhundahli (c. 2020 BC contemporary with Ibbi-Sin king of Ur)

Namar kingdom,[2] c. 24th century–c. 750 BC[edit]

  1. Tishari (c. 2350 BC)
  2. Inbir (c. 2290 BC)
  3. Sadarmat (c. 2270 BC)
  4. Arisen (c. 2260 BC)
  5. Unknown Queen (c. 1764 BC)
  6. Karziyabku (c. 1200 BC)
  7. Ritti-Marduk (c. 1110 BC)
  8. Marduk-Mudammiq (until 842/4 BC)
  9. Ianzu (842/4–834/5 BC)

Zakhara kingdom,[2][3] c. 2350–c. 2250 BC[edit]

  1. The unnamed prince of Zakhara (c. 2315 BCE)
  2. Ungapi (c. 2315 BCE). Regent of Zakhara
  3. The unnamed king of Zakhara (after 2254 BCE)

Ganhar kingdom,[2] c. 21st century BC[edit]

  1. Kisari (c. 2071–c. 2050 BC)
  2. Warad-Nannar (c. 2035 BC)

Eshnuna kingdom, c. 21st century–c. 8th century BC[edit]

  1. Urguedinna (c. 2000 BC) Governor under Shulgi of the Ur III
  2. Kallamu (contemporary of Shulgi of the Ur III)
  3. Ituria (contemporary of Shu-Sin of the Ur III)
  4. Ilushuilia (contemporary of Ibbi-Sin of the Ur III)
  5. Nurakhum (contemporary of Ibbi-Sin of the Ur III and Ishbi-Erra of Isin)
  6. Kirikiri
  7. Bilalama (contemporary of Tan-Ruhuratir I of Elam)
  8. Isharramashu
  9. Usurawasu
  10. Ur-Ninmar
  11. Ur-Ningizzida
  12. Ipiq-Adad I (contemporary of Abdi-Erah of Khafajah and Sumu-abum of Babylon)
  13. Sarriia
  14. Warassa
  15. Belakum
  16. Ibal-pi-El I
  17. Ipiq-Adad II (c. 1700 BC reigned at least 36 years)
  18. Naram-Sin (contemporary of Shamshi-Adad) Son of Ipiq-Adad II
  19. Dannum-tahaz (Approximate position)
  20. Dadusha (contemporary of Shamshi-Adad) Son of Ipiq-Adad II
  21. Ibal-pi-El II (contemporary of Zimri-Lim of Mari) Killed by Siwe-Palar-Hupak of Elam who captured Eshnunna
  22. Silli-Sin

Zabshali kingdom,[2] c. 2050–c. 2000 BC[edit]

  1. Ziringu (until after 2038 BC)
  2. Indasu (c. 2032 BC)
  3. Unknown king (c. 2024 BC) (His wife was Tukin-khațța-migrisha daughter of Ibbi-Sin king of Ur)

Kassites kingdom, 21st to 9th century BC[edit]

Parsua kingdom, c. 840–c. 710 BC[edit]

Ellipi kingdom, c. 810–c. 700 BC[edit]

Bit-Istar kingdom, c. 12th century–c. 710 BC[edit]

Northwestern Kingdoms, c. 2550 – 521 BC[edit]

Kuti kingdom,[2][3] c. 2550–c. 2100 BC[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Kuti kingdom, c. 2550–c. 2100 BC
1 Unnamed king of Kuti King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2550 BC  ?  ? contemporary with Lugal-Anne-Mundu king of Adab
2 Erridupizir King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2256 BC c. 2251 BC  ?
3 Imta or Nibia King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2250 BC c. 2246 BC  ?
4 Inkishush King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2245 BC c. 2240 BC  ?
5 Zarlagab King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2239 BC c. 2234 BC  ?
6 Shulme King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2233 BC c. 2228 BC  ?
7 Elulmesh or Silulumesh King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2227 BC c. 2222 BC  ?
8 Duga King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2221 BC c. 2216 BC  ?
9 Iluan King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2215 BC c. 2213 BC  ?
10 Inimabakesh King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2212 BC c. 2208 BC  ?
11 Inkishush King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2207 BC c. 2202 BC  ?
12 Yarlagab King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2201 BC c. 2187 BC  ?
13 Ibate King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2186 BC c. 2184 BC  ?
14 Yarlagab or Yarla King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2183 BC c. 2181 BC  ?
15 Kurum King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2180 BC c. 2180 BC  ?
16 Apilkin King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2179 BC c. 2177 BC  ?
17 La-erabum King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2176 BC c. 2175 BC  ?
18 Irarum King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2174 BC c. 2173 BC  ?
19 Ibranum King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2172 BC c. 2172 BC  ?
20 Hablum King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2171 BC c. 2170 BC  ?
21 Puzur-Suen King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2169 BC c. 2163 BC  ?
22 Yarlaganda King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2162 BC c. 2156 BC  ?
23 Si'um or Si'u King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2155 BC c. 2121 BC  ?
24 Tirigan King of Kutians  ?–? c. 2120 BC c. 2120 BC  ? 40 days

Lullubi kingdom,[2][3] c. 2400–c. 650 BC[edit]

  1. Immashkush (c. 2400 BC)
  2. Anubanini (c. 2350 BC) he ordered to make an inscription on the rock near Sar-e Pol-e Zahab
  3. Satuni (c. 2270 BC contemporary with Naram-Sin king of Akkad and Hita king of Awan)
  4. Irib (c. 2037 BC)
  5. Darianam (c. 2000 BC)
  6. Ikki (precise dates unknown)
  7. Tar...duni (precise dates unknown) son of Ikki. his inscription is found near the inscription of Anubanini
  8. Nur-Adad (c. 881 – 880 BC)
  9. Zabini (c. 881 BC)
  10. Hubaia (c. 830 BC) vassal of Assyrians
  11. Dada (c. 715 BC)
  12. Larkutla (c. 675 BC)

Gilzan kingdom,[2] c. 900–c. 820 BC[edit]

  1. Unknown king (c. 883–c. 880 BC)
  2. Asau (c. mid-9th century BC)
  3. Upu (c. 827 BC)

Urartu kingdom, c. 860 – 547 BC[edit]

  1. Arame 858–844 BC
  2. Lutipri 844–834 BC
  3. Sarduri I 834–828 BC
  4. Ishpuini 828–810 BC
  5. Menua 810–785 BC
  6. Argishti I 785–753 BC
  7. Sarduri II 753–735 BC
  8. Rusa I 735–714 BC
  9. Argishti II 714–680 BC
  10. Rusa II 680–639 BC
  11. Sarduri III 639–635 BC
  12. Eriména 635–629 BC
  13. Rusa III 629–590 or 629–615 BC
  14. Sarduri IV 615–595 BC
  15. Rusa IV 595–585 BC

Ida kingdom,[2] c. 860–c. 710 BC[edit]

  1. Nikdiara (c. 855/6–c. 827 BC)
  2. Sharsina (c. 821–c. 820 BC)
  3. Parnua (c. 713 BC)

Allabria,[2] c. 850–c. 710 BC[edit]

  1. Ianziburiash (c. 842 BC)
  2. Artasari (c. 829 BC)
  3. Bēl-apla-iddina (until 716 BC)
  4. Itti (c. 711 BC)

Gizilbunda kingdom,[2] c. 850–c. 700 BC[edit]

  1. Pirishati (until 820 BC) (in Urash)
  2. Titamashka (c. 820 BC) (in Sasiashu)
  3. Kiara (c. 820 BC) (in Kar-Sibutu)
  4. Engur (c. 820 BC) (in Sibaru)
  5. Zizi (c. 714 BC) (in Appatar)
  6. Zala (c. 714 BC) (in Kit-Patia)

Araziash kingdom,[2] c. 850 – 716 BC[edit]

  1. Barua (precise dates unknown)
  2. Munsuarta (c. 820 BC)
  3. Unknown king (c. 775–c. 772 BC)
  4. Ramatea (c. 744 BC)
  5. Satareshu (c. 713 BC)

Manna kingdom, c. 850–c. 550 BC[edit]

Andia Kingdom,[2][3] c. 850–c. 700 BC[edit]

  1. Unnamed king of Andia (c. 827 BC) contemporary with Daian-Ashur military leader of Assyrian empire in western Iran
  2. Telusina (c. 719 – 715 BC) who revolted against king of Manna and was defeated by Sargon II king of Assyria

Kishesu kingdom, c. 830–c. 710 BC[edit]

Sagbitu kingdom, c. 820–c. 710 BC[edit]

Abdadana kingdom, c. 810–c. 710 BC[edit]

Zikartu kingdom,[2] c. 750 – 521 BC[edit]

  1. The unnamed king of Zikartu (c. 744 BC)
  2. Mettati (c. 719 – 714 BC)
  3. Bagparna (from 714 BC)
  4. Tritantaechmes (until July 15, 521 BC)

Median dynasty, 726–521 BC[edit]

The Medes were an Iranian people. The Persians, a closely related and subject people, revolted against the Median empire during the 6th century BC.

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Median dynasty,[4] 726–521 BC
1 Deioces Dahiaukka  ? – 674 BC 726 BC 674 BC son of Phraortes Deposed by Assyrians
2 Xšaθrita I Phraortes (?)  ? – 652 BC 674 BC 652 BC son of Deioces Killed in battle with Assyrians and Scythians. Domination of Scythian kingdom 652–625 BC
3 Cyaxares Huvaxšaθra  ? – 585 BC 625 BC 585 BC son of Xšaθrita I Allied with Nabopolassar of Babylon and destroyed Assyria
4 Astyages Ishtuvigu  ? – 585 BC 585 BC 550 BC son of Cyaxares Deposed and later killed
5 Xšaθrita II Fravartish  ? – May 521 BC December 522 BC May 8, 521 BC descendant of Cyaxares Killed by Darius I

Karalla kingdom, c. 720–c. 700 BC[edit]

Uriaku kingdom, c. 720–c. 700 BC[edit]

Karzinu kingdom, c. 720–c. 700 BC[edit]

Saparda kingdom, c. 720–c. 670 BC[edit]

Scythian kingdom,[2][3] c. 700–c. 530 BC[edit]

  1. Ishpaka (until c. 673 BC)
  2. Partatua (from c. 673 BC)
  3. Madea (c. 658/9–c. 625 BC) son of Partatua
  4. .......
  5. .......
  6. Eruvand (before 550 – 547 BC)
  7. Tigran (from 547 BC) son of Eruvand

Southern Kingdoms, 27th century–550 BC[edit]

Dilmun kingdom,[5] 27th century–7th century BC[edit]

  1. Ziusudra (27th century BC)
  2. Rimun (c. 1550 BC)
  3. Usiananuri, grandfather of Uballissu-Marduk (precise dates unknown)
  4. Ilī-ippašra (contemporary with Burnaburiash II and Kurigalzu II)
  5. Operi (c. 710 BC)
  6. Hundaru I (c. 650 BC)
  7. Qena (c. 680–c. 670 BC)
  8. Hundaru II (706–685 BC)

Gunilaha kingdom, c. 2350–c. 2300 BC[edit]

  1. Hidarida[...] (c. 2325 BC)[6]

Makkan kingdom,[3] 23rd century BC[edit]

  1. Mannudannu (contemporary with Naram-Sin king of Akkad)

Bashimi kingdom,[3] c. 2100–c. 1900 BC[edit]

  1. Ilsurabi (precise dates unknown)
  2. Ibalum (precise dates unknown)
  3. Warad-Nannar (contemporary with Shu-Sin king of Ur)
  4. Ir-Nanna (contemporary with Ibbi-Sin king of Ur)
  5. The unnamed king of Bashimi (c. 1930 BC)

Zabum kingdom,[3] 21st century BC[edit]

  1. Abummisar (precise dates unknown)
  2. Abuq-iu-bani (precise dates unknown)
  3. Unnamed king of Zabum (until 2064 BC)
  4. Shalhuni (from 2064 BC)
  5. Warad-Nannar (contemporary with Shu-Sin king of Ur and the same king of Bashimi)

Achaemenid Kings of Parsu(m)ash, c. 710–c. 635 BC[edit]

  1. Achaemenes, founder of the dynasty.
  2. Teispes (I) son of Achaemenes c. 710–c. 685 BC
  3. Cambyses (I) son of Teispes (I) c. 685–c. 660 BC
  4. Cyrus (I) son of Cambyses (I) c. 660–c. 635 BC

Achaemenid Kings of Anshan, c. 635 – 550 BC[edit]

  1. Teispes of Anshan, or Teispes (II) son of Achaemenes or Cyrus (I), king of Persia, king of Anshan, c. 635–c. 610 BC[7]
  2. Cyrus I of Anshan or Cyrus (II), son of Teispes (II), king of Anshan c. 610–c. 585 BC[7]
  3. Cambyses I of Anshan or Cambyses (II), his son, king of Anshan c. 585 – 559 BC[7]
  4. Cyrus II the Great or Cyrus (III), his son, king of Anshan 559–529. He conquered the Median Empire in 550 and established the Persian Empire.
  • Line of Ariaramnes
  1. Ariaramnes of Persia, son of Teispes (II), king of Persia. His reign is doubtful.
  2. Arsames of Persia, son of Ariaramnes, king of Persia until 550, died after 520. His reign is doubtful.
  3. His son Hystaspes was Satrap of Parthia under Cambyses II, Smerdis and his son Darius.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cameron, 1936; Majidzadeh, 1991; Majidzadeh, 1997.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Ghashghai, 2011.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Legrain, 1922; Cameron, 1936; D’yakonov, 1956; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Majidzadeh, 1997.
  4. ^ Cameron, 1936; D’yakonov, 1956; The Cambridge History of Iran
  5. ^ Legrain, 1922; Cameron, 1936; The Cambridge History of Iran; Hinz, 1972; The Cambridge Ancient History; Majidzadeh, 1991; Majidzadeh, 1997.
  6. ^ Cameron, 1936, Persian tr. p.25.
  7. ^ a b c Miroschedji, 1985.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cameron, George, "History of Early Iran", Chicago, 1936 (repr., Chicago, 1969; tr. E.-J. Levin, L’histoire de l’Iran antique, Paris, 1937; tr. H. Anusheh, ایران در سپیده دم تاریخ, Tehran, 1993)
  • D’yakonov, I. M., "Istoriya Midii ot drevenĭshikh vremen do kontsa IV beka de e.E" (The history of Media from ancient times to the end of the 4th century BCE), Moscow and Leningrad, 1956; tr. Karim Kešāvarz as Tāriḵ-e Mād, Tehran, 1966.
  • Ghashghai, Hamid Reza, Chronicle of early Iran history, Tehran, Avegan press, 2011 (in Persian: گاهنمای سپیده دم تاریخ در ایران )
  • Hinz, W., "The Lost World of Elam", London, 1972 (tr. F. Firuznia, دنیای گمشده ایلام, Tehran, 1992)
  • Legrain, Leon, "Historical Fragments", Philadelphia, The University of Pennsylvania Museum Publications of the Babylonian Section, vol. XIII, 1922.
  • Majidzadeh, Yusef, "History and civilization of Elam", Tehran, Iran University Press, 1991.
  • Majidzadeh, Yusef, "History and civilization of Mesopotamia", Tehran, Iran University Press, 1997, vol.1.
  • Potts, D. T., The Archaeology of Elam, Cambridge University Press, 1999.
  • The Cambridge Ancient History
  • The Cambridge History of Iran
  • Vallat, Francois. Elam: The History of Elam. Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. VIII pp. 301-313. London/New York, 1998.